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Item 5C_Building Code Adoption CITY OF BOULDER PLANNING BOARD AGENDA ITEM MEETING DATE: October 17, 2019 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Planning Board is asked to make a recommendation to the City Council regarding the adoption of the 2018 Building Codes with local amendments. AGENDA TITLE: Public hearing and consideration of a recommendation to the City Council regarding a proposed ORDINANCE AMENDING TITLE 10, “STRUCTURES,” B.R.C. 1981 BY ADOPTING AND MODIFYING INTERNATIONAL CODES REGARDING PROPERTY MAINTENANCE, RENTAL LICENSES, BUILDING, ELECTRICAL, ENERGY CONSERVATION, COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY, FIRE, WILDLAND, MECHANICAL, FUEL GAS, AND PLUMBING; ADOPTING THE 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE; AND SETTING FORTH RELATED DETAILS. PRESENTERS Mary Ann Weideman, Deputy City Manager/ Interim Director of Public Works Chris Meschuk, Assistant City Manager/ Interim Planning Director Mike Calderazzo, Fire Chief Steve Catanach, Director of Climate Initiatives Trish Jimenez, Deputy Director of Public Works for Development Services David Lowrey, Chief Fire Marshall Will Birchfield, Building Services Manager/Chief Building Official Carolyn Elam, Energy Manager, Climate Initiatives Kara Mertz, Sustainability Manager, Climate Initiatives Christin Whitco, Energy Code Coordinator Agenda Item 5C Page 1 of 389 Boulder’s construction codes were last updated in 2014. The proposed code updates address a wide range of public health and safety issues related to the built environment. Staff are recommending adoption of the 2018 International Building Codes with local amendments mostly consistent with current amendments to the 2012 codes. The amendments are compiled in the proposed ordinance and included in Attachment A to the memo. Significant recommended changes include: • Adoption of the 2018 International Existing Building Code (IEBC) • 2018 IEBC CHAPTER 6 - CLASSIFICATION OF WORK: Use to identify project scopes and as thresholds for energy code requirements/compliance • 2018 IBC 2902 and IPC 403: The option of all gender toilet facilities • 2018 IRC 313 Sprinkler requirements for newly constructed one-and two-family dwellings • 2018 IRC Appendix Q TINY HOUSES • 2018 IRC Appendix R LIGHT STRAW-CLAY CONSTRUCTION • 2018 IRC Appendix S STRAWBALE CONSTRUCTION • 2018 IFC (46) Section 1103.5: Sprinkler systems for changes of occupancy • 2018 WUIC 503.2: Composite decking in the wildland urban interface • Introduction of a deconstruction waste deposit to improve compliance with waste diversion requirements; and • Introduction of construction and deconstruction waste requirements for commercial projects. Staff is also recommending adoption of the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (2020 COBECC), which is a localized version of the 2018 International Energy Conservation Code that will be 20 percent more efficient than the national code. The 2020 COBECC is included in the proposed ordinance and included as Attachment C to the memo. The city has committed to updating the local energy code on a three-year cycle with the goal of attaining net zero energy (NZE), outcome-verified codes by 2031 to meet broader city-wide climate commitment goals. Proposed updates to the COBECC include: • Net-zero energy requirements for all new residential construction larger than 3,000 square feet; • Adoption of performance-based requirements by specific building class for commercial construction; • Introduction of an outcome-based compliance pathway for commercial construction; • Introduction of mandatory on-site solar generation for new construction; • Introduction of an offset pathway for achieving code compliance; and • Tailoring the commercial electric vehicle–ready requirements based on building use. 2. STAFF RECOMMENDATION While City Council is the adopting authority for changes to the city’s building and land use codes, staff are requesting Planning Board’s consideration of a recommendation to Council. Staff recommend adoption of the proposed 2018 International Building Codes with local amendments and the 2020 City Agenda Item 5C Page 2 of 389 of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. Planning Board may recommend to council that council adopt, adopt with modifications, or not adopt the proposed updates. 3. BACKGROUND On May 16, 2019 city staff presented an in-depth overview of building code changes being proposed for the 2020 code update and sought Planning Board’s feedback on a number of important changes. The issues presented are summarized below. • Accelerating net zero energy (NZE) requirements for residential new construction, such that all new homes larger than 3,000 square feet be required to be NZE. Currently all homes larger than 5,000 square feet are required to be NZE. Planning Board was in support of this acceleration. • Introducing a financial deposit to improve compliance with construction and deconstruction waste requirements currently in the residential code. Planning Board was in support of improving compliance. • Restructuring energy code requirements for building alterations to encourage more building reuse and to get away from using the construction value relative to the Boulder County Assessor’s database to determine energy code requirements. Planning board was in support of this change. • Expanding construction and deconstruction waste requirements to commercial construction projects. Planning Board was in support of this, however, requested additional information on specifics. • Expanding the Energy Impact Offset Fund (EIOF) as a last resort compliance pathway when projects are unable to meet net zero energy code requirements on-site and when off-site solar is unavailable. Planning Board was in support of using the EIOF but wanted to ensure that it was implemented only as a last resort. • Incorporating a local amendment to allow or require gender neutral restrooms. Planning Board was in support of creating an amendment that clarifies the requirements and provides flexibility for building owners. • Eliminating the current amendment exempting one-and-two family dwellings from the sprinkler requirement. This would require all newly constructed detached one-and two- family dwellings and detached buildings undergoing changes of use to dwellings, including ADUs, to be protected with automatic sprinkler systems. Planning Board was in support of this change, but, wanted additional information on cost implications. With this feedback, and feedback solicited from City Council at their April 16, 2019 meeting, staff proceeded with preparing the amendments to the 2018 Building Codes and the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. Staff are seeking recommendation from Planning Board to adopt, with local amendments, as summarized in this memo, the following codes: Agenda Item 5C Page 3 of 389 • 2018 International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC) • 2018 International Building Code (IBC) • 2018 International Residential Code (IRC) • 2018 International Existing Building Code (IEBC) • 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (COBECC) • 2018 International Fire Code (IFC) • 2018 International Wildland Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) • 2018 International Mechanical Code (IMC) • 2018 International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) • 2018 International Plumbing Code (IPC) 4. ANALYSIS: CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE UPDATES The significant changes being proposed for the energy code are described in detail in the May 16, 2018 Planning Board Memo, which is included as Attachment B. For the residential code, the most significant changes being proposed are: • More stringent Energy Rating Index (ERI) requirements. An ERI score is the same as a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score. This is a numerical score where 100 equates to the efficiency levels prescribed in the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code and 0 is equivalent to a net-zero-energy home. Currently, and in the proposed 2020 code, new construction and major alteration projects must demonstrate compliance with Boulder’s energy code by using the prescribed ERI compliance path. The 2017 COBECC resulted in just over half of the new homes being constructed achieving net zero. For this code cycle, staff are proposing a reduction in ERI score represented in Figure 1 such that all new homes over 3,000 square feet would be required to achieve net zero. Figure 1 illustrates both the 2017 and proposed 2020 ERI requirements for comparison. Agenda Item 5C Page 4 of 389 Figure 1: Proposed 2020 ERI Requirements for Residential Energy Code. • Envelope Backstop. With the cost of renewables decreasing, some projects simply deploy large solar arrays instead of investing in basic building efficiency. With this code update, an envelope backstop is being introduced that will ensure an energy efficient thermal envelope regardless of on-site renewables. All projects will need to comply with prescriptive building envelope requirements in the code. • Renewable Offsets. Identical to requirements that already exist for Boulder County projects, staff is proposing all residential pools, spas, outdoor radiant heating, and snow melt systems be required to offset 100 percent of the system’s annual energy use by on-site renewable energy generation. • Construction & Demolition Waste Requirements. For over a decade, Boulder’s codes have included construction and demolition waste requirements for residential projects. With this code update, staff are proposing several improvements to code provisions and enforcement. • Code Provisions for Alterations. Currently, the 2017 COBECC requires additional energy efficiency improvements be made when renovating homes. The requirements are currently based on the construction value of the project; the higher the construction value, the more significant the energy efficiency requirements. Staff recommends continuing to require energy efficiency improvements for home renovations. However, based on feedback staff have received from design professionals, homeowners, and builders, staff are proposing the energy efficiency improvements be based on code definitions for alterations instead of construction value. • Energy Offsets. Staff expect there will be a small number of projects where installing the necessary solar on-site to meet the new, lower ERI scores will be technically infeasible due to Agenda Item 5C Page 5 of 389 shading and/or roof constraints. For these projects, participation in a verified community solar program can be used to meet the code requirements. However, staff are aware that community solar options are limited and not always available. Therefore, in these instances, staff are proposing applicants pay a 2.16 cent charge 1 per kWh necessary to offset the home’s energy use that would have otherwise been offset by renewables onsite. The fee would go into the City of Boulder’s Energy Impact Offset Fund (EIOF). • Energy Use Index (EUI) Performance Path. The proposed code will adopt an EUI target compliance path that will allow Boulder to transition towards outcome-based compliance, which staff and our consultants believe will be necessary to meet the City’s building energy efficiency goals. The EUI targets proposed for the 2020 code update are found below in Figure 2. These targets represent energy performance factors that are approximately 20% better than the national code. Figure 2: 2020 Proposed EUI Targets for New Construction where the first column represents the equivalent EUI for the COBECC 2017 and the second represents the proposed targets for the 2020 update. • Solar Mandate. To meet long-term NZE performance goals, it is necessary to encourage the deployment of renewable energy at the project level. The current code mandates solar ready 1 The 2.16 cent charge was derived using Xcel Energy’s grid factor (0.599 metric tons of carbon dioxide per MWh, and US Environmental Protection Agency estimates for the cost of carbon per metric ton of carbon ($36 per metric ton of carbon dioxide). An applicant with a home that will consume 12,000kWh/year would be required to pay 12,000kWh / 1000 kWh/MWh * $36/ metric ton * 0.599 metric tons/MWh * 20 years = $5,180. Agenda Item 5C Page 6 of 389 requirements. In the 2020 code cycle, it is proposed that at least 5 percent of commercial building energy use be supplied by on-site renewables. • Pilot for Outcome-Verified Code Path. Staff are proposing an outcome-verified code compliance path be piloted in the 2020 COBECC. Ultimately, the 2031 goal of Boulder’s energy code is to set standards that will result in buildings that are NZE, not just in theory and as designed, but verified through metered data once the building is constructed, commissioned, and occupied. The outcome path proposed for this code cycle would achieve this goal for projects that opt into this path. • Construction & Demolition Waste Management Requirements. Because commercial projects have the potential to create significant amounts of waste, the proposed 2020 code includes the same requirements that will apply to residential projects. All new construction projects (both residential and commercial) must recycle 100 percent of all wood, metal, and cardboard; and must provide documentation to the city certifying that the reuse and recycling occurred. For all new construction projects that include a full demolition, and residential projects that are essentially gutting the home (“level 4 alterations”), contractors will be required to provide a deconstruction plan before a permit is issued, and prove through documentation that the project recycled or reused 75 percent of all waste, including at least three material types. In addition, staff proposes instituting a refundable deposit to increase accountability and adherence to the requirements for all demolition projects and residential level 4 alterations. The deposit is currently structured as a refundable cash deposit where the city retains the ability to withhold a portion or the entirety of the deposit as a civil penalty if the waste recycling requirements are not met. • Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Requirements. In 2017, provisions were added to the code requiring commercial and residential projects provide EV charging infrastructure. Technology has evolved and the demand for EV charging is better understood. Therefore, staff are proposing clarifications and adjustments to these requirements for commercial projects. The new requirements are outlined in Figure 3. Figure 3: EV Charging Requirements for Commercial Projects Agenda Item 5C Page 7 of 389 5. ANALYSIS: 2018 ICC BUILDING CODES ADOPTION AND PROPOSED AMENDMENTS Collectively, as a comprehensive family of codes which complement one another, the International Building Codes are designed to protect the public health and safety in the built environment. Currently, the city has adopted the 2012 edition of the following International Building Codes: • International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC) • International Building Code (IBC) • International Residential Code (IRC) • International Fire Code (IFC) • International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) • International Mechanical Code (IMC) • International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) • International Plumbing Code (IPC) The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) is currently replaced with the 2017 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (COBECC). The International Existing Building Code (IEBC) is not currently adopted by the city but is recommended for adoption, as it replaces provisions previously contained within the IBC, which have been deleted. The International Codes are developed and vetted through a national public consensus process and are utilized by most jurisdictions in Colorado and the United States. The International Building Codes are revised and updated on a three-year cycle. Boulder has adopted new building codes every six years. Staff recommend council approve adoption of the 2018 edition of the International Building Codes, with local amendments as necessary to address local concerns. The National Electrical Code is promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association and by current amendment is automatically updated when it is updated by the Colorado Department of Regulatory Agencies. The 2018 codes with proposed local amendments will be presented to City Council with recommendation for adoption, Staff have reviewed the 2018 International Codes and after facilitating a transparent and public process including education, collaboration and feedback with the community, the Planning Board and City Council, staff have identified significant changes, as well as proposed local amendments. Staff suggest there are five significant reasons to consider a local amendment: 1. To provide consistency with other regulatory departments and agencies 2. To address concerns of City Council 3. To address concerns of stakeholders 4. To incorporate local information and/or current data into the Codes 5. To address significant changes compared to current requirements Through a public process, staff have identified the following issues of local concern and have prepared local amendments to address them. Agenda Item 5C Page 8 of 389 Adoption of the 2018 International Existing Building Code (IEBC) Chapter 34 in the 2012 IBC contains provisions for existing buildings. In the 2015 edition of the IBC, these provisions were deleted, and the International Existing Building Code was added to the referenced codes in Section 101.4, making the IEBC part of the IBC. The 2018 IBC is consistent with the 2015 edition in that provisions for existing buildings are contained in the IEBC. If the City of Boulder choses to have building code requirements specific to existing buildings, staff recommend adoption of the 2018 IEBC. The IEBC is designed to work in conjunction with and is consistent with other International Codes (I-Codes). The IEBC is intended to provide requirements for repair and alternate approaches for alterations and additions to existing buildings. Many existing buildings do not comply with current building code requirements for new construction. Although many existing buildings are salvageable, the cost to bring them into compliance with current building codes is cost prohibitive. It is; however, necessary to regulate construction in existing buildings that undergo alterations, additions, extensive repairs or changes of occupancy. The IEBC provides the opportunity to ensure new construction complies with current building codes and that existing conditions are maintained or improved to meet basic safety levels. The IEBC allows options for controlled departure from full compliance with the International Codes for new construction, while maintaining basic levels for fire protection, structural and life safety features of rehabilitated buildings. The IEBC treats different project scopes with different threshold levels for requiring upgrades or improvements to the building or spaces within the building. Basic repairs may only require upgrades to structural elements which have been damaged, while comprehensive alterations may require upgrades to fire protection systems, fire-resistance-rated construction, means of egress, etc. It is this proportionality approach that staff are recommending for use as the thresholds for compliance with energy code requirements. The current City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (2017) uses the percentage of assessed property valuation compared to project valuation as the thresholds for energy compliance requirements. With the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code, staff recommend using the three levels of alterations defined in the 2018 IEBC and adding a Level 4 Alteration as the thresholds to determine the required level of compliance to the energy conservation code. This recommendation is in response to the extensive public feedback staff received that the current process often creates implications which are difficult to predict, can be manipulated and most importantly is very cost prohibitive for smaller projects. Staff believe the recommended approach addresses those concerns. 2018 IBC 2902 and IPC 403: The option for all gender toilet facilities Both the IBC and the IPC have requirements specifying when restrooms are required to be provided for employees and for the public. Typically, when an area has no more than 15 employee and public occupants, only one single-user restroom is required, and it is required to be available to all genders. Areas having higher numbers of occupants typically require gender specific restrooms. When gender specific restrooms are required in smaller areas, often they are single-user, and are required to be identified with signage as being gender specific. To make existing single-user restrooms available to all genders would typically only require changing signage. Code provisions also specify the numbers and types of plumbing fixtures required (sinks, toilets, urinals), often resulting in multiple-user restrooms. The 2012 and 2018 editions of the codes require multiple-user restrooms to be gender specific. A code modification is necessary for multiple-user facilities to be Agenda Item 5C Page 9 of 389 available to all genders. Staff have received multiple requests for code modifications to approve multiple- user restrooms as gender neutral instead of gender specific, as required by the building codes. Rather than require applicants to apply for and require staff to review modification requests, staff recommends amendments which address this local concern as an option, at the discretion of building owners or their agents. During public engagement, community feedback supported providing an option for all gender facilities rather than requiring them. 2018 IRC 313: Sprinkler requirements for newly constructed detached one-and two-family dwellings Since the 2009 edition of the International Residential Code, automatic sprinkler systems have been required in all newly constructed dwellings, including detached single-family homes. This sprinkler requirement does not apply to remodels or additions, regardless of the area size or costs, unless the dwelling already has an automatic sprinkler system. The issue of residential sprinklers was discussed extensively during the process to adopt the 2012 International Building Codes. As an outcome of the 2013 process, the City of Boulder currently has an amendment exempting detached one-and two-family dwellings from the sprinkler requirement, which is in the IRC. At least seven Colorado jurisdictions have not amended this code requirement and do require all new detached one and two-family dwellings to be protected with automatic sprinkler systems, including Boulder County, Superior, Golden and Westminster. Staff, including the Chief Building Official and the Chief Fire Marshall, recommend not continuing the amendment to exempt newly constructed detached one-and two-family dwellings from the sprinkler requirement which has been a requirement in the IRC for more than ten years. Current research indicates, during construction, the typical cost to install an automatic sprinkler system in a detached single-family home is $3.50-$4.00 per square foot. 2018 IRC Appendix Q - TINY HOUSES The 2018 IRC contains Appendix Q, which has provisions specific to tiny houses. This is the first edition of the IRC to have provisions for tiny dwellings. The provisions in Appendix Q are less restrictive than provisions for other single-family homes regulated by the IRC. If Appendix is adopted, staff recommend amending it to require tiny homes be installed on permanent foundations and connected to public utilities. Staff recommend adopting Appendix Q, if City Council wants to allow tiny houses within the city boundaries. An Appendix is not part of the code, unless it is specifically adopted. Generally, the IRC does not address land use regulations, including Appendix Q. 2018 IRC Appendix R - LIGHT STRAW-CLAY CONSTRUCTION Staff have received public feedback requesting the adoption of Appendix R. Lighter forms of straw-clay construction are intended as infill materials in non-load-bearing walls. The advantages of light straw-clay construction, such as regulated by Appendix R, include thermal performance and low environmental impact. Staff recommend adopting Appendix R, if City Council wants to allow light straw-clay construction within city boundaries. 2018 IRC Appendix S - STRAWBALE CONSTRUCTION Staff have received public feedback requesting the adoption of Appendix S. Appendix S provides prescriptive requirements for the construction of exterior and interior walls, both structural and nonstructural, in buildings that are under the scope of this code. Staff recommend adopting Appendix S, if City Council wants to allow strawbale construction within city boundaries. Agenda Item 5C Page 10 of 389 2018 IFC 13 - 1011.4: Means of egress, general. At the May 16, 2019 Planning Board meeting, some board members o expressed concerns regarding the current amendment which requires automatic sprinkler systems to be installed in all spaces with areas greater than 2,000 square feet, which undergo changes of occupancy. To address this concern, staff recommend an exception to that provision, which exempts changes of occupancy which are of a lower relative hazard than the existing occupancy, as determined by Table 1011.4 in the 2018 IEBC. The exception does not apply to occupancies which are required to be protected by automatic sprinkler systems elsewhere in the codes. The Chief Building Official and the Chief Fire Marshal support this recommendation. 2018 WUIC 503.2: Composite decking in the wildland urban interface During public engagement meetings and individual conversations with property owners and designers, staff have received numerous concerns regarding Section 503.2 in the IWUIC. This section establishes the requirements with which materials must comply in order to be considered ignition-resistant building materials. Staff are not aware of any composite decking material which complies with these requirements. Boulder County has amended the code to allow some composite decking materials. Jefferson County is proposing adopting the same amendment. If City Council is supportive of allowing the use of composite decking materials in the wild-land urban interface, staff recommend amending the 2018 IWUIC to be consistent with the requirements of Boulder County. On this issue, the Chief Building Official and the Chief Fire Marshal support consistency with Boulder County, if the Planning Board and City Council support allowing composite decking in the wild-land urban interface. 6. COMMUNITY SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT AND IMPACTS Updating current energy and building codes can produce economic, environmental and social benefits at multiple levels across a community. High-performance buildings reduce energy and environmental impacts, improve economic vitality, increase community pride and decrease utility costs for building owners and tenants. • Economic: Higher performing buildings increase property values, command higher lease prices, cost less to operate, improve occupant comfort, and reduce community greenhouse gas emissions. However, high performance buildings can come at a cost premium as the initial costs to construct these buildings are higher. The recommended code changes have been analyzed by our consultants and the resulting efficiency measures the code requires have all been found to be cost effective, with benefit-to-cost ratios ranging from 1.0 to 2.9. Cost effectiveness was determined over a 30-year lifespan, including first costs, replacements, maintenance, and energy savings. Please see the previous Planning Board memo, which is included as Attachment B. • Environmental: On July 23, 2019, council endorsed a declaration of a climate emergency and reaffirmed Boulder's commitment to climate action. In climate projection models done by staff to show pathways to our climate goals, increasing the stringency of energy codes (eventually to net zero status for all new buildings and major alterations by 2031) may be the largest contributing factor of any policy or program, other than transitioning our electricity supply to clean, renewable energy. Achieving and implementing net zero energy codes as soon as possible, while balancing economic and social interests, is a crucial step in Boulder’s climate commitment. In fact, when staff projected emissions reductions out to 2050, savings from the implementation of Agenda Item 5C Page 11 of 389 progressively more stringent energy codes was the largest of any building efficiency program, including EnergySmart, SmartRegs and the Building Performance Program. • Social: Improving the energy codes above the minimum standard requires energy conservation in the residential, public and private sectors resulting in less money flowing to energy costs over time, and more household and business income available for other uses. Additionally, the net outcome of decreased greenhouse gas emissions supports the community’s strong value of protecting the environment and living in a sustainable way. Recovery of reusable building materials helps create future opportunities for affordable building projects that use recovered architectural features and building components. 7. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND BOARD FEEDBACK Staff have engaged key community stakeholders including design professionals, architects, engineers, energy modelers, builders, developers, building owners, etc. through community engagement events, targeted meetings, and consultant interviews. Table 1 summarizes these engagement activities. Community feedback was generally positive around both the building code and energy code updates. Many permit applicants are already familiar with the 2018 building codes as they are being adopted in a number of surrounding jurisdictions. Boulder adopting the 2018 codes will create more consistency for contractors and consultants. Many of the changes proposed to the energy code are in direct response to community feedback. In particular, the process has been revamped for how alterations demonstrate compliance with the energy code to eliminate confusion and inequitable regulation. Staff received feedback that the current code, which relies on construction value and data from the Boulder County Assessor’s database, is an unfair approach; and staff have received support in their recommendation to align the energy compliance thresholds with definitions found in the building codes. Table 1: Public Outreach Activities to Solicit Stakeholder Feedback Outreach Activity Number of Attendees Description December 20, 2018 Residential Energy Code Engagement Session 29 City staff organized a meeting to invite residential building stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the proposed energy code changes. February 11 & 20, 2019 Land Use Code Open House 30-50 The city’s Energy Code Coordinator participated in the Land Use Code Open Houses to field energy related questions and solicit feedback on energy code changes that could encourage more modest home sizes. February 21, 2019 Presentation to International Building Performance 86 City staff presented to the local chapter of the International Building Performance Simulation Association, an international society of building performance simulation researchers, developers and practitioners, dedicated to improving the built environment. Agenda Item 5C Page 12 of 389 Outreach Activity Number of Attendees Description Simulation Association February 22, 2019 Energy Code Collaboration Session with Denver 20-30 The city’s Energy Code Coordinator participated in a collaboration meeting with Denver and local design professionals to discuss code changes and aligning code language where feasible. February 27, 2019 Commercial Energy Code Engagement Session 38 City staff organized a meeting to invite commercial building stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the proposed energy code changes. May 29, 2019 International Existing Building Code Outreach 10-15 City staff organized a meeting to invite community stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the 2018 IEBC, which will be a new code for the city. June 12, 2019 International Building Code Outreach 10-15 City staff organized a meeting to invite community stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the 2018 IBC - significant changes from current requirements, including proposed amendments. June 25, 2019 International Plumbing, Mechanical, and Fuel Gas Code Outreach 10-15 City staff organized a meeting to invite community stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the 2018 IPC, IMC, IFGC - significant changes from current requirements, including proposed amendments. July 10, 2019 International Residential Code Outreach 20-25 City staff organized a meeting to invite community stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the 2018 IRC - significant changes from current requirements, including proposed amendments. July 30, 2019 International Property Maintenance Code Outreach 10-15 City staff organized a meeting to invite community stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the 2018 IPMC - significant changes from current requirements, including proposed amendments. Agenda Item 5C Page 13 of 389 Outreach Activity Number of Attendees Description Ongoing The city’s Energy Code Coordinator and Chief Building Official continue to reach out to energy modelers, design professionals, contractors, and peer jurisdiction staff for feedback on the proposed code language. 8. NEXT STEPS • October 17, 2019: Seek Planning Board recommendation to adopt 2018 Building Codes with local amendments and the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. • November 19, 2019: City Council First Reading for adoption of 2018 Building Codes with local amendments and the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. • November - December 2019: Provide staff and community outreach training on code changes. Develop supporting documentation and resources on the city’s website to help explain the energy codes and the documentation materials required to demonstrate compliance. • December 17, 2019: City Council Second Reading to adopt 2018 Building Codes with local amendments and the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. • January-March - Provide staff and community outreach training on code changes. • April 1, 2020: New codes take effect for all newly permitted projects. ATTACHMENTS: A: Proposed Ordinance including: Boulder Revised Code describing Amendments to the 2018 Building Codes & the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code B: May 16, 2019 Planning Board Memo C: Proposed 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code Agenda Item 5C Page 14 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ORDINANCE _____ AN ORDINANCE AMENDING TITLE 10, “STRUCTURES,” B.R.C. 1981 BY ADOPTING AND MODIFYING INTERNATIONAL CODES REGARDING PROPERTY MAINTENANCE, RENTAL LICENSES, BUILDING, ELECTRICAL, ENERGY CONSERVATION, COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY, FIRE, WILDLAND, MECHANICAL, FUEL GAS, AND PLUMBING; ADOPTING THE 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE; AND SETTING FORTH RELATED DETAILS. BE IT ORDAINED BY THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF BOULDER, COLORADO: Section 1. Chapter 10-1, “Definitions,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 1 - Definitions 10-1-1. - Definitions. (a) The following terms used in this title have the following meanings unless the context clearly indicates otherwise: …. Approved semi-rigid tubing connector means a flexible metal pipe connecting a gas residential dryer or range, if it meets the requirements of and is installed in accordance with the city fuelmechanical gas code, or, if it is a commercial gas dryer or range, it is a connector supplied with the appliance from the manufacturer, or is an equivalent commercial grade flex connector, and is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. …. Section 2. Chapter 10-2, “Property Maintenance Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 2 - Property Maintenance Code 10-2-1. - Legislative Intent. …. (d) The city council hereby adopts the 20182012 edition of the International Property Maintenance Code as the Property Maintenance Code of the City of Boulder. This chapter establishes minimum code standards related to: administration; definitions; general requirements; light, ventilation and occupancy limitations; plumbing facilities and fixture requirements; mechanical and electrical systems; fire safety requirements; and rental licensing; and existing residential rental structure energy conservation. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 15 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 10-2-2. - Adoption of International Property Maintenance Code With Modifications. (a) The 20182012 edition of the International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC) of the International Code Council is hereby adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Property Maintenance Code and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended for local application by this chapter. (b) IPMC Appendix chapters A, "Boarding Standard," B, "Rental Housing Inspections," and C, "Energy Efficiency Requirement - Existing Residential Rental Structures Energy Conservation," are adopted. (c) For ease of reference, the following identifies all chapters, sections and appendices of the published and adopted IPMC and includes specific amendments for local application. Chapter, Section, Subsection, or Appendix numbers of provisions not amended appear, followed by the words, "No changes." The amended text of specifically amended provisions appears below. Chapter, Section, Subsection, or Appendix numbers of any provisions not adopted appear, followed by the word, "Deleted." CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION PART 1 - SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION …. SECTION 102 APPLICABILITY 102.1 General. No changes. 102.2 Maintenance. Equipment, systems, devices, and safeguards required by this code shall be maintained in accordance with the code in effect when the structure or premises were legally constructed, altered, or repaired and shall be maintained in good working order. 102.3 Application of Other Codes. Repairs, additions, or alterations to a structure, inspections, or changes of occupancy shall be done in accordance with the procedures and provisions of the City of Boulder Building Code, City of Boulder Residential Code, City of Boulder Existing Building Code, City of Boulder Fuel Gas Code, City of Boulder Mechanical Code, City of Boulder Plumbing Code, City of Boulder Fire Code, City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code, and City of Boulder Electrical Code. 102.4—102.10 No changes. PART 2 - ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT SECTION 103 DIVISION OF BUILDING SAFETY …. 103.2 Appointment. Deleted. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 16 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 103.2 Deputies. Deleted. …. 103.5 Fees. The fees and costs for activities and services performed by the department in carrying out its responsibilities under this code shall be as detailed in Section111.9 of this code and Section 4-20-47, "Zoning Adjustment and Building Appeals Filing Fees," B.R.C. 1981. SECTION 104 …. 107.4 Unauthorized Tampering. No changes. 107.5 Penalties. Penalties for noncompliance with orders and notices shall be as set forth in Section106.1. 107.6 Transfer of Ownership. Deleted. …. SECTION 109 EMERGENCY MEASURES 109.1 Imminent danger. When in the opinion of the code official, there is imminent danger of failure or collapse of a building or structure that endangers life, or when any structure or part of a structure has fallen and life is endangered by the occupation of the structure, or when there is actual or potential danger to the building occupants or those in the proximity of any structure because of explosives, explosive fumes or vapors or the presence of toxic fumes, gases or materials, or operation of defective or dangerous equipment, the code official is hereby authorized and empowered to order and require the occupants to vacate the premises forthwith. The code official shall cause to be posted at each entrance to such structure a notice bearing the words “Unsafe, Do Not Enter”. It shall be unlawful for any person to enter such structure, except with the prior approval of the building official, for the purpose of securing the structure, making the required repairs, removing the hazardous condition or of demolishing the same. 109.2109.1—109.6 No changes. SECTION 110 DEMOLITION 110.1—110.4 No changes. SECTION 111 MEANS OF APPEAL …. 111.9 Fees. Deleted. …. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 17 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SECTION 304 EXTERIOR STRUCTURE …. 304.7 Roofs and Drainage. The roof and flashing shall be sound, tight and not have defects that admit waterrain. Roof drainage shall be adequate to prevent dampness or deterioration in the walls or interior portion of the structure. Roof drains, gutters and downspouts shall be maintained in good repair and free from obstructions. Roof water shall not be discharged in a manner that creates a public nuisance. …. 304.19 Gates. No changes. SECTION 305 INTERIOR STRUCTURE 305.1 General. No changes. 305.1.1 Unsafe Conditions. The following conditions shall be determined as unsafe and shall be repaired or replaced to comply with the City of Boulder Residential Building Code or the City of Boulder Existing International Building Code as required for existing buildings: …. SECTION 306 COMPONENT SERVICEABILITY 306.1 & 306.1.1 No changes. 306.1.1 Unsafe Conditions. Where any of the following conditions cause the component or system to be beyond its limit state, the component or system shall be determined as unsafe and shall be repaired or replaced to comply with the City of Boulder Residential Code or the City of Boulder Existing Building Code as required for existing buildings: 1.Soils that have been subjected to any of the following conditions: 1.1. Collapse of footing or foundation system. 1.2. Damage to footing, foundation, concrete or other structural element due to soil expansion. 1.3. Adverse effects to the design strength of footing. foundation, concrete or other structural element due to a chemical reaction from the soil. 1 .4. Inadequate soil as determined by a geotechnical investigation. 1.5. Where the allowable bearing capacity of the soil is in doubt. 1.6. Adverse effects to the footing. foundation, concrete or other structural element due to the ground water table. 2.Concrete that has been subjected to any of the following conditions: 2.1 . Deterioration. 2.2. Ultimate deformation. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 18 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 2.3. Fractures. 2.4. Fissures. 2.5. Spalling. 2.6. Exposed reinforcement. 2.7. Detached, dislodged or failing connections. 3.Aluminum that has been subjected to any of the following conditions: 3.1 . Deterioration. 3.2. Corrosion. 3.3. Elastic deformation. 3.4. Ultimate deformation. 3.5. Stress or strain cracks. 3.6. Joint fatigue. 3.7. Detached, dislodged or failing connections. 4.Masonry that has been subjected to any of the following conditions: 4.1 . Deterioration. 4.2. Ultimate deformation. 4.3. Fractures in masonry or mortar joints. 4.4. Fissures in masonry or mortar joints. 4.5. Spalling. 4.6. Exposed reinforcement. 4.7. Detached, dislodged or failing connections. 5.Steel that has been subjected to any of the following conditions: 5.1 . Deterioration. 5.2. Elastic deformation. 5.3. Ultimate deformation. 5.4. Metal fatigue. 5.5. Detached, dislodged or failing connections. 6.Wood that has been subjected to any of the following conditions: 6.1 Ultimate deformation. 6.2. Deterioration. 6.3. Damage from insects, rodents and other vermin. 6.4. Fire damage beyond charring. 6.5. Significant splits and checks. 6.6. Horizontal shear cracks. 6.7. Vertical shear cracks. 6.8. Inadequate support. 6.9. Detached, dislodged or failing connections. 6.10. Excessive cutting and notching. Exceptions: 1.Where substantiated otherwise by an approved method. 2.Demolition of unsafe conditions shall be permitted where approved by the code official …. SECTION 605 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 19 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 …. 605.3 Luminaires. No changesDeleted. …. SECTION 607 DUCT SYSTEMS 607.1 General. No changes. SECTION 608 CARBON MONOXIDE ALARMS 608.1 General. Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in existing residential structures in accordance with Colorado state law, including Title 38, Article 45, Carbon Monoxide Alarms, C.R.S. 608.2 Carbon Monoxide Alarms. Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in existing dwellings and rented single and multi-family dwellings that have fuel fired heaters, appliances, or fireplaces, or attached garages based on the following: 1. Alarms must be installed within 15' of the entrance to each sleeping area and must be wired to AC power, connected to an electrical panel, plugged into an electrical outlet without a switch or, if battery operated, attached to the wall or ceiling per the manufacturer's installation instructions and in accordance with National Fire Protection Association 70. 2. Alarms must be installed in existing rental dwellings upon change of tenant occupancy after July 1, 2009. 3. Alarms must be installed in all newly constructed or renovated single-family and multi-family rental units. 4. Alarms may be installed within 25' of any fuel-fired heater or appliance, fireplace, or garage entrance in a multi-family dwelling used for rental purposes ONLY if the multi-family dwelling is equipped with a centralized alarm system or other mechanism that allows a responsible person to hear the alarm at all times (commercially monitored system). 5. Rental owners are responsible for replacing nonfunctioning carbon monoxide alarms upon written request of the tenant or when the unit is being vacated and rerented. 6. Carbon monoxide detectors shall not be disarmed, removed or have the batteries removed to make them inoperable. 608.3 Carbon Monoxide Alarm Inspections. Carbon monoxide alarm inspections shall be conducted by the property owner or agent as detailed below. 1. Carbon monoxide alarms that receive their primary power from the building wiring shall be checked for good operating condition once each year and supplied with battery backup. The battery shall be replaced as necessary for proper function of the carbon monoxide alarm. 2. Battery-powered carbon monoxide alarms shall be tested for proper function on an annual basis. Batteries shall be replaced as necessary for proper function of the carbon monoxide alarm. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 20 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 CHAPTER 7 FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS SECTIONS 701—703 No changes. SECTION 704 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 704.1-704.7 No Changes 704.8 Smoke Alarm Inspections. Smoke alarm inspections shall be conducted by the property owner or agent as detailed below. 1. Smoke alarms that receive their primary power from the building wiring shall be checked for good operating condition once each year and if supplied with battery backup, the battery shall be replaced as necessary for proper function of the smoke alarm. 2. Battery-powered smoke alarms shall be tested for proper function on an annual basis. Batteries shall be replaced as necessary for proper function of the smoke alarm. 704.9 Residential Rental Smoke Alarms. In R-occupancies governed by Chapter 10-3, "Rental Licenses," B.R.C. 1981, smoke alarms shall be installed and inspected as required in this section. 704.10 Fire Alarms. Fire alarms in existing residential structures shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 10-8, Section 907.3, "Fire Code," B.R.C. 1981. 704.1—704.4 No changes. 704.5 Residential Rental Smoke Alarms. In R-occupancies governed by Chapter 10-3, "Rental Licenses," B.R.C. 1981, smoke alarms shall be installed and inspected as required in this section. 704.6 Smoke Alarm Inspections. Smoke alarm inspections shall be conducted by the property owner or agent as detailed below. 1. Smoke alarms that receive their primary power from the building wiring shall be checked for good operating condition once each year and if supplied with battery backup, the battery shall be replaced as necessary for proper function of the smoke alarm. 2. Battery-powered smoke alarms shall be tested for proper function on an annual basis. Batteries shall be replaced as necessary for proper function of the smoke alarm. 704.7 Fire Alarms. Fire alarms in existing residential structures shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 10-8, Section 907.3, "Fire Code," B.R.C. 1981. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 21 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SECTION 705 CARBON MONOXIDE ALARMS 750.1 – 705.2 No changes. 705.3 General. Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in existing residential structures in accordance with Colorado state law, including Title 38, Article 45, Carbon Monoxide Alarms, C.R.S. 705.4 Carbon Monoxide Alarms. Carbon monoxide alarms shall be installed in existing dwellings and rented single and multi-family dwellings that have fuel fired heaters, appliances, or fireplaces, or attached garages based on the following: 1. Alarms must be installed within 15' of the entrance to each sleeping area and must be wired to AC power, connected to an electrical panel, plugged into an electrical outlet without a switch or, if battery operated, attached to the wall or ceiling per the manufacturer's installation instructions and in accordance with National Fire Protection Association 70. 2. Alarms must be installed in existing rental dwellings upon change of tenant occupancy after July 1, 2009. 3. Alarms must be installed in all newly constructed or renovated single-family and multi-family rental units. 4. Alarms may be installed within 25' of any fuel-fired heater or appliance, fireplace, or garage entrance in a multi-family dwelling used for rental purposes ONLY if the multi-family dwelling is equipped with a centralized alarm system or other mechanism that allows a responsible person to hear the alarm at all times (commercially monitored system). 5. Rental owners are responsible for replacing nonfunctioning carbon monoxide alarms upon written request of the tenant or when the unit is being vacated and rerented. 6. Carbon monoxide detectors shall not be disarmed, removed or have the batteries removed to make them inoperable. 705.5 Carbon Monoxide Alarm Inspections. Carbon monoxide alarm inspections shall be conducted by the property owner or agent as detailed below. 1. Carbon monoxide alarms that receive their primary power from the building wiring shall be checked for good operating condition once each year and supplied with battery backup. The battery shall be replaced as necessary for proper function of the carbon monoxide alarm. 2. Battery-powered carbon monoxide alarms shall be tested for proper function on an annual basis. Batteries shall be replaced as necessary for proper function of the carbon monoxide alarm. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 22 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 SECTION 706705 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 706.1705.1 Where Required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed as required by the City of Boulder Fire Code Section 906. 706.1.1705.1.1 In new and existing R-1, R-2 and R-4 occupancies, portable fire extinguishers need only be installed when interior corridors and common areas exist in accordance with Section 906.1 and table 906.3(2) for light (low) hazard occupancies and sections 906.3 through 906.9. APPENDIX A BOARDING STANDARD A101—A104A103 No changes. APPENDIX B RENTAL HOUSING INSPECTION AND LICENSING B101 Scope. Appendix B sets standards for administering the rental housing maintenance, inspection and licensing process. B102 Rental Licenses. Residential rental licenses are applied for and renewed in accordance with Chapter 10-3, "Rental Licenses," B.R.C. 1981. B103 Inspections. Rental inspections"Baseline" and "Renewal inspections" shall be performed and certified by licensed contractors as detailed in Chapter 4-4, "Building Contractor License," B.R.C. 1981. …. Section 3. Chapter 10-3, “Rental Licenses,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 3 - Rental Licenses …. 10-3-3. - Terms of Licenses. …. (b) In addition to any other applicable requirements, new licenses and renewals shall require that the licensee submit to the city manager a complete application packet for the license, on forms provided by the manager. The application shall satisfy the following requirements: (1) A current rentalbaseline inspection report (for a new license except as set forth in Section 10-3-5, "License Procedure for Newly Constructed Rental Property," B.R.C. 1981,) or a current renewal inspection report executed by a rental housing inspector certifying compliance with those portions of Chapter 10-2, "Property Maintenance ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 23 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Code," and Section 9-9-16, "Lighting, Outdoor," B.R.C. 1981, for which the report form requires inspection and certification. (2) The operator shall certify on the application forms provided by the manager that the operator has a current valid contract with a commercial trash hauler for removal of accumulated trash from the licensed property in accordance with Subsection 6-3-3(b), B.R.C. 1981. (c) The city manager shall issue separate licenses for individual buildings. Such licenses shall cover all dwelling units and rooming units within such buildings. In a building containing attached but individually owned dwelling units, or any other dwelling units which may be separately conveyed, the city manager shall issue separate licenses for each dwelling unit. A structure, or group of structures, shall be considered to be a single building if it has been assigned a single street address by the City. If a complex of buildings on one property is under common ownership, and this owner is willing to have a common expiration date for the licenses for all dwelling and rooming units, the city manager may consider the whole complex to be the equivalent of a single building for the purposes of licensing and the fee schedule in Section 4-20-18, "Rental License Fee," B.R.C. 1981. (d) Whenever an existing license is renewed, the renewal license shall be effective from the date of expiration of the last license if the applicant submits a complete renewal application by or within ninety days from the expiration date. Licenses not renewed within ninety days will be considered expired, requiring a new baseline inspection report. (e) Issuance of any license (new or renewed) extending beyond December 31, 2018 requires meeting the energy efficiency requirements of Chapter 10-2, "Property Maintenance Code, Appendix C - Energy Efficiency Requirements," B.R.C. 1981. …. 10-3-6. - License Application Procedure for Buildings Converted to Rental Property. Every operator converting a property to rental property shall follow the procedures in this section for procuring a rental license: (a) Submit to the city manager a complete application packet, on forms provided by the manager, at least thirty days before rental of the property including: (1) A rental housing inspector's certification of rentalbaseline inspection dated within twelve months before the application. The operator shall make a copy of the inspection form available to city staff and tenants of inspected units within fourteen days of a request; (2) The rental housing inspector shall certify in the rentalbaseline inspection report the condition and location of all smoke and carbon monoxide alarms required by Chapter 10-2, "Property Maintenance Code," B.R.C. 1981; (3) A trash removal plan meeting the requirements of Subsection 6-3-3(b), B.R.C. 1981, made and verified by the operator; and ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 24 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (4) If the unit is an affordable accessory unit as defined in Section 9-16-1, "Definitions," B.R.C. 1981, a sworn certification that the unit will meet the rental affordability standard as defined in Section 9-16-1, "Definitions," B.R.C. 1981. (b) Pay all license fees prescribed by Section 4-20-18, "Rental License Fee," B.R.C. 1981, at the time of submitting the license application. The city manager shall not issue any rental license if the operator owes any fees or penalties, unless the penalties are subject to a pending appeal. (c) Take all reasonable steps to notify any occupants of the property in advance of the date and time of the inspection. The operator shall be present and accompany the inspector throughout the inspection, unlocking and opening doors as required. 10-3-7. - License Renewal Procedure for Buildings Occupied as Rental Property. Every operator of a rental property shall follow the procedures in this section when renewing an unexpired license: (a) Submit to the city manager a complete application packet, on forms provided by the manager including: (1) A rental housing inspector's certification of rental renewal inspection dated within twelve months before the application. The operator shall make a copy of the inspection form available to city staff and tenants of inspected units within fourteen days of a request; (2) The rental housing inspector shall certify in the rentalbaseline inspection report the condition and location of all smoke and carbon monoxide alarms required by Chapter 10-2, "Property Maintenance Code," B.R.C. 1981; …. 10-3-12. - License Fees. (a) Applicants for any rental housing license, and operators renewing an existing rental housing license, shall pay the license fees prescribed by Section 4-20-18, "Rental License Fee," B.R.C. 1981, prior to issuanceupon submission of any license application. …. 10-3-14. - Local Agent Required. Whenever any rental property is required to be licensed under this chapter, and neither the owner nor the operator is a natural person domiciled within Boulder County, Colorado, the owner shall appoint a natural person who is capable of responding to the property within sixty minutesdomiciled within Boulder County, Colorado, to serve as the local agent of the owner and the operator for service of such notices as are specified in Section 10-2-2, "Property Maintenance Code," Section 108, "Unsafe Structures and Equipment," and Section 109, "Emergency Measures," B.R.C 1981, and notices given to the local agent shall be sufficient to satisfy any requirement of notice to the owner or the operator. The owner shall notify the city manager in writing of the appointment within five days of being required to make such an appointment, and shall thereafter notify the city manager of any change of local agent within fifteen days of such change. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 25 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 …. Section 4. Chapter 10-5, “Building Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 5 - Building Code 10-5-1. - Legislative Intent. The purpose of this chapter is to protect the public health and safety by regulating the construction, alteration, repair, wrecking, and moving of structures in the city. The city council hereby adopts the 20182012 edition of the International Building Code with certain amendments and deletions thereto found to be in the best interests of the residents of the city. 10-5-2. - Adoption of International Building Code With Modifications. (a) The 20182012 edition of the International Building Code of the International Code Council is hereby adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Building Code and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. (b) The appendix chapters I, "PATIO COVERS," J, "GRADING," and K, "ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS," and sections contained therein are adopted. (c) Section 101.1, "Title," is repealed and reenacted to read: 101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Building Code of the City of Boulder or building code, hereinafter referred to as "this code." Where other codes are referenced in this code, those code provisions shall not apply unless otherwise adopted by the City of Boulder. Where reference is made anywhere in this code to the "Department" or "Department of Building Safety," it shall have the same meaning as the "Division of Building Safety." Where reference is made anywhere in this code to the "International Energy Conservation Code," it shall have the same meaning as the "City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code." (d) Section 101.4, "Referenced codes," is repealed and reenacted to read: Chapter 1, "Administration," in this code shall also apply and serve as Chapter 1, "Administration," in the following codes adopted by reference in this title: Chapter 10-2, “International Property Maintenance Code”; Chapter 10-5.5, "International Residential Code"; Chapter 10-5.6, “International Existing Building Code”; Chapter 10-7, “City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code”; Chapter 10-8.5, “International Wildland-Urban Interface Code”; Chapter 10-9, "International Mechanical Code"; Chapter 10-9.5, "International Fuel Gas Code"; and Chapter 10-10, "International Plumbing Code," B.R.C. 1981. Where administrative provisions are expressly adopted, or adopted in an altered form, for use in those chapters, they shall supersede any conflicting provisions of the administrative provisions of this chapter. The other codes listed in Sections 101.4.1 through 101.4.7101.4.6 and referenced elsewhere in this code shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code as applicable. …. (j) Section 105.2, "Work exempt from permit," is repealed and reenacted to read: ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 26 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from the building permit requirements of this code do not grant authorization for any work to be done in violation of the requirements of this code or any other laws or ordinances of the City. Building permits shall not be required for the following: General: 1. One-story detached nonconditioned buildings accessory to a residential structure and not more than 80 square feet in area or ten feet in height and not being served by any electrical, mechanical, or plumbing fixtures or systems. 2. Fences not over 7six feet (2,134 mm) high. …. (n) Section 107.1, "General," is repealed and reenacted to read: 107.1 General. An applicant for a building permit shall submit a minimum of two sets of plans and specifications with each application when required by the building official for enforcement of any provisions of this code. …. (2) Drawings and specifications for footings and foundations shall bear the seal and signature of a professional engineer or architect registered in Colorado or an architect licensed in Colorado and be designed as specified in Chapter 18 of the building code for all occupancies. Exceptions: (a) Detached structures not intended for human occupancy; (b) Additions to existing detached dwellings not exceeding 150 square feet. …. (q) Section 113, "Board of Appeals," is repealed and reenacted to read: 113 Appeals and advisory opinions. …. (g) The board or hearing officer has no authority to interpret Chapter 1 (the administrative requirements) and Chapter 34 of this code except as expressly provided in this section, nor, because this code sets minimum standards, to waive any requirement of this code. …. (x) Section 202, "Definitions," is amended by the addition of the following new definitions: PERMIT ISSUANCE is the date that the approved building permit is paid for and received back from the city manager by the applicant or a representative of the applicant. (??) MULTIPLE FIXTURE ALL GENDER TOILET FACILITY A toilet facility consisting of multiple water closet compartments and associated lavatories which serve all genders. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 27 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (y) A new Subsection 6 is added to Section 708.1, "General," to read: 6. Walls separating marijuana growing, processing, and dispensing occupancies from adjacent occupancies. (z) A paragraph is added to Section (F) 903.2, "Where required," to read: The maximum fire area without an automatic sprinkler system shall be determined by Section 903.2 of the fire code. (aa) Section 907.2.10907.2.11, "Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms," is amended by the addition of the following subsections: 907.2.10.8907.2.11.5 Alterations, repairs, and enlargements. (1) When buildings or structures, or portions of buildings or structures, classified as Group R are altered, repaired, or enlarged and the work requires a building permit, or (2) when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created, smoke alarms shall be installed for each dwelling or sleeping unit affected by such work in accordance with Section 907.2.10907.2.11, except as provided otherwise in this section or its subsections. Exceptions: 1. Work involving solely the exterior surfaces of the building or structure, such as replacement of roofing or siding or the addition of a porch or deck. 2. Installation, alterations, and repairs of plumbing or mechanical systems. 907.2.10.8.1907.2.11.5.1 Exception to interconnection. Section 907.2.10.5907.2.11.3 applies except that interconnection of smoke alarms in existing areas shall not be required where alterations and repairs do not include removal of interior wall and ceiling finishes exposing the structure unless an attic, crawlspace, or basement is available to provide access for interconnection without removal of interior finishes. 907.2.10.8.2907.2.11.5.2 Exception to power source. Section 907.2.10.6907.2.11.4 applies except that (1) smoke alarms may be battery-operated when installed in a building without commercial power and (2) hard-wired smoke alarms shall not be required in existing areas where alterations or repairs do not result in the removal of interior wall and ceiling finishes exposing the structure unless an attic, crawlspace, or basement is available to provide access for hard wiring without removal of interior finishes. (??) Section 1109.2.2, "Water closet compartment,” is repealed and reenacted to read: 1109.2.2 Water closet compartment. Where water closet compartments are provided in a toilet room or bathing room, at least one wheelchair-accessible compartment shall be provided. Where the combined total water closet compartments and urinals provided in a toilet room or bathing room is six or more, at least one ambulatory-accessible water closet compartment shall be provided in addition to the wheelchair-accessible compartment. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 28 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (bb) Section 1404.31405.3, "Vapor retarders," is amended by adding two exceptions: 4. Commercial and multiple-residence buildings complying with the 2020 City of Boulder2012 International Energy Conservation Code Section C402.5C402.4, Air leakage (mandatory). 5. Residential buildings complying with the 2020 City of Boulder2012 International Energy Conservation Code Section R402.4, Air leakage (mandatory). (cc) Section 1505.1, "General," is repealed and reenacted to read: 1505.1 General. All roof assemblies and roof coverings required to be listed by this section shall be tested in accordance with ASTM Standard E 108 or UL Standard 790. Class A roofs and the exceptions noted in Section 1505.3 for class B roofs as described in this Chapter 15 are the only roof assemblies and roof coverings allowed to be installed on any new or existing building within the city of Boulder. Wood shakes, wood shingles, and wood roof covering materials are prohibited except as provided in Section 10-5-5, "Wood Roof Covering Materials Prohibited," B.R.C. 1981, for certain minimal repairs. (dd) Section 1608.1, "General," is repealed and reenacted to read: 1608.1 General. The minimum roof snow load shall be thirty pounds per square foot, but the design roof load shall not be less than that determined by Section 1607. (ddee) Section 1608.2, "Ground snow loads," is deletedamended by adding the following sentence: Ground snow loads shall be 40 pounds per square foot, Pg = 40 lb/ft2 (ff) Section 1609.3, "Basic wind speed," is amended by adding the following sentence:but not Section 1609.3.1 and Table 1609.3.1, is repealed and reenacted to read: 1609.3 - Basic wind speed. The basicultimate design wind speed, V, ult , in mph, for the determination of wind loads shall be determined by Table 1609.3. based on the wind zone and building risk category 130. TABLE 1609.3. a BASICULTIMATE DESIGN WIND SPEED BasicUltimate Design Wind Speed (V) ult ) in MPH according to Wind Zone and Building Risk Category Wind Zone Risk Category I Risk Category II Risk Category III and IVVI East of Broadway 140 150 160 West of Broadway 155 165 175 ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 29 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 a. These standards were developed by Jon A. Peterka in the Colorado Front Range Gust Map— ASCE 7-167-10 Compatible dated November 18, 2013. (gg) Sections 1612.2, 1612.3 and 1612.41612.3, 1612.4 and 1612.5 are repealed. (hh) Section 1705, "Required Special Inspections and Testsverification and inspection," is amended by adding the following subsection: 1705.191705.18 Special inspection for medical gas systems. Medical gas systems shall be tested as detailed in Chapter 12, "Special Piping and Storage Systems," of the City of Boulder Plumbing Code. (??) A new exception 5 is added to Section 2902.2, Separate Facilities: 5. Separate facilities are not required when multiple fixture all gender facilities are provided. Multiple fixture all gender facilities are not required; they are an alternative to be determined by the property owner or the owners’ agent. (??) 2902.4 “Signage”. is repealed and reenacted to read: 2902.4 Signage. Required public facilities shall be provided with signs that designate which genders the facility accommodates as required by section 2902.2. Signs shall be readily visible and located near the entrance to each toilet facility. Signs for accessible toilet facilities shall comply with Section 1111. Exception: Toilet facilities with only one water closet shall not be identified for exclusive use by any gender and shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section. Signage shall be provided in accordance with Section 2902.4.2. 2902.4.1 Directional signage. Directional signage indicating the route to the required public toilet facilities shall be posted in a lobby, corridor, aisle or similar space, such that the sign can be readily seen from the main entrance to the building or tenant space. 2902.4.2 All gender signage. Single-user toilet facilities provided in accordance with Section 2902.1.2, and family or assisted-use toilet facilities provided in accordance with Section 2902.2.1, shall be provided with signs which clearly indicate the facilities are available for use by all genders. 2902.4.2.1 Existing facilities. After December 31, 2019, all existing single-user toilet facilities and family or assisted-use toilet facilities, shall be provided with signage in accordance with Section 2902.4.2. (**ii) Section J103, "Permits required," of Appendix J, "GRADING," is amended by adding the following subsections: …. (**) A new Chapter 36 is added to read: ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 30 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 CHAPTER 36. COMMERCIAL CONSTRUCTION WASTE RECYCLING. 3601.1 Commercial construction recycling requirement. An applicant for a building permit to construct a new building shall demonstrate all recyclable wood, metal and cardboard materials were donated, reused or recycled. 3601.1.1 Reporting. Within sixty days following the completion of the project and prior to final inspection, the applicant shall submit documentation to the city manager which proves that all recyclable wood, metal and cardboard was donated, reused, or recycled. The documentation shall consist of a final completed waste diversion report in a form as prescribed by the city manager showing the tonnage of materials salvaged for recycling and reuse, supported by original weight receipts or other waste documentation that reasonably verifies that materials generated from the site have been accepted for recycling, reuse, salvage or otherwise diverted. For construction debris for which weighing is not practical due to size, lack of scales at the facility, or other considerations, a volumetric measurement shall be used. For conversion of volumetric measurements to weight, the applicant shall use the standardized conversion rates established by the city manager. 3601.2 Commercial deconstruction waste recycling. An applicant for a full demolition shall adhere to the requirements of 3601.2.1 through 3601.2.5. 3601.2.1 Diversion requirements. The applicant shall divert from landfills at least seventy-five percent of the waste tonnage of demolition debris generated from the project by using recycling, reuse, and diversion programs. The city manager may modify this requirement if the applicant demonstrates it is unfeasible as set forth in section 3601.2.2. The materials diverted must also include at least three of the material types set forth in the in the deconstruction plan form established by the city manager. 3601.2.2 Information required before issuance of demolition permit. The applicant shall submit a properly completed deconstruction plan in a form as established by the city manager. The applicant must propose to divert at least three of the material types identified by the city manager in the deconstruction plan form. No building permit or demolition permit shall be issued prior to the approval of the deconstruction plan by the city manager. In estimating the volume or weight of materials identified in the deconstruction plan, the applicant shall use the standardized conversion rates established by the city manager. The city manager may modify the required diversion percentage if the applicant demonstrates in the deconstruction plan that the percentage is not feasible because the maximum weight of materials that can be reused or recycled is less than the required diversion rate, or due to the presence of materials that are unable to be diverted due to special waste conditions such as environmental hazards. 3601.2.3 Administrative fee and deposit required. Prior to issuance of a permit for a full demolition or level 4 alteration as defined in the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code, the applicant shall post a cash deposit and pay the administrative fee described in Section 4-20-72, B.R.C. 1981. The cash deposit shall be one dollar per square foot of the demolition or work area of the alteration as identified in the permit application, or $1,500, whichever is greater. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 31 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 3601.2.4 Reporting. Within sixty days following the completion of the demolition, the applicant shall submit documentation to the city which proves compliance with the requirements of sections 3601.2.1 and 3601.2.2. The documentation shall consist of a final completed waste diversion report in a form established by the city manager showing the tonnage of materials salvaged for recycling and reuse, supported by original weight receipts or other waste documentation that reasonably verifies that materials generated from the site have been accepted for recycling, reuse, salvage or otherwise diverted at the required diversion percentage. The documentation shall further demonstrate that the diverted materials include at least three material types. For demolition debris for which weighing is not practical due to size, lack of scales at facility, or other considerations, a volumetric measurement shall be used. For conversion of volumetric measurements to weight, the applicant shall use the standardized conversion rates established by the city manager. 3601.2.5 Deposit refunded or forfeited. No applicant shall fail to comply with 3601.2.1 through 3601.2.4. The deposit shall be refunded to the applicant in proportion to the ratio of the actual diversion rate to the required diversion rate. If the required diversion percentage is not fully complied with, the remainder of the deposit shall be forfeited to the city as a civil penalty for failure to comply with the requirements of this chapter, after notice and an opportunity for hearing under the procedures prescribed by Chapter 1-3, "Quasi-Judicial Hearings," B.R.C. 1981. The city manager may adjust the amount of the refund or forfeiture where the applicant demonstrates that the required diversion percentage was not feasible based on the factors identified in 3601.2.2 for modification of the diversion percentage. The forfeiture remedy is cumulative and is in addition to any other action the city manager is authorized to take, including suspension or revocation of a building contractor license or prosecution in the municipal court. Each 2,500 square feet of the demolition or alteration shall give rise to a separate violation, and each violation is subject to a maximum fine of $2,500. …. Section 5. Chapter 10-5.5, “Residential Building Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 5.5 - Residential Building Code[] 10-5.5-1. - Legislative Intent. The purpose of this chapter is to protect the public health, safety, and general welfare by regulating the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, removal, and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses, not more than three stories above grade in height with a separate means of egress, and their accessory structures. The city council hereby adopts the 20182012 edition of the International Residential Code with certain amendments thereto found to be in the best interests of the city. 10-5.5-2. - Adoption of the International Residential Code With Modifications. (a) The 20182012 edition of the International Residential Code of the International Code Council is hereby adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Residential Building Code ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 32 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. (b) The Appendix chapters D, E, F, G, H, J, K, and P, Q, R and S and sections contained therein are adopted. …. (f) A new sentence is added to the end of Section R301.1, "Application," stating: Structural calculations shall be submitted to the building official, demonstrating how the proposed construction meets the applicable requirements for design loads supports must be provided to the building official. (g) The climatic and geographic design criteria applicable to Table R301.2.(1) are: Ground sSnow lLoads shall be 40 = thirty pounds per square foot, Pg = 40 lb/ft2 with a minimum Roof Snow Load of 30 pounds per square foot. Three-second wind gust velocity = 150120 mph east of Broadway, 165130 mph west of Broadway Topographic effects: Yes Special wind region: Yes Windborne debris zone: No Seismic Design Category = B Weathering = severe Frost line depth = 32 inches Termite = slight Decay = none to slight Winter Design Temp = 2 degrees Fahrenheit Ice barrier underlayment required = NO Flood Hazards = See Sections 9-3-3 through 9-3-9, B.R.C. 1981 Air freezing index = 459 Mean annual temp = 52.1 Elevation: 5358 feet Latitude: 40 degrees Winter Heating: 0° Summer Cooling: 91° Altitude Correction Factor: 0.821 Indoor Design Temperature: 72° Design Temperature Cooling: 75° Heating Temperature difference: 66° Cooling Temperature difference: Wind Velocity Heating: 15 Wind Velocity Cooling: 7.5 Coincident Wet Bulb: 59° Daily Range: High Winter Humidity: 30% Summer Humidity: 50% ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 33 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (h) Section R301.2.4, "Floodplain construction": A new sentence is added to the end of the section reading "All work on structures in the scope of this code shall also meet the requirements of Sections 9-3-29-3-3 through 9-3-9, B.R.C 1981." …. (j) The first sentence of the Exception to Item 2 in Section R302.2.4R302.2.2, "Parapets for townhouses," is amended by deleting "a minimum class C roof covering" and replacing it with "a minimum Class B roof covering." (k) Section R302.5.1, "Opening protection," is repealed and reenacted to read: R302.5.1 Opening protection. Openings from a garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Other openings between the garage and residence shall be equipped with weather-stripped, solid wood doors not less than 1 and 3/8 inches (35 mm) in thickness, solid or honeycomb-core steel doors not less than 1 and 3/8 inches (35 mm) in thickness, or 20-minute fire-rated doors, equipped with a self-closing device. (l) Section R309.5, "Fire sprinklers," is deleted. (m) Section R311.2, "Egress doors," is repealed and reenacted to read: R311.2 Egress doors. At least one egress door shall be provided for each dwelling unit. The egress door shall be side hinged, and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) when measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). The minimum clear height of the door opening shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height measured from the top of the threshold to the bottom of the stop. …. (p) Section R313.1, "Townhouse automatic fire sprinkler systems," is repealed and reenacted to read: R313.1 Townhouse automatic fire sprinkler systems. Automatic fire sprinkler systems shall be installed in townhouses in accordance with the requirements of Section 903.2.8 of the City of Boulder Fire Code. (q) Section R313.2, "One- and two-family dwelling automatic fire sprinkler systems," is repealed and reenacted to read: R313.2 One- and two-family dwelling automatic fire sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in one- and two-family dwellings in accordance with the requirements of Section 903.2.8 of the City of Boulder Fire Code. ….. (t) A new Section R324 Construction Waste Management is added to read: SECTION R324 CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 34 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 R324.1 Construction Waste Recycling. An applicant for a building permit for a new dwelling unit or an addition to an existing dwelling unit shall demonstrate all recyclable wood, metal, and cardboard materials will be donated, reused, or recycled. R324.2 Deconstruction Management. An applicant proposing to demolish more than 50 percent of exterior walls shall demonstrate through a deconstruction plan that 100 percent of concrete and asphalt and at least 65 percent of other the existing building materials, by weight, from the deconstruction, excluding concrete and asphalt, will be diverted from the landfill for reuse or recycling. A new Section R328, Construction Waste Management, is added to read: SECTION R328 CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT R328.1 Residential construction waste recycling. An applicant for a building permit to construct a new dwelling unit shall demonstrate all recyclable wood, metal and cardboard materials were donated, reused or recycled. R328.1.1 Reporting. Within sixty days following the completion of the project and prior to final inspection, the applicant shall submit documentation to the city manager which proves that all recyclable wood, metal and cardboard was donated, reused, or recycled. The documentation shall consist of a final completed waste diversion report in a form as prescribed by the city manager showing the tonnage of materials salvaged for recycling and reuse, supported by original weight receipts or other waste documentation that reasonably verifies that materials generated from the site have been accepted for recycling, reuse, salvage or otherwise diverted. For construction debris for which weighing is not practical due to size, lack of scales at the facility, or other considerations, a volumetric measurement shall be used. For conversion of volumetric measurements to weight, the applicant shall use the standardized conversion rates established by the city manager. R328.2 Residential deconstruction waste recycling. An applicant for a full demolition or level 4 alteration as defined in the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code shall adhere to the requirements of R328.2.1 through R328.2.5. R328.2.1 Diversion requirements. The applicant shall divert from landfills at least seventy- five percent of the waste tonnage of demolition debris generated from the project by using recycling, reuse, and diversion programs. The city manager may modify this requirement if the applicant demonstrates it is unfeasible as set forth in section R328.2.2. The materials diverted must also include at least three of the material types set forth in the in the deconstruction plan form established by the city manager. R328.2.2 Information required before issuance of demolition and/or building permit. The applicant shall submit a properly completed deconstruction plan in a form as established by the city manager. The applicant must propose to divert at least three of the material types identified by the city manager in the deconstruction plan form. No building permit or demolition permit shall be issued prior to the approval of the deconstruction plan by the city manager. In estimating the volume or weight of materials identified in the deconstruction plan, the applicant shall use the standardized conversion rates established by the city manager. The city manager may modify the required diversion percentage if the applicant ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 35 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 demonstrates in the deconstruction plan that the percentage is not feasible because the maximum weight of materials that can be reused or recycled is less than the required diversion rate, or due to the presence of materials that are unable to be diverted due to special waste conditions such as environmental hazards. R328.2.3 Administrative fee and deposit required. Prior to issuance of a permit for a full demolition or level 4 alteration as defined in the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code, the applicant shall post a cash deposit and pay the administrative fee described in section 4-20-72, B.R.C. 1981. The cash deposit shall be one dollar per square foot of the demolition or work area of the alteration as identified in the permit application, or $1,500, whichever is greater. R328.2.4 Reporting. Within sixty days following the completion of the demolition or alteration, the applicant shall submit documentation to the city which proves compliance with the requirements of sections R328.2.1 and R328.2.2. The documentation shall consist of a final completed waste diversion report in a form established by the city manager showing the tonnage of materials salvaged for recycling and reuse, supported by original weight receipts or other waste documentation that reasonably verifies that materials generated from the site have been accepted for recycling, reuse, salvage or otherwise diverted at the required diversion percentage. The documentation shall further demonstrate that the diverted materials include at least three material types. For demolition debris for which weighing is not practical due to size, lack of scales at facility, or other considerations, a volumetric measurement shall be used. For conversion of volumetric measurements to weight, the applicant shall use the standardized conversion rates established by the city manager. R328.2.5 Deposit refunded or forfeited. No applicant shall fail to comply with R328.2.1 through R328.2.4. The deposit shall be refunded to the applicant in proportion to the ratio of the actual diversion rate to the required diversion rate. If the required diversion percentage is not fully complied with, the remainder of the deposit shall be forfeited to the city as a civil penalty for failure to comply with the requirements of this chapter, after notice and an opportunity for hearing under the procedures prescribed by Chapter 1-3, "Quasi-Judicial Hearings," B.R.C. 1981. The city manager may adjust the amount of the refund or forfeiture where the applicant demonstrates that the required diversion percentage was not feasible based on the factors identified in R328.2.2 for modification of the diversion percentage. The forfeiture remedy is cumulative and is in addition to any other action the city manager is authorized to take, including suspension or revocation of a building contractor license or prosecution in the municipal court. Each 2500 square feet of the demolition or alteration shall give rise to a separate violation, and each violation is subject to a maximum fine of $2,500. …. (v) A new Section R401.5, "Placement of backfill," is added to read: R401.5 Placement of backfill. The provisions of Section 1804.31804.2 of the Building Code of the City of Boulder shall apply to the placement of backfill. …. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 36 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (cc) Chapter 11, "Energy Efficiency." Sections N1101 through N1105 are repealed. A new Section N1101 is added to read: N1101 Scope. Regulations concerning the design and construction of buildings for the effective use of energy and requirements for green building practices shall be administered in accordance with the 20202017 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code as adopted by Chapter 10-7, "Energy Conservation Code," B.R.C. 1981. …. (gg) Section M1601.4.10M1601.4.9, "Flood hazard areas," is repealed and reenacted to read: M1601.4.10M1601.4.9 Flood hazard areas. In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981, duct systems shall be located or installed in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (hh) A new sentence is added to Section M1602.2M1602.1, "Return air," to read: Within individual dwelling units there shall be at least one return air opening on each floor. …. (kk) Chapter 23 is renamed to read "Solar Energy Systems and Solar Ready Buildings." (ll) A new Section M2303, "Solar photovoltaic power systems," is added to read: M2303 Solar photovoltaic power systems. Solar photovoltaic power systems shall also meet the provisions of Section E3804, as amended. (mm) A new Section M2304, "Requirements for Solar Ready Buildings," is added to read: M2304.1 General. All new buildings shall comply with the requirements of this Section M2304.1. This section shall not apply to additions, alterations or repairs to existing buildings. M2304.1.1 Solar Zone. Solar Zones shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents. M2304.1.1.1 Location and Size of Solar Zones. The solar zone shall have a minimum total area as described below. The solar zone shall comply with access, pathway, smoke ventilation, and spacing requirements as specified in the Boulder Revised Code. The solar zone total area shall be comprised of one or more rectangular areas that are no less than 80 square feet and no side of any rectangular area shall be less than five feet in length. The solar zone shall be located: 1. On the roof or overhang of the building, 2. On the roof or overhang of another structure located within 250 feet of the building on the same parcel or lot, 3. On covered parking installed with the building project, or 4. On a façade that is less than 15 degrees greater or less than true south. The solar zone shall have a total area of no less than 40 percent of the total roof area, as measured by the area of the roof planes. The following roof areas can be excluded when calculating the total roof area of the building: 1. Roof areas with a permanently installed domestic solar water-heating system. 2. Roof areas where the annual solar access is less than 70 percent. For the purpose of this code, solar access means the ratio of solar insolation including shade to the solar insolation ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 37 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 without shade. Shading from obstructions located on the roof or any other part of the building shall not be included in the determination of annual solar access. Exception: Solar zones are not required in: 1. Buildings with a permanently installed solar electric system having a nameplate DC power rating, measured under standard test condition of no less than one watt per square foot of roof area. 2. Buildings where the roof is designed and approved to be used for vehicular traffic or parking or for a heliport. M2304.1.1.2 Orientation. All sections of the solar zone located on steep slope roofs shall be oriented between 90 degrees and 270 degrees of true north. M2304.1.1.3 Shading. 1. No obstructions, including but not limited to, vents, chimneys, architectural features, and roof mounted equipment, shall be located in the solar zone. 2. Any obstruction located on the roof or any other part of the building that projects above a solar zone shall be located at least twice the distance, measured in the horizontal plane, of the height difference between the highest point of the obstruction and the horizontal projection of the nearest point of the solar zone, measured in the vertical plane. Exception: Any roof obstruction, located on the roof or any other part of the building, that is oriented north of all points on the solar zone. M2304.1.1.4 Structural Design Loads on Construction Documents. For areas of the roof designated as solar zone, the structural design loads for roof dead load and roof live load shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents. NOTE: The inclusion of any collateral loads for future solar energy systems is not required. M2304.1.2 Interconnection Pathways. The construction documents shall indicate a location for inverters and metering equipment and a pathway for routing of conduit for the solar zone to the point of interconnection with the electrical service. M2304.1.3. Documentation. A copy of the construction documents or a comparable document indicating the information from Sections M2304.1.1 through M2304.1.2 shall be provided to and maintained by the building owner. The building owner shall provide a copy of the construction documents or a comparable document indicating the information from Sections M2304.1.1 through M2304.1.2 to any purchasers and subsequent owners of the building or any part thereof. M2304.1.4. Main Electrical Service Panel. 1. The main electrical service panel shall have a minimum busbar rating of no less than 200 amps. 2. The main electrical service panel shall have a reserved space to allow for the installation of double pole circuit breakers for a future solar electric installation. A. Location. The reserved space shall be positioned at the opposite (load) end from the input feeder location or main circuit location. B. Marking. The reserved spaces shall be permanently marked as "For Future Solar Electric." …. (vv) Section P3009, "Subsurface Landscape Irrigation SystemsGray water recycling systems," is deleted in its entirety. (ww) Section P3101.5, "Flood resistance," is repealed and reenacted to read: ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 38 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 P3101.5 Flood resistance. In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981, vents shall be located or installed in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (xx) A new Section E3804, "Solar photovoltaic power systems," is added to read: E3804 Solar photovoltaic power systems. Solar photovoltaic power systems shall meet the provisions of sections 605.11 through 605.11.3.2.3 of the City of Boulder Fire Code. (yy) New Subsections E3901.13, "Electric vehicle charging requirements for new construction," and E3901.14, "Electric vehicle charging requirements for renovations," are added to read: E3901.13 Electric vehicle charging requirements for new construction. Every new dwelling unit in a detached one- and two-family dwelling or townhouse shall include the following in at least one of the provided off-street parking spaces: 1. A 240-volt dedicated electric vehicle charging receptacle outlet, and 2. A 120-volt dedicated electric vehicle charging receptacle outlet. The electric vehicle charging receptacle outlets shall be labeled as an electric vehicle outlet. E3901.14 Electric vehicle charging requirements for renovations. For every dwelling unit where a garage is converted to habitable space, at least one 120-volt or 240-volt dedicated electric vehicle charging receptacle outlet shall be provided adjacent to at least one of any provided parking spaces. Exception: A dedicated charging outlet is not required if off-street parking is not provided. The electric vehicle charging receptacle outlets shall be labeled as an electric vehicle outlet. (zz) Section E4209.3, "Accessibility," is amended by adding the following to the end of the section: Equipment shall be accessed by a panel with a minimum size of 12 inches (305 mm). (aaa) Appendix F, "Radon Control Method," is hereby repealed and reenacted to read as follows: APPENDIX F RADON CONTROL METHOD The requirements of Appendix F to the 20182015 edition of the International Residential Code of the International Code Council shall hereby be complied with which appendix is hereby adopted by reference as part of the City of Boulder Residential Code and have the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this subsection, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this subsection. (bbb) Section AJ102.5, "Flood hazard areas," is repealed and reenacted to read: AJ102.5 Flood hazard areas. Work performed in existing buildings located in a floodplain, as established by Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981, shall be done in accordance with the applicable provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. APPENDIX P SIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM The requirements of Appendix P to the 2018 edition of the International Residential Code of the International Code Council shall hereby be complied with which appendix is hereby adopted by ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 39 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 reference as part of the City of Boulder Residential Code and have the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this subsection, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this subsection. (ccc) A new footnote notation "b" is added to the heading and a new footnote "b" is added to AP Table AP103.3(2), "Load values assigned to fixtures," reading: b. For the purpose of determining the largest instantaneous demand required in order to size a water meter, or for determining the amount of the plant investment fee, this table is repealed and replaced by Chapter 11-1-35, “Meter Size Requirements,”the Fixture Unit/GPM Demand Chart and PIF Computation sheet found at Appendix A to Chapter 11-1, "Water Utility," B.R.C. 1981. Section 6. Tile 10 is amended to add a new Chapter 10-5.6, “Existing Building Code,” B.R.C. 1981 to read as follows: Chapter 5.6- Existing Building Code. 10-5.6-1 Legislative Intent. The purpose of this chapter is to protect the public health and safety by regulating the repair, alteration, change of occupancy, addition to and relocation of existing buildings in the city. This chapter is intended to encourage the use and reuse of existing buildings while requiring reasonable upgrades and improvements. The city council hereby adopts the 2018 edition of the International Existing Building Code with certain amendments, additions and deletions found to be in the best interests of the city. 10-5.5-2 – Adoption of the International Existing Building Code With Modifications. (a) The 2018 edition of the International Existing Building Code of the International Code Council is hereby adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Existing Building Code and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. This code shall be administered in accordance with Chapter 1, "Administration," of the International Building Code as adopted, with amendments, by Section 10-5-2, "Adoption of International Building Code With Modifications," B.R.C. 1981. (b) Section 104.2.1, Determination of substantially improved or substantially damaged existing buildings and structures in flood hazard areas. A new sentence is added to the end of the section reading "In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981." (c) Section 104.10.1 Flood hazard areas. Section 104.10.1, "Flood hazard areas," is repealed and reenacted to read: In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (d) Section 109.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. is repealed and reenacted to read: ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 40 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (e) Section 301.3 Alteration, addition or change of occupancy. The alteration, addition or change of occupancy of all existing buildings shall comply with one of the methods listed in Section 301.3.1, 301.3.2 or 301.3.3 as selected by the applicant. Sections 301.3.1 through 301.3.3 shall not be applied in combination with each other. Exception: The exception is repealed and reenacted to read: Subject to the approval of the code official, alterations complying with the laws in existence at the time the building or the affected portion of the building was built shall be considered in compliance with the provisions of this code. New structural members added as part of the alteration shall comply with the International Building Code. This exception shall not apply to alterations that constitute substantial improvement in flood hazard areas, which shall comply with Section 503.2, 701.3 or 1301.3.3; and in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. This exception shall not apply to the structural provisions of Chapter 5 or to the structural provisions of Sections 706, 806 and 906. (f) Section 401.3 “Flood hazard areas” is repealed and reenacted to read: In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (g) Section 405.2.5 “Flood hazard areas” is repealed and reenacted to read: In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (h) Section 502.3 “Flood hazard areas” is repealed and reenacted to read: In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (i) Section 503.2 Flood hazard areas is repealed and reenacted to read: In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (j) Section 507.3 “Flood hazard areas” is repealed and reenacted to read: In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (k) Section 701.3 “Flood hazard areas” is repealed and reenacted to read: ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 41 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (l) Section 1103.3 “Flood hazard areas” is repealed and reenacted to read: In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (m) Section 1201.4 “Flood hazard areas” is repealed and reenacted to read: In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (n) Section 1301.3.3 “Compliance with flood hazard provisions” is repealed and reenacted to read: 1301.3.3 Compliance with flood hazard provisions. In floodplains, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (o) Section 1402.6 “Flood hazard areas” is repealed and reenacted to read: If relocated or moved into a flood hazard area, as established in Title 9, Land Use Code, all work on structures in the scope of this code shall also be in accordance with the provisions of Title 9, Land Use Code, B.R.C. 1981. (p) Section 803.2.2 Groups A, B, E, F-1, H, I, M, R-1, R-2, R-4, S-1 and S-2. The exception is deleted. (q) Section 904.1.4 Other required automatic sprinkler systems. Delete condition 2. (r) APPENDIX B, "SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES," and sections contained therein are adopted. Section 7. Chapter 10-6, “Electrical Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 6 - Electrical Code …. 10-6-2. - Adoption of the National Electrical Code With Modifications. (a) The current National Electrical Code of the National Fire Protection Association, as currently adopted by the State of Colorado or as is from time to time modified, reenacted or readopted by the State of Colorado is hereby adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Electrical Code or electrical code and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. (b) This code shall be administered in accordance with Chapter 1, Administration, of the 20182012 edition of the International Building Code and Appendix K, Administrative ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 42 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Provisions, of the 20182012 edition of the International Building Code, as adopted, respectively, with amendments, by Section 10-5-2, "Adoption of the International Building Code With Modifications," B.R.C. 1981. 10-6-3. - Electric Vehicle Charging Requirements for New Multifamily Dwellings. Every newly permitted multifamily dwelling with more than twenty-five parking spaces shall include the following: (a) Ten percent of parking spaces shall have one 240-volt and one 120-volt dedicated charging receptacle outlet. (1) Accessible Spaces. Ten percent of accessible parking spaces, but in no case less than one accessible parking space, shall have one 240-volt and one 120-volt dedicated charging receptacle outlet. Parking in accessible spaces where electric vehicle supply equipment is installed shall not be limited to electric vehicles when no other comparable accessible space is available. (2) Designation. Fifty percent of the parking spaces with a required dedicated charging receptacle outlet for electric vehicles shall be designated for electric vehicle charging. (b) At least two parking spaces shall have a Level 2 dual port electric vehicle charging station. These two parking spaces with a Level 2 dual port electric vehicle charging station shall be designated for electric vehicle charging. 10-6-4. - Electric Vehicle Charging Requirements for New Commercial Structures and R-1 and R-2 Occupancies. Every newly permitted commercial structure with more than twenty-five parking spaces and buildings serving a Group R-1 or R-2 occupancy shall comply with the following: (a) Ten percent of parking spaces shall have one 240-volt and one 120-volt dedicated charging receptacle outlet. (1) Accessible spaces. Ten percent of accessible parking spaces, but no less than one accessible parking space, shall have one 240-volt and one 120-volt dedicated charging receptacle outlet. Parking in accessible spaces where electric vehicle supply equipment is installed shall not be limited to electric vehicles when no other comparable accessible space is available. (2) Designation. Fifty percent of the parking spaces with a required dedicated charging receptacle outlet for electric vehicles shall be designated for electric vehicle charging. (b) In commercial structures with more than twenty-five parking spaces, at least two parking spaces shall have a Level 2 dual port electric vehicle charging station. These two parking spaces with a Level 2 dual port electric vehicle charging station shall be designated for electric vehicle charging. (c) Buildings serving a Group R-1 or R-2 occupancy shall have a Level 2 dual port charging station in one percent of, but no less than two, parking spaces. Parking spaces with a required Level 2 dual port electric vehicle charging station shall be designated for electric vehicle charging. 10-6-35. - Arc-Fault Circuit-Interrupter Protection in Existing Dwelling Units. When electrical panels or sub-panels are replaced or added in existing dwelling units, arc-fault circuit interrupter protection shall be provided for each replaced or added electrical panel or subpanel meeting the standards for new construction under the City of Boulder Electrical Code. The listed arc-fault circuit interrupter protective device shall be located at the origin of each circuit requiring protection. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 43 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Section 8. Chapter 10-7, “Energy Conservation Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 7 - Energy Conservation Code …. 10-7-2. - Energy Conservation Code. (a) Council adopts by reference the 2017 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code of the International Code Council which shall have the same force and effect as though fully set forth in the Boulder Revised Code, 1981. This chapter and the 2017 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code shall be administered, applied, and interpreted in accordance with and as part of Chapter 10-5, "Building Code," B.R.C. 1981. …. Section 9. Chapter 10-7.7, “Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 7.7 - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency …. 10-7.7-4. - Required Lighting Upgrades. (a) Within five years of the first reporting requirement, each owner shall: (1) Replace or upgrade any interior lighting fixtures as necessary to meet lighting power allowances for interior lighting established in the 2017 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. (2) Replace or upgrade any exterior lighting fixtures as necessary to meet lighting power allowances for exterior lighting established in the 2012 2020 International Energy Conservation Code. (3) Comply with requirements for automatic time switch control devices, occupancy sensors, and exterior lighting controls as necessary to meet the 2017 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. …. 10-7.7-8. - Large Industrial Campus. …. (b) The owner of a large industrial campus shall: (1) On or before June 1, 2019 and at least once every ten years thereafter, conduct an energy assessment that covers at least seventy-five percent of the total energy usage on the large industrial campus; and ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 44 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (2) Within two years after each assessment, the owner must implement any measures recommended that are projected to produce monetary savings over a one-year period equal to or in excess of the cost of implementation, less the value of rebates. (c) By June 1, 2025, each owner of a large industrial campus shall: (1) Replace or upgrade any interior lighting fixtures necessary to meet the lighting power allowances for interior lighting established in the 2017 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. (2) Replace or upgrade any exterior lighting fixtures as necessary to meet the lighting power allowances for exterior lighting established in the 2012 2020 International Energy Conservation Code. (3) Comply with the requirements for automatic time switch control devices, occupancy sensors, and exterior lighting controls as necessary to meet the 2017 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. …. Section 10. Chapter 10-8, “Fire Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 8 - Fire Code 10-8-1. - Legislative Intent. The purpose of this chapter is to protect public health and safety by regulating the use, condition, construction, alteration, and repair of property, structures, and occupancies in the city in order to prevent the ignition and spread of fire and risk of harm to persons or property from fire and other causes. The city council hereby adopts the 2018 2012 edition of the International Fire Code with certain amendments, additions, and deletions thereto found to be in the best interests of the city. The standards provided in this chapter shall be used, insofar as they are applicable, in determining whether a condition is hazardous, whether any work that has been performed has been done in an approved manner, or whether any equipment is of an approved type or quality, and in any determination concerning fire hazards and fire safety in the city building code not specifically provided for therein. 10-8-2. - Adoption of International Fire Code With Modifications. (a) The 2018 2012 edition of the International Fire Code of the International Code Council is adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Fire Code, and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. (b) The Fire Code adopted by Subsection (a) of this section is amended in the following places: (1) Section 102.3 is repealed and reenacted to read: 102.3 Change of use or occupancy. No change shall be made in the use or occupancy of any structure that would place the structure in a different division of the same group or occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless such structure is made com comply with the requirements of this code and the International Building Code. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 45 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (2) Section 103.1 is repealed and reenacted to read: 103.1 Community Risk ReductionDivision of Fire Safety. A Community Risk Reduction Division of Fire Safety is established within the fire department under the direction of the manager, which shall consist of such fire department personnel as may be assigned thereto by the manager. The function of this division shall be to assist the manager in the administration and enforcement of the provisions of this code. …. (5) Section 105.6 is repealed and reenacted to read: 105.6 Required operational permits. The fire code official may issue an operational permit for the following operations: (a) 105.6.14, Explosives (b) 105.6.32105.6.30, Open Burning (c) 105.6.36, Outdoor assembly events105.6.32, Open Flames and Candles (d) 105.6.38, Plant extraction systems (ed) 105.6.40105.6.36, Pyrotechnic special effects material (6) Section 105.6.43 is amended by the addition of the following: (f) 105.6.47105.6.43, Temporary membrane structures and, tents and canopies. An operational permit may be issued with the construction permit that will be issued by the building official. (67) Section 105.7 is repealed and reenacted to read: 105.7 Required construction permits. All construction permits will be issued by the building official. Community Risk Reduction The Division of Fire Safety will be the approving authority for the following: (a) 105.7.1, Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. (b) 105.7.7105.7.6, Fire alarm and detection systems and related equipment. (c) 105.7.8105.7.7, Fire pumps and related equipment. (d) 105.7.11 Gas detection systems (e) 105.7.14 High-pile combustible storage (f) 105.7.18 Plant indoor cultivation and extraction systems (gd) 105.7.24105.7.15, Stand-pipe systems. (78) Section 109108, "Board of Appeals," is repealed and reenacted to read: 109108 Appeals. (a) Any appeal under this section shall be heard by the Board of Building Appeals established under Section 2-3-4, "Board of Building Appeals," B.R.C. 1981, ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 46 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 unless the city manager determines, due to the nature of the issues in a particular appeal, to appoint a hearing officer under Section 1-3-5, "Hearings and Determinations," B.R.C. 1981. …. (89) Section 110.1109.1, "Unlawful acts," is repealed and reenacted to read: 109.1110.1 Violations. …. (910) Section 110.3.3109.3.3, "Prosecution of violations," is repealed. (1011) Section 110.4109.4, "Violation penalties," is repealed and reenacted to read: 110.4109.4 Abatement of violation. In addition to the imposition of the penalties described in Section 109.1110.1, "Violations," the fire code official is authorized to institute appropriate action to prevent unlawful construction or to restrain, correct, or abate a violation; or to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or premises; or to stop an illegal act, conduct of business, or occupancy of a structure on or about any premises. (1112) Chapter 2, "Definitions," is amended by the addition of the following additional definitions. For any definition that already exists, it is repealed and reenacted with the definition listed here: …. Open Burning is the burning of any materials where visible products of combustion are emitted directly into or substance, including rubbish, wastepaper, wood, vegetative material or other flammable material in the ambient air without passing through a chimney from a fireplace built in compliance with the City of Boulder Building Codewhere emissions are released directly in the air without passing through a chimney or stack. …. Sky Lantern means an unmanned device, whether tethered or untethered, made of paper or other thin material with a frame that contains a candle or other fuel source which creates an open flame or other heat source designed to heat the air inside the device, causing it to lift into the air in a manner similar to a hot-air balloon. Tank Truck means any single rear axle, self-propelled motor vehicle, equipped with a cargo tank mounted thereon, and used for the transportation of flammable and combustible liquids, but this term excludes any combination of units, such as a semi- trailer. Said tank truck shall not exceed 35,000 GVW, and its total capacity shall not exceed 3,000 gallons. Transport route means: (1) Denver-Boulder Turnpike (U.S. 36) from the south city limits to Baseline Road. (2) Foothills Parkway (Colorado 157) from U.S. 36 to the north city limits. (3) 28th Street from Baseline Road to the north city limits. (4) Arapahoe Avenue from Folsom Street to the east city limits. (5) Canyon Boulevard from 28th Street to the west city limits. (6) Pearl Street/Pearl Parkway from Folsom Street to the east city limits. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 47 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (7) Longmont Diagonal Highway (Colorado 119) as it passes through the city limits. (8) Valmont Road from Folsom Street to 55th Street. (9) Airport Road and Airport Boulevard. (10) Baseline Road from 27th Way to Foothills Parkway (Colorado 157). (11) 55th Street from Valmont Road to Arapahoe Avenue. (12) 30th Street from Arapahoe to Diagonal Highway (Colorado 119). (13) Longmont Diagonal Highway (Colorado 119) from 28th Street to and connecting with Foothills Parkway (Colorado 157). (14) South Foothills Parkway/Broadway (Colorado 93) from the south city limits to 27th Way and connecting to Baseline Road. …. (1213) Section 307, "Open burning, recreational fires, and portable outdoor fireplaces," is repealed and reenacted to read: 307 Open burning and recreational fires. (1) No person shall kindle or maintain outside of a habitable building or outside of an exterior fireplace built in accordance with the City of Boulder Building Code any bonfire or burn or permit to be burned any trash, paper, rubbish, wastepaper, wood, weeds, brush, plants, or other combustible or flammable material anywhere within the city limits or anywhere on city property outside …. (2) Mobile or portable type outdoor fire places are prohibited to use within the city limits or anywhere on city property outside of the city limits. (1314) Section 308.1.6.3 is repealed and reenacted to read: 308.1.6.3 Sky lanterns. No person shall release any sky lantern within the City of Boulder. (14) Exceptions 1, 2 and 32 to Section 311.2.2, "Fire protection," are repealed. (15) A new Section 401.9, "Fire alarm fees," is added to read: 401.9 Fire alarm fees. (a) After the fire department has responded to two nuisance alarms from the of fire alarm system from any property or address in any calendar year, the city manager may impose a charge for each additional response to an alarm which originates from the property during the same calendar year, in accordance with the schedule prescribed by Section 4-20-52, "Fire Code Permit and Inspection Fees," B.R.C. 1981. (b) The city manager may waive a charge imposed for a nuisance fire alarm response if the property owner of record demonstrates that such alarm was caused by a fire or the threat of a fire, or that such alarm was not under the property owner's control. It shall not be a defense that the alarm system is malfunctioning, unless the owner or manager is able to demonstrate that said ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 48 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 alarm system is currently being serviced to remedy the problems being encountered. (c) If any fee is not paid within thirty days after demand therefor has been mailed to the record owner of the building, the city manager may certify the amount due to the County Treasurer pursuant to Section 2-2-12, "City Manager May Certify Taxes, Charges, and Assessments to County Treasurer for Collection," B.R.C. 1981. …. (18) Section 510.4.1.1 is repealed and reenacted to read: 510.4.1.1 Minimum signal strength into the building. A minimum signal strength of - 95 dBm shall be receivable within the building. (19) Section 514.4.1.2 is repealed and reenacted to read: 510.4.1.2 Minimum signal strength out of the building. A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be received by the agency’s radio system with transmitted from within the building. (20) Section 603.4, "Portable unvented heaters," is repealed and reenacted to read: 603.4 Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment is are prohibited inside any occupied structure. (19) Subsection 605.11.3.2.1, "Residential buildings with hip roof layouts," is repealed and reenacted to read: 605.11.3.2.1 Residential buildings with hip roof layouts. Panels/modules installed on residential buildings with hip roof layouts shall be located in a manner that provides a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathway from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels/modules are located. Exceptions: 1. These requirements shall not apply to roofs with slopes of 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less. 2. These requirements shall not apply to roofs where each panel/module array area on the roof is 1,000 square feet (92.90 m 2 ) or less in size, no continuous section of panels/modules is larger than 150 feet in length or width, a clear access pathway of not less than 12-inch-width is provided along each side of all horizontal ridges, and a clear access pathway of not less than 30-inch-width is provided from the eave to the ridge of one roof slope where panels/modules are located. 3. These requirements shall not apply to roofs where each panel/module array area on the roof is 1,000 square feet (92.90 m 2 ) or less in size, no continuous section of panels/modules is larger than 150 feet in length or width, a clear access pathway of not less than 12-inch-width is provided along each side of all horizontal ridges, and, where panels/modules are to be placed on both sides of a hip, a clear access pathway of not less than 18-inch-width is provided along each side of such hip. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 49 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 4. These requirements shall not apply to roofs where the total combined area of solar array does not exceed 33 percent as measured in plan view of the total roof area of the structure. (20) Subsection 605.11.3.2.2, "Residential buildings with a single ridge," is repealed and reenacted to read: 605.11.3.2.2 Residential buildings with a single ridge. Panels/modules installed on residential buildings with a single ridge shall be located in a manner that provides two, 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear access pathways from the eave to the ridge on each roof slope where panels/modules are located. Exceptions: 1. This requirement shall not apply to roofs with slopes of 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less. 2. This requirement shall not apply to roofs where each panel/module array area on the roof is 1,000 square feet (92.90 m 2 ) or less in size, no continuous section of panels/modules is larger than 150 feet in length or width, and a clear access pathway of not less than 12-inch-width is provided along each side of the horizontal ridge, provided that: a. The total combined area of solar array does not exceed 33 percent as measured in plan view of the total roof area of the structure; or b. A 30-inch-wide clear access path is provided from the eave to the ridge of a roof slope where panels/modules are located. (21) Subsection 605.11.3.2.3, "Residential buildings with roof hips and valleys," is repealed and reenacted to read: 605.11.3.2.3 Residential buildings with roof hips and valleys. Panels/modules installed on residential buildings with roof hips and valleys shall be located no closer than 18 inches (457 mm) to a hip or a valley where panels/modules are to be placed on both sides of a hip or valley. Where panels are to be located on only one side of a hip or valley that is of equal length, the panels shall be permitted to be placed directly adjacent to the hip or valley. In addition, a 12-inch-wide clear access pathway shall be provided along each side of any horizontal ridge. Exceptions: 1. This requirement shall not apply to roofs with slopes of 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (2:12) or less. 2. These requirements shall not apply to roofs where a 30-inch-wide clear access pathway is provided from the eave to the ridge as well as 12-inch-wide clear access pathways along each side of any horizontal ridge. (22) Subsection 605.11.3.2.4, "Residential building smoke ventilation," is repealed and reenacted to read: 605.11.3.2.4 Pathways. All access pathways required under this Section 605.11.3.2 shall be provided in a structurally strong location on the building capable of supporting the live load of firefighters accessing the roof. …. (2226) The first sentence of Section 903.2 is repealed and reenacted to read: Approved automatic sprinkler system in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.16903.2.15. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 50 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 …. (28) A new subsection is added to Section 903.2.1 to read: 903.2.1.6 Group B occupancies. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all new Group B occupancies greater than 2,000 gross square feet (185.8 m 2 ). (2429) Section 903.2.3, Group E. #1, is repealed and reenacted to read: An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows: (a) Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 2,000 square feet (185.8 m 2 ) in area. (b) The Group E fire area is located on a floor other than a level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. (c) The Group E fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. (b) Exception is repealed. (dc) All basements classified as, or a part of, a Group E occupancy shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler system regardless of the gross square footage. (2530) Section 903.2.4, Group F-1, is repealed and reenacted to read: An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all new Group F occupancies greater than 2,000 square feet (185.8 m 2 ). (31) Exceptions 3 and 4 to Section 903.2.6, Group I, are repealed. (2632) Section 903.2.7, Group M, is repealed and reenacted to read: An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group M occupancies greater than 2,000 square feet (185.8 m 2). (2733) Section 903.2.8 is amended by the addition of the following: (a) Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhomes) not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structure shall comply with the fire sprinkler system requirements of the City of Boulder Residential Building Code. (b) An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire areas. (i) Exception 1: Detached and two-unit attached dwelling units are not required to have an automatic fire sprinkler system if they are not used as residential board and care occupancies, and the distance, unobstructed by any structure above grade, landscaping, or topographical obstruction, from the curb face of the emergency vehicle access street on which the structure is addressed, to a face of the unit containing an entrance, is not greater than one hundred feet. (ii(b) Exception 2: A detached dwelling unit is not required to have an automatic fire sprinkler system if it is not used as a residential board and care occupancy, and is located on a lot larger than 14,500 square feet, in which the driveway meets the requirements of a fire department accessible private drive, and extends without interruption from the nearest emergency vehicle access street on which the structure is addressed, to the side of the building which contains the main entrance. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 51 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (iii(c) If more than one principal building is constructed on a lot pursuant to the exceptions listed in Section 9-7-12, "Two Detached Dwelling Units on a Single Lot," B.R.C. 1981, then each building other than the building closest to an emergency vehicle access street on which the structure is addressed, shall be protected by an approved and supervised automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. Exception: If a lot has frontage on two streets and each street is an emergency vehicle access street, then two buildings, each closest to their respective streets, shall not be required to be so protected by this subsection. (cd) Houses behind houses shall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. …. (31) A new Section 903.2.14, Group B Occupancies, is added to read: Section 903.2.14 Group B Occupancies. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all new Group B occupancies greater than 2,000 gross square feet (185.8m2). (3237) A new Section 903.2.15 903.2.14 is added to read: 903.2.15903.2.14. Any occupancy, structure, or unit required to be protected by a sprinkler system by one provision of the fire code or the building code, and falling within an exception to a requirement of such protection to any other provision of the fire code or building code, shall be so protected. (3338) A new Section 903.2.16903.2.15 is added to read: 903.2.16903.2.15. If the floor area of an addition to any existing occupancy as described in sections 903.1 through 903.2.14903.2.13 above is greater than either fifty percent of the existing gross floor area or 2,000 square feet, and the total altered structure would be required to be protected by a sprinkler system by this section if it were new construction, then the entire addition shall be protected throughout by an approved and supervised automatic sprinkler system, installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1. Said sprinkler system shall be continuous throughout the addition up to a fire barrier built in accordance with the building code for that occupancy. (3439) Section 903.3.1.1.1 Exception 4 is repealed. (3540) Section 903.3.1.2.3, #4 – Subsection 4.2 and 4.5 are repealed. (36) Section 903.3.5.2903.3.5.1.2 is repealed and reenacted to read: 903.3.5.2903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. Combination of domestic and fire service lines shall be in accordance with the City of Boulder Design and Construction Standard. …. (3943) A new Section 903.7, "Response time sprinkler requirement," is adopted to read: 903.7 Response time sprinkler requirement. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 52 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (a) It is the city's goal, as reflected in the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan's urban fire service criteria, that land not be annexed unless the response travel time for service is normally foursix minutes or less. Nonetheless, there may be occasions when annexation outside the existing foursix-minute travel timelimit but within sixeight minutes or less is allowed, due to special circumstances, in the city's best interest. Before such land is annexed, consideration must be given to the need for and provision of additional fire stations and equipment to serve properly the area being annexed and to bring it within the foursix-minute travel time limit eventually. Protection by a sprinkler system as required by subsection (c) below is a temporary substitute, and is not intended to eliminate the requirement for additional fire stations and equipment. (b) Land used or to be used for residential purposes will not normally be annexed if it is outside the foursix-minute travel timelimit unless excepted from this policy by subsection (d) below. All new dwelling units on land annexed outside the foursix-minute travel timelimit shall be protected by an automatic fire sprinkler system. (c) On land annexed after the effective date of this chapter and not excepted under subsection (d) below, all new nonresidential construction and any existing nonresidential structures shall be provided throughout with an approved and supervised fire sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1 adopted in Chapter 10-8, "Fire Code," B.R.C. 1981, if such land is outside of the foursix minute travel City of Boulder fire response time from city fire stations housing at least one pumper which is rated at one thousand gallons per minute pumping capacity or greater, and which requires a crew of three or more for proper operation. …. (4145) Section 907.6.6907.6.5 is repealed and reenacted to read: 907.6.6907.6.5 Monitoring . Fire alarm systems shall be supervised by an Underwriters Laboratory listed supervising station or a Proprietary Supervising Station Alarm System meeting all of the requirements in NFPA 72, The National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code. Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for: (1) Single and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.10 (2) Automatic sprinklers systems in one and two family dwellings. (4246) Section 1103.5, "Sprinkler systems," is repealed and reenacted to read: 1103.5 Sprinkler systems. The automatic sprinkler system requirements set forth in sections 903.1 and 903.2 of this code shall be complied with in existing buildings where the occupancy or use, as defined in Chapter 23 of the Existing Building Code of the City of Boulder, changes in a fire area exceeding 2,000 square feet. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 53 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Exception: Changes of occupancy or use which are a lower relative hazard per Table 1011.4 of the City of Boulder Existing Building Code and the new occupancy or use is not required to be provided with an automatic sprinkler system by other provisions of the City of Boulder Building Code or the City of Boulder Existing Building Code. (43) Section 1204.2.1.1, Pathways to ridge, is repealed and reenacted to read: 1204.2.1.1, Pathways to ridge. No fewer than two 30-inch-wide (914 mm) pathways on separate roof planes, from the lowest roof edge to ridge, shall be provided on all buildings. At least one pathway shall be provided on the street or driveway side of the roof. For each roof plane with a photovoltaic array, at least one 30-inch-wide (914 mm) pathway from lowest roof edge to ridge shall be provided on the same roof plane as the photovoltaic array, on an adjacent roof plane or straddling the same and adjacent roof plane. All access pathways required under this section shall be provided in a structurally strong location on the building capable of supporting the live load of fire fighters accessing the roof. (44) Section 1204.2.1.2, Setbacks at ridge, is repealed and reenacted to read: 1204.2.1.2, Setbacks at ridge. Not less than a 12-inch-wide setback is provided on each side of the horizontal ridge. (45) Section 1204.2.1.3, Alternative setbacks at ridge, is repealed. (4647) Section 5601.2.4.2, "Fireworks," is amended by the addition of the following: The city manager shall require a certificate of insurance to protect persons and property from death or injury as a result of the fireworks display, in an amount not less than $1,000,000150,000 general liability per occurrence person injured and $2,000,000600,000 aggregate limitper incident. The insurance shall cover any liability of the city or any employee or agent thereof arising out of or connected with the permit and the fireworks display permitted thereunder. Before any permit for a fireworks display is issued, the applicant shall comply with the provisions of this section. (48) Section 5701.4, "Permits," is amended by the addition of the following: (1) A regular permit allows a permittee on a transport route to take delivery of flammable and combustible liquids from any delivery vehicle or from a tank truck where the premises are located on a transport route. Upon payment of the fee provided in Section 4- 20-52, "Fire Code Permit and Inspection Fees," B.R.C. 1981, the city manager shall issue to an applicant therefor a permit to receive deliveries of flammable and combustible liquids at a particular location or outlet if the manager finds that: (a) The outlet or location contains sufficient room to accommodate the delivery vehicle, so that the delivery vehicle is capable of being parked entirely within the property boundary lines of the outlet or location and in such a manner that no part of the vehicle extends into any street, sidewalk, or alley while the vehicle is off-loading and no backing of the vehicle either into or out of station property is necessary; ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 54 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (b) The entrance and exit access-ways for the delivery vehicle are so arranged that no obstruction of traffic will result from the vehicle entering or leaving the outlet or location; and (c) The storage tanks for flammable and combustible liquids are located underground and constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code, unless specifically allowed to be installed above ground by other sections of this code. (2) A special permit allows a permittee to take delivery of flammable and combustible liquids on premises outside of transport routes from specified delivery vehicles other than a tank truck. The owner or person in control of any outlet or location holding a regular permit may, upon payment of the fee provided in Section 4-20-52, "Fire Code Permit and Inspection Fees," B.R.C. 1981, apply to the city manager for a special permit allowing delivery with a vehicle other than a tank truck as defined in Section 221. The manager shall schedule with the applicant a simulated demonstration with an empty vehicle of the size and design that the applicant will use under the permit. The applicant shall furnish the vehicle and driver at its cost. The simulated test shall be observed by the manager who shall issue the special permit if the manager finds that: (a) The outlet or location contains sufficient room to accommodate the delivery vehicle, so that the delivery vehicle is capable of being parked entirely within the property boundary lines of the outlet or location in such a manner that no part of the vehicle shall extend into any street, sidewalk, or alley while the vehicle is off-loading, and no backing of the vehicle either into or out of the station property is necessary; (b) The entrance and exit access-ways for the delivery vehicles are so arranged that no obstruction of traffic will result from the vehicle entering or leaving the outlet or location; (c) The roads and streets are accessible to fire-fighting equipment and vehicles; (d) The topography or configuration of the roads and streets does not involve potential difficulties in containing, fighting, or suppressing a fire or spill and does not impair the ability of a transport vehicle to maneuver safely; and (e) The traffic congestion and flow of vehicles using the roads and streets will not create potential hazards to transport vehicles. Upon issuance, the permit will designate a specific route to be followed from the nearest transport route to the permit location and to return to the transport route. The permit will specify a vehicle capacity. Special permits are valid only between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m. But, for the delivery of gasoline or diesel fuel only, if the permit location is in an industrial zone and is connected to a transport route by a former transport route established by ordinance 4636 (1982), and the applicant demonstrates that there were no incidents involving the discharge of gasoline or diesel fuel from delivery vehicles using the relevant portion of such former route, then the manager may issue the special permit for such other hours as the applicant is able to demonstrate present no more hazard than delivery during the hours of 3 a.m. through 6 a.m. (3) Revocation or Suspension of Permits. (a) Each of the following is a ground for revocation of a special permit: 1. Failure of a transport vehicle to park entirely on the site while unloading; 2. Obstructing of sidewalks while unloading; ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 55 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 3. Backing the vehicle onto or off of the site; 4. Obstruction of traffic while entering or leaving; 5. Failure of a transport driver to follow the prescribed route to or from the permit location; 6. Failure to maintain a copy of the special permit on the premises; or 7. Failure of a transport driver to be present while off-loading. (b) Each of the following is a ground for suspension of a regular permit for up to fourteen days: 1. Failure of a transport vehicle to park entirely on the site while unloading; 2. Obstructing of sidewalks while unloading; 3. Backing the vehicle onto or off of the site; 4. Obstruction of traffic while entering or leaving; 5. Failure of a transport driver to follow the prescribed route to or from the permit location; or 6. Failure of a transport driver to be present while off-loading. (c) When matters are brought to the attention of the city manager, which if substantiated would be grounds for revocation of a special permit or suspension of a regular permit, the manager shall issue a written notice thereof to the permittee containing a concise written statement of the violation constituting grounds for revocation or suspension and indicating that the revocation or suspension shall take effect fourteen days after the issuance of said notice unless the permittee appeals in accordance with the terms of Section 108. (d) All special permit revocations shall be for a period of six months, after which time the permittee may reapply for a special permit. During the period of revocation, the outlet may continue to operate with and according to the terms of a regular permit. (4) If, due to changed conditions, including, without limitation, changes in the transport routes, the manager has probable cause to believe that an existing regular or special permit no longer meets the criteria for issuance, the manager may require a new simulated demonstration. For purposes of notice and appeal, such proceedings shall be deemed a new application, but no additional fee shall be charged. (49) A new Section 5701.6, "Prohibited acts," is adopted to read: 5701.6 Prohibited acts. (a) No owner and no person in control of any outlet or location shall accept deliveries of flammable or combustible liquids, unless such person has applied for and has been issued a permit therefor by the city manager. (b) No owner and no person in control of any outlet or location for which a permit to accept deliveries of flammable or combustible liquids has been issued shall accept deliveries of such liquids unless delivery is in compliance with all the provisions of this code and any conditions on the permit. (c) No person shall spill more than thirty-two fluid ounces of flammable or combustible liquid upon the ground. (d) No person shall fail to notify the fire department of any spill of flammable or combustible liquid of more than thirty-two fluid ounces at the earliest practicable moment after said spill has occurred. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 56 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (e) Except to replace existing tanks, no person shall install any tanks used for the storage of any type of flammable or combustible liquid, or other hazardous material or waste in the floodplain as defined in Chapter 9-16, "Definitions," B.R.C. 1981. This prohibition is not retroactive, but no person shall use or maintain any tank installed in violation of this prohibition. (f) No person shall weld or cut by torch on the premises of a service station or allow or cause crankcase drainings to be spilled or poured onto the ground. No person shall dispose of hazardous materials by dumping or pouring on the ground or into a storm drain or sanitary sewer or any connection thereto. (50) Section 5704.2, "Tank storage," is amended by the addition of the following: (a) Except for fuel carried on tank trucks, above-ground storage of all Class I, II, and III flammable and combustible liquids in aggregate amounts of more than 500 gallons of such liquids on a single lot is allowed only in those areas of the city zoned "industrial." All installations shall comply in all respects with chapter 57. Any tank intended for the bulk storage of any Class I, II, or III flammable or combustible liquid may be stored above ground only in those areas of the city zoned industrial. (b) Liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas) may be stored aboveground in areas of the city zoned "industrial" and dispensed at such sites by a service station if the city manager finds that such installation meets all the requirements of applicable fire codes before any dispensing of such fuel and proper and necessary on- site fire control devices are provided. (c) All underground tanks used for dispensing or bulk storage of any flammable or combustible liquid shall comply with the requirements of chapter 57, Flammable and Combustible Liquids, any other pertinent city codes, including, without limitation, those concerning fire and flood, the Colorado State Oil Division, and the manufacturer's specifications for installation. Plans for installation shall be approved by the Colorado State Oil Division and the city flood control office before the city may issue permits for construction, installation, and use of the tanks. No person shall install a used tank. (d) No person shall install a tank or tanks for the dispensing or bulk storage of any flammable or combustible liquid, including temporary installations on construction sites, until such person has first submitted plans for the installation to the city manager and has received approval of such plans and of the installation. (51) A new Section 5706.2.8.2, "Safety devices required for outlets or locations accepting deliveries of flammable or combustible liquids," is adopted to read: 5706.2.8.2 Safety devices required for outlets or locations accepting deliveries of flammable or combustible liquids. No owner and no person in control of any outlet or location shall accept deliveries of flammable and combustible liquids, and no person shall make deliveries of such liquids to any outlet or location, unless the following conditions are met during such delivery: (a) The hose connection employed in making a delivery of flammable or combustible liquids contains the safety device known as a "glass elbow" to allow inspection of the contents of the delivery hose; and (b) Any hose used in making deliveries of flammable or combustible liquids contains the apparatus commonly known as a tight-fill connection device to secure the off-loading device of the delivery vehicle to the intake structure of the storage tank. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 57 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (c) Exceptions to (a) and (b) above may be granted by the city manager for industrial installations if conditions warrant. (52) A new Section 5706.2.8.3, "Full compartment dumps required," is adopted to read: 5706.2.8.3 Full compartment dumps required. Any person delivering flammable and combustible liquids in a vehicle that contains compartments larger than six hundred gallons shall empty each such compartment at a single stop, if any delivery of liquids is made at any outlet or location from any such compartment. (4753) In Chapter 80, "Referenced Standards," is amended by the addition of the following the NFPA standard reference numbers for 13, 13D, 13R, and 72 are repealed and reenacted to read: 8001 NFPA Standards. In every case where this code references a standard published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), the most current edition of the referenced standard is hereby adopted. The most current edition of the referenced NFPA standard shall become effective on January 1st following the publication and release of the standard. 13-13 13D-13 13R-13 72-13 10-8-3. - Violations. Repealed. Section 11. Chapter 10-8.5, “Wildland Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 8.5 - Wildland Code 10-8.5-1. - Legislative Intent. The purpose of this chapter is to protect public health and safety by regulating the use, condition, construction, alteration, repair, and maintenance of buildings, structures, and premises within the wildland-urban interface areas in the city in order to prevent the spread of fire and risk of harm to persons and property from the intrusion of fire from wildland fire exposures and fire exposures from adjacent structures, as well as to prevent structure fires from spreading to wildland fuels. The city council hereby adopts the 20182012 edition of the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code with certain amendments, additions, and deletions thereto found to be in the best interests of the city. 10-8.5-2. - Adoption of the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code With Modifications. (a) The 20182012 edition of the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code of the International Code Council is adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Wildland Code and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. …. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 58 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (d) Section 103.1, "Creation of an enforcement agency," is repealed and reenacted to read: 103.1 Division of Building Safety. "Division of Building Safety" means the administrative unit established by the city manager or the manager's delegates, and the personnel assigned to the unit by the manager. The Division of Building Safety administers the City of Boulder Wildland Code assisted by a Community Risk ReductionDivision of Fire Safety, established within the fire department, under the direction of the manager. …. (h) Section 108.1, "General," is repealed and reenacted to read: 108.1 General. The requirements of Section 107.1106.1, "GeneralSubmittal documents," of the City of Boulder Building Code apply. (i) Section 110.4.6109.4.6, "Prosecution of violation," is repealed and reenacted to read: 110.4.6109.4.6 Violations. …. (j) Section 110.4.7109.4.7, "Violation penalties," is repealed. …. (m) Section 403.2.1, "Dimensions," is repealed and reenacted to read: 403.2.1 Dimensions. Driveways shall be provided as defined in Section 503.2.1, "Dimensions," of the City of Boulder Fire Code, as locally amended in Paragraph 10-8- 1(1115), B.R.C. 1981, for an "accessible private drive" and with a minimum unobstructed height of 15 feet (4572 mm). …. (q) 503.2 Ignition-resistant building material. Add the following, as option 5: 5. Deck surface. Approved wood thermoplastic composite lumber with an ASTM E84 flame-spread index no greater than 200, or any approved Class A roof assembly. (r) Section 505.2, "Roof covering," is repealed and reenacted to read: 505.2 Roof covering. Roofs shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of the City of Boulder Building Code and the City of Boulder Residential Building Code, as applicable. …. Section 12. Chapter 10-9, “Mechanical Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 9 - Mechanical Code 10-9-1. - Legislative Intent. The purpose of this chapter is to protect the public health and safety by regulating the installation, alteration, and repair of heating, ventilating, cooling, and refrigeration devices in structures in the city. The city council hereby adopts the 20182012 edition of the International ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 59 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Mechanical Code with certain amendments and deletions thereto found to be in the best interests of the residents of the city. 10-9-2. - Adoption of the International Mechanical Code With Modifications. (a) The 20182012 edition of the International Mechanical Code , including Appendix A thereto, of the International Code Council, is hereby adopted by reference as the Mechanical Code of the City of Boulder or mechanical code and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. …. Section 13. Chapter 10-9.5, “Fuel Gas Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 9.5 - Fuel Gas Code 10-9.5-1. - Legislative Intent. The purpose of this chapter is to protect the public health and safety by regulating fuel gas systems and gas-fired appliances in the city. The city council hereby adopts the 20182012 edition of the International Fuel Gas Code as a new Chapter 10-9.5 with certain amendments thereto found to be in the best interest of the city. 10-9.5-2. - Adoption of the International Fuel Gas Code With Modifications. (a) The 20182012 edition of the International Fuel Gas Code of the International Code Council is hereby adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Fuel Gas Code or fuel gas code and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. …. (e) Section 404.9.1 is repealed. …. Section 14. Chapter 10-10, “Plumbing Code,” B.R.C. 1981 is amended as follows: Chapter 10 - Plumbing Code 10-10-1. - Legislative Intent. The purpose of this chapter is to protect the public health and safety by regulating the installation, alteration, and repair of plumbing devices in structures in the city. The city council hereby adopts the 20182012 edition of the International Plumbing Code with certain amendments and deletions thereto found to be in the best interests of the residents of the city. 10-10-2. - Adoption of the International Plumbing Code With Modifications. (a) The 20182012 edition of the International Plumbing Code , published by the International Code Council, including Appendix E, "Sizing of Water Piping System," is hereby adopted by reference as the City of Boulder Plumbing Code or plumbing code, and has the same force and effect as though fully set forth in this chapter, except as specifically amended by the provisions of this chapter. (b) Except for Sections 101, 102, and 107, Chapter 1 is repealed. This code shall be administered in accordance with Chapter 1, "Administration," of the International ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 60 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Building Code as adopted, with amendments, by Section 10-5-2, "Adoption of International Building Code With Modifications," B.R.C. 1981. (c) Section 101.1, "Title," is repealed and reenacted to read: 101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Plumbing Code for the City of Boulder or plumbing code and will be referenced herein as "this code." (d) The Exception to Section 301.3, "Connections to drainage system," is deleted in its entirety. (e) Section 312.5, "Water supply system test," is amended by deleting the words "for piping systems other than plastic" and by modifying the test pressure required from 50 psi (344 kPa) to 100 psi (688 kPa). (f) Section 403.2 Separate Facilities. Where plumbing fixtures are required, separate facilities shall be provided for each gender. Exceptions: Add the following as exception 5: 5. Separate facilities are not required when multiple fixture all gender facilities are provided. Multiple fixture all gender facilities are not required; they are an alternative to be determined by the property owner or the owners’ agent. (g) Section 403.4 “Signage” is repealed and reenacted to read: 403.4 Signage. Required public facilities shall be provided with signs that designate which genders the facility accommodates as required by section 2902.2. Signs shall be readily visible and located near the entrance to each toilet facility. Signs for accessible toilet facilities shall comply with Section 1111. Exception: Toilet facilities with only one water closet shall not be identified for exclusive use by any gender and shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this section. Signage shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of the City of Boulder Building Code. (h) Section 403.4.1 Directional signage. Directional signage indicating the route to the required public toilet facilities shall be posted in a lobby, corridor, aisle or similar space, such that the sign can be readily seen from the main entrance to the building or tenant space. (i) Section 403.4.2 All gender signage. Single-user toilet facilities provided in accordance with Section 403.1.2, and family or assisted-use toilet facilities provided in accordance with Section 403.2.1, shall be provided with signs which clearly indicate the facilities are available for use by all genders. (j) Section 403.4.2.1 Existing single-user toilet facilities. After December 31, 2019, all existing single-user toilet facilities and family or assisted-use toilet facilities, shall be provided with signage in accordance with Section 403.4.2. Section 504.7.1 "Piping for safety pan drains shall be of those materials listed in Table 605.4," is repealed. (kg) TABLE 404.4 Maximum Flow Rates and Consumption for Plumbing Fixtures and Fixture Fittings," is repealed and reenacted to read: ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 61 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 TABLE 404.4 MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGS Table 604, "Water Distribution System Design Criteria Required Capacity at Fixture Supply Pipe Outlets," is repealed and reenacted to read: TABLE 604.4 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA REQUIRED CAPACITY AT FIXTURE SUPPLY PIPE OUTLETS PLUMBING FIXTURE OR FIXTURE FITTING MAXIMUM FLOW RATE OR QUANTITY Lavatory, private 1.5 gpm at 60 psi Lavatory, public (metering) 0.25 gallon per metering cycle Lavatory, public (no metering) 0.5 gpm at 60 psi Shower head 2.0 gpm at 80 psi Sink Faucet 1.5 gpm at 60 psi Urinal 1.0 gallon per flushing cycle Water Closet 1.28 gallons per flushing cycle For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. a. A handheld shower spray is a shower head. b. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards. (h) Section 610, "Disinfection of potable water system," is repealed. (hi) Section 605.3 is amended by adding a new paragraph to read: Water service line pipe between the water meter and building shall be Type K copper if it is in the public right of way, a public utility easement, or on other public property. (i) Section 610, "Disinfection of potable water system," is repealed. …. (q) Chapter 13, "NONPOTABLE WATERGray Water Recycling SYSTEMS," is deleted in its entirety. (r) Chapter 14 , "SUBSURFACE LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS," is deleted in its entirety. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 62 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 (s) Table E103.3(2), "Load Values Assigned to Fixtures," is amended by the addition of a new sentence to read: For the purpose of determining the largest instantaneous demand required in order to size a water meter, or for determining the amount of the plant investment fee, this table is repealed and replaced by Chapter 11-1-35, “Meter Size Requirements,”the Fixture Unit/GPM Demand Chart and PIF Computation Sheet found at Appendix A to Chapter 11-1, "Water Utility," B.R.C. 1981. (ts) Table E103.3(3), "Table for Estimating Demand," is amended by the addition of a new sentence to read: For the purpose of determining the largest instantaneous demand required in order to size a water meter, or for determining the amount of the plant investment fee, this table is repealed and replaced by Chapter 11-1-35, “Meter Size Requirements,”the Fixture Unit/GPM Demand Equations and PIF Computation Sheets found at Appendix A to Chapter 11-1, "Water Utility," B.R.C. 1981. Section 15. Chapter 4-20, is amended to add a new Section 4-20-72: 4-20-72. - Construction and Demolition Deposit Administrative Fee. An applicant for a building or demolition permit which requires a deposit under section 3601.2.3 of the City of Boulder Building code or section R328.2.3 of the City of Boulder Residential Code shall pay an administrative fee of $100. Section 16. The city council deems it appropriate to repeal the 2017 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code and adopt by reference the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. The city council orders that at least one copy of the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code being considered for adoption by reference in this ordinance be on file with the city clerk and open for public inspection during the business hours of the city. Such copy shall be certified to be true by the mayor and the clerk. Section 17. The city council orders and directs the city manager to make any additional citation, renumbering, and reference changes not included in this ordinance that are necessary to properly implement this ordinance and the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. The city council authorizes the city manager to change the formatting and layout of the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 63 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Section 18. The city council intends that the sections, paragraphs, clauses, and phrases of this ordinance and the codes adopted herein by references be severable. If any phrase, clause, sentence, paragraph or section of this code or the codes adopted herein by reference is declared unconstitutional or invalid by the valid judgement or decree of any court of competent jurisdiction, such unconstitutionality or invalidity does not affect any of the remaining phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs and sections of this code or the codes adopted herein, unless it appears to the court that the valid provisions of the section or ordinance are so essentially and inseparably connected with, and so dependent upon, the void provision that it cannot be presumed the council would have enacted the valid provisions without the void one; or unless the court determines that the valid provisions, standing alone, are incomplete and are incapable of being executed in accordance with the legislative intent. If provision of an exception invalidates a prohibition, but the prohibition without the exception would be valid, then it is council’s intent in such cases that the exception be severed and the prohibition upheld. Section 19. This ordinance shall take effect on April 1, 2020. It shall be applied to building permit applications submitted on or after the effective date. Building permits applied for before the effective date shall be considered under the program in effect at the time of application. Section 20. This ordinance is necessary to protect the public health, safety, and welfare of the residents of the city, and covers matters of local concern. Section 21. The city council deems it appropriate that this ordinance be published by title only and orders that copies of this ordinance be made available in the office of the city clerk for public inspection and acquisition. ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 64 of 389 K:\plbi\o-chapter 10 2020 international codes.docx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 INTRODUCED, READ ON FIRST READING, AND ORDERED PUBLISHED BY TITLE ONLY this 19th day of November 2019. ____________________________________ Mayor Attest: ____________________________________ City Clerk READ ON SECOND READING, PASSED AND ADOPTED this 17th day of December 2019. ____________________________________ Mayor Attest: ____________________________________ City Clerk ATTACHMENT A Agenda Item 5C Page 65 of 389 CITY OF BOULDER PLANNING BOARD AGENDA ITEM MEETING DATE: May 16, 2019 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The City of Boulder’s base building codes were last updated in early 2014. At that time, the following building codes were adopted: • 2012 International Building Code (IBC) • 2012 International Residential Code (IRC) • 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) • 2012 International Fire Code (IFC) • 2012 International Wildland Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) • 2012 International Mechanical Code (IMC) • 2012 International Plumbing Code (IPC) • 2012 International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) • 2012 International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC) • 2011 National Electric Code (NEC) AGENDA TITLE: Proposed Building Code Update PRESENTERS Will Birchfield, Building Services Manager/Chief Building Official Kara Mertz, Sustainability Manager, Climate Initiatives Christin Whitco, Energy Code Coordinator Noah Eisenman, Sustainability Coordinator III, Climate Initiatives Hella Pannewig, Assistant City Attorney Lucas Markley, Assistant City Attorney II ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 66 of 389 In 2017, Boulder developed the 2017 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (COBECC) using the 2012 IECC as the base code and then increasing the stringency and altering compliance paths to create a code that was 20 to 30 percent better than the national code. Also, in 2017, the city adopted local amendments to the International Building, Residential and Plumbing codes to advance energy and sustainability issues. Staff is proposing adoption of the 2018 International Building Codes with a number of local amendments consistent with current amendments to the 2012 codes. Staff is also proposing adoption of the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (2020 COBECC), which is a localized version of the 2018 International Energy Conservation Code that will be effectively 20 percent more efficient than the national code. The city has committed to updating the local energy code on a three-year cycle with the goal of getting to net zero energy (NZE), outcome-verified codes by 2031. Anticipated updates to the COBECC include: • Net-zero energy requirements for all new residential construction larger than 3,000 square feet; • Adoption of performance-based requirements by specific building class for commercial construction; • Introduction of an outcome-based compliance pathway for commercial construction; • Introduction of an offset pathway for achieving code compliance; and • Tailoring the commercial electric vehicle–ready requirements based on building use. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 67 of 389 2. BACKGROUND The City of Boulder adopted the Climate Commitment in December 2016 that set a goal of reducing community emissions 80 percent by 2050. The city has developed and continues to develop regulatory and voluntary energy saving programs to realize this goal. Advancing the city’s energy code is a key component to achieving the community emission reduction target. Between 65-70 percent of community emissions are associated with buildings in Boulder (refer to Figure 1 below). QUESTIONS FOR PLANNING BOARD 1. In response to feedback regarding the impact of large homes and large lots, staff is proposing to accelerate net zero energy (NZE) requirements for residential new construction. All new homes larger than 3,000 square feet would be required to be NZE. Currently all homes larger than 5,000 square feet are required to be NZE. Does Planning Board support this NZE acceleration? 2. In an effort to ensure construction waste reuse and recycling occurs, staff is proposing new enforcement mechanisms for the construction and demolition waste requirements. Does Planning Board support a financial penalty (in the form of a deposit that has been withheld) for non-compliance? 3. Does Planning Board support relaxing energy code requirements for renovation projects to encourage building reuse? 4. Currently construction and deconstruction waste requirements only apply to residential projects. Does Planning Board support expanding these requirements to commercial construction? 5. Does Planning Board support expansion of the Energy Impact Offset Fund (EIOF) as a last resort compliance pathway when projects are unable to meet net zero energy code requirements on-site and when off-site solar is unavailable? 6. Does Planning Board support a local amendment to allow or require gender neutral restrooms? 7. Does Planning Board support continuing the current amendment exempting one-and-two family dwellings from the sprinkler requirement or does Planning Board support revisiting the requirement for all newly constructed single-family dwellings to be protected with automatic sprinkler systems? ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 68 of 389 Figure 1: City-wide Emissions by Sector Steady improvement in building codes and continued improvement in building performance is important to achieving the city-wide emission reduction goal. To formalize our long-term energy code roadmap as well as develop code language for the 2020 energy code update, the city contracted with New Buildings Institute (NBI) and TRC Solutions. NBI is a nonprofit organization driving for better energy performance in buildings nationwide. They work collaboratively with industry market players— governments, utilities, energy efficiency advocates and building professionals—to promote advanced design practices, innovative technologies, public policies and programs that improve building energy efficiency. They have become the national expert on developing policies and code strategy that bridge the gap between city climate goals and vision and effective measures to achieve those goals. TRC Solutions has been instrumental in developing cost effectiveness studies for many California cities on the path to net zero energy homes. Boulder’s energy code roadmap (Attachment A - Boulder’s Energy Code Roadmap 1) sets an aggressive goal of reaching Net Zero Energy (NZE) outcome-verified construction through building and energy codes by 2031. An NZE building has zero net energy consumption, meaning the total amount of energy used by the building on an annual basis is equal to the amount of renewable energy created on the site1. An outcome-verified code requires that compliance with the energy performance requirement be demonstrated by annual metered data. To achieve an NZE outcome-verified code, the roadmap outlines three fundamentals shifts: 1) incrementally increasing code stringency to minimize building energy use, 2) increasing deployment of renewable energy resources to offset remaining building energy use, and 3) transitioning to a focus on actual building energy use rather than theoretical or modeled energy consumption. Specific key elements of the roadmap include: 1 Boulder’s energy code allows alternate compliance through a solar garden subscription if this is not feasible. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 69 of 389 • Increased Building System Performance. The energy code requires that all systems become increasingly efficient. Through advancements in technology and system design, lighting, heating, cooling, and water heating systems in buildings are required to use less and less energy. • Renewable Offset. With each code-cycle, the energy code roadmap requires that more and more on-site solar be deployed to begin to offset building’s energy consumption. • Energy Storage. As more and more buildings begin to incorporate solar, electric grid compatibility will be increasingly important. Battery storage, demand shifting and smart technology to ensure energy is exported to the grid at meaningful times will be phased into Boulder’s code over time. The 2023 code update will include residential and commercial requirements for battery storage infrastructure. • Envelope Backstop. With the cost of renewables dropping, some projects simply deploy large solar arrays instead of emphasizing basic building efficiency. The backstop code creates a maximum allowable total energy use per square foot to ensure design teams invest in the building envelope and systems first. • Transition to Outcome Codes. Data has shown that many buildings perform worse in actual operation than was predicted in the permit application. As building performance requirements become more stringent, it is necessary to consider actual building energy use as a basis for energy code compliance, rather than rely on predictions of performance. • Enforcement Mechanisms. To focus on building performance outcomes, new enforcement strategies will need to be developed. Collaboration between city departments currently enforcing the energy code and staff enforcing the Building Performance Ordinance will need to be further developed. As the city requires better alignment between predicted and actual building performance as a condition of energy code compliance, new enforcement mechanisms will be needed to ensure compliance, and to provide projects with remediation mechanisms to resume compliance. • Three-year energy code-cycle. Getting to an NZE code represents a significant challenge requiring transition from prescriptive requirements or comparative design predictions as a basis for code compliance, to a focus on actual building performance outcome as a compliance metric. This challenge needs to be addressed systematically over multiple code cycles to bring actual building performance into line with performance goals and predictions. Figure 2 illustrates how these strategies combine to incrementally move Boulder’s building performance towards NZE. NBI’s full analysis and report can be found in Attachment A: Boulder’s Energy Code Roadmap. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 70 of 389 Figure 2: Representation of increasing code stringency, renewable deployment, and building performance improvement through multiple code cycles to achieve NZE. In addition to supporting the development of the Energy Code Roadmap, NBI is also working with staff to develop the proposed 2020 residential and commercial code updates. As outlined in the roadmap, to achieve the long-term goal of getting to NZE outcome-based codes, advancements and improvements will need to be made every three-year code cycle between now and 2031 to keep up with technology and to incrementally advance building performance requirements in cost effective ways. Energy Code Format The International Code Council publishes a robust energy code within their suite of building codes, the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). However, the IECC is significantly less stringent than where Boulder needs to be with regard to building performance to meet our city-wide climate commitment goals. Boulder has a long-standing history of being committed to high performance buildings and a local energy code that requires design teams deliver energy efficient and sustainable residential and commercial designs. In 2017, Boulder developed the 2017 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code using the 2012 IECC as the base code and then increased stringency and altered compliance paths to create a code that was 20 to30 percent better than the national code. Feedback from design professionals, contractors, and builders was generally favorable; customers appreciate the familiarity with the national code. Again, with the 2020 code update, staff is proposing Boulder’s code be developed from the 2018 IECC and the same approach applied to create a code that will be about 20 percent more stringent than the current national code. 3. ANALYSIS: PROPOSED 2020 ENERGY CODE UPDATES Residential Energy Code Updates For the residential code, the most significant changes being proposed are: ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 71 of 389 • More stringent Energy Rating Index (ERI) requirements. An ERI score is the same as a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score. This is a numerical score where 100 equates to the efficiency levels prescribed in the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code and 0 is equivalent to a net-zero-energy home. Currently, and in the proposed 2020 code, new construction and major alteration projects must demonstrate compliance with Boulder’s energy code by using the prescribed ERI compliance path. In the 2017 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code, an ERI sliding scale was established that set more lenient ERI requirements for smaller homes and more stringent requirements for larger homes. The 2017 COBECC resulted in just over half of the new homes being constructed achieving net zero. For this code cycle, staff is proposing a reduction in ERI requirements represented in Figure 3 below such that all new homes over 3,000 square feet would be required to achieve net zero. Figure 3 illustrates both the 2017 and proposed 2020 ERI requirements for comparison. Figure 3: Proposed 2020 ERI Requirements for Residential Energy Code The proposed 2020 requirements reflect analysis around the cost effectiveness of the measures required to achieve these ERI scores as well as feedback solicited from local design professionals. Refer to Attachment B for detailed information about the residential cost effectiveness study. Another consideration in setting these ERI targets was the land use code project addressing large homes and large lots, as well as a desire to preserve existing structures to the greatest extent possible. Staff is proposing an acceleration of the NZE requirements for new construction, such that all homes greater than 3,000 square feet would now be required to be net zero. Staff is also proposing that 2017 ERI levels for renovations are not made more stringent as a way of incentivizing retention of existing homes. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 72 of 389 • Envelope Backstop. With the cost of renewables dropping, some projects simply deploy large solar arrays instead of investing in basic building efficiency. With this code update, an envelope backstop is being introduced that will ensure a sound thermal envelope regardless of on-site renewables. All projects will need to comply with prescriptive building envelope requirements in the code. • Renewable Offsets. Similar to requirements that already exist for Boulder County projects, staff is proposing all residential pools, spas, outdoor radiant heating, and snow melt systems be required to offset 100 percent of the system’s annual energy use by on-site renewable energy generation. Alternate compliance through a solar garden subscription is allowed if this is not feasible on-site. • Construction & Demolition Waste Requirements. Construction and demolition waste requirements for residential project have been in place for over a decade in Boulder’s codes. With this code update, staff is proposing several improvements to code provisions and enforcement. Under the current requirements, all residential demolition projects must show, through a deconstruction plan, that they will recycle or donate for reuse 100 percent of concrete and asphalt and 65 percent of all other waste. Concrete and asphalt are excluded from the 65 percent diversion calculation because these materials are so heavy that many projects would easily exceed the diversion requirement from concrete alone, and thus eliminate the incentive to carefully deconstruct and separate other usable materials for recycling and reuse. A consequence of this requirement is that without incorporating concrete and asphalt into the diversion calculation, achieving 65 percent diversion is not feasible for many projects due to various factors such as the age of the building, type of structure, condition of materials, or environmental issues such as asbestos. The 2020 code cycle aims to adjust the diversion requirements to be achievable by more projects yet still encourage deconstruction and recycling of more than just concrete. This update proposes to increase the total diversion requirement from 65 to 75 percent but allow concrete and asphalt to be included in the calculation. In addition, the applicant will be required to show that they diverted at least three “waste material types” from a city-approved list. This will ensure that contractors are not simply recycling concrete but are also diverting other materials such as wood and metal. Both the 75 percent and the material types requirement align with current Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards, which should align with requirements already familiar to many contractors. This update also contains improvements to the permitting process that aim to increase accountability and apply consequences for negligence in demolition. Staff propose instituting a deposit that would be returned in full (minus an administrative fee) if the requirements are achieved or withheld if a project fails to provide the required documentation at the end of the project proving they have reused and recycled adequately. The exact amount of the deposit has not yet been determined, and will be informed by benchmark research, stakeholder engagement and consultation with the City Attorney. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 73 of 389 These changes fill in gaps and issues that have been identified with the existing code. Staff is attempting to automate the waste reporting process to track and enforce compliance. However, it may be necessary in the future to request fixed-term staff to support these construction and demolition waste requirements. If necessary, staff will include any such request in the regular budget process or will have to reduce the compliance and enforcement efforts for this requirement. • Code Provisions for Alterations. The International Building Code provides definitions for renovations to existing buildings and classifies three levels of alterations depending on the scope of the alteration. Currently, the 2017 COBECC requires that additional energy efficiency improvements be made when renovating the home. The requirements are currently based on the construction value of the project; the higher the construction value, the more significant the energy efficiency requirements. Staff recommends continuing to require energy efficiency improvements for home renovations. However, based on feedback staff have received from design professionals, homeowners, and builders, staff is proposing the energy efficiency improvements be determined based on definitions for alterations instead of construction value. Accurate construction values are difficult to ascertain at the time of permit, and community feedback suggests the code requirements are unevenly levied on projects across the city. The proposed code will require Level 1 & 2 alterations (see Figure 4) comply with the mandatory and prescriptive requirements in the code. Level 3 alterations will need to comply with the mandatory and prescriptive requirements in the code and demonstrate an ERI reduction of 20 percent. Level 4 alterations 2, which are complete gut renovations, will be required to meet new construction ERI requirements. Figure 4 below illustrates the code paths for alterations. 2 The proposed definition for a Level 4 alteration is: construction alterations to existing buildings, consisting of complete removal, replacement or reconfiguration of at least four building systems: interior partitions and walls; ceiling and floor finishes; building mechanical system, building electrical system; structure and exterior wall systems, including window and exterior door replacements and new building insulation ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 74 of 389 Figure 4: Energy Code Requirements for Residential Alterations Revising the code provisions for alterations is also in response to feedback staff have received relative to the large homes and large lots project, asking that staff consider removing barriers to home renovation and building reuse as a strategy to discourage home scrapes. In some instances, older homes are too difficult and the scope too costly to bring up to current code standards. By changing how alterations comply with the energy code, staff are recognizing the limitations that exist with older existing homes and allowing greater flexibility on home energy improvements. • Energy Offsets. Staff expect there will be a small number of projects where installing the necessary solar on-site to meet the new, lower ERI scores will be technically infeasible due to shading and/or roof constraints. For these projects, participation in a verified community solar program can be used to meet the code requirements. However, staff are aware that community solar options are limited and not always available. Therefore, in these instances, staff are proposing applicants pay a 2.16 cent charge per kWh necessary to offset the home’s energy use. The fee would go into the City of Boulder’s Energy Impact Offset Fund (EIOF). This fund was originally created as an offset fund for marijuana growers unable to meet their renewable energy requirements onsite and is being used to fund carbon offset projects such as the development of local renewable energy. To ensure this fund is only used when NZE cannot be achieved on-site, staff proposes furthering the definition of “technically infeasible” to require projects to: 1) optimize energy efficiency in the home by demonstrating an ERI score of 40 or less without solar, 2) demonstrate that on-site solar is not feasible due to shading, zoning restricted orientation, or existing roof constraints, by providing a solar analysis from a solar provider that demonstrates the system is not cost effective and 3) demonstrate that community solar is not currently available. With this firm definition, staff can ensure on-site and solar garden solutions are exhausted before the EIOF is considered. Commercial Energy Code Updates ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 75 of 389 The proposed updates to the commercial energy code focus on making progress toward outcome- verified high-performance buildings. More detailed analysis and rationale for these code changes can be found in Attachment C: NBI’s 2020 Boulder Commercial Code Protocol. The most significant changes being proposed for commercial projects are: • Energy Use Index (EUI) Performance Path. In Boulder’s current energy code, new construction and major renovation projects demonstrate compliance by using energy modeling software to build a theoretical code compliant (IECC 2012/ASHRAE 90.1-2010) building that’s referred to as the Baseline Model. The energy modeling consultant then builds a theoretical energy model reflecting the proposed building’s design performance, following modeling protocols that exist in the code; this is referred to as the Proposed Model. To comply with Boulder’s energy code, the Proposed Model must have annual energy costs that are 30 percent less than the Baseline Model. To reduce the performance gap between the design and the operating building performance, code compliance in the proposed code will be evaluated based on predicted building energy use, rather than on percentage improvement on a theoretical baseline. Each building will be required to set an Energy Use Index (EUI) design target. Energy Use Index is defined as the amount of energy a building uses annually over the square footage of the building: 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸=𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵 𝐴𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐴𝐴𝐵𝐵 𝐸𝐸𝐵𝐵𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐵𝐵𝐸𝐸 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝐵𝐵 (𝑘𝑘𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝐵𝐵/𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸)𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵 𝐴𝐴𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐴𝐴 (𝐶𝐶𝑠𝑠.𝑓𝑓𝐶𝐶) The lower the EUI, the more efficient the building. NZE buildings have an EUI of zero. While this metric is new to building codes, it is a familiar term to most design professional, engineers, architects, and increasingly to building owners. Boulder’s Building Performance Ordinance requires commercial buildings report their energy annual energy use in terms of EUI as part of their rating and reporting requirements. Buildings are then required to track and make progress toward reducing these values, so building owners have increased understanding around how these targets relate to building performance and energy use. EUIs are specific to building types as different building types can have notably differing internal loads. EUIs are easily calculated and measured at the building level, and account for a building’s total annual energy demand, including plug and process loads that can make up a significant portion of building’s energy use. The EUI targets proposed for the 2020 code update are found below in Figure 5. NBI analyzed numerous datasets in recommending these new construction and major alteration targets. Their analysis looked at various project types in our climate zone, determining the EUI that Boulder’s current code is delivering, and what advancements need to be made to achieve EUIs of zero by 2031. Additionally, they examined data from Boulder’s Building Performance Ordinance to ensure we are setting meaningful yet achievable targets. The proposed 2020 EUI targets are effectively 25 percent more efficient than IECC 2018/ASHRAE 90.1-2016). More detailed analysis and justification for this strategy and these targets can be found in Attachments A & C. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 76 of 389 Figure 5: 2020 Proposed EUI Targets for New Construction where the first column represents the equivalent EUI for the COBECC 2017 and the second represents the proposed targets for the 2020 update. The first column in the table represents the equivalent EUI that our current code is delivering for each building type, and the second column represents the proposed EUI target for each building type. Comparing the two columns, it’s clear that the new code requirements are not significantly more stringent. The focus with this code cycle is on project teams establishing and working to achieve aggressive EUI targets and then following through to verify the building performance is being achieved. As noted in the headings, our current code is about 30 percent better than the national standard – American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1-2010, and the new code will be about25 percent better than the most recent national standard ASHRAE 90.1-2016. • Solar Mandate. To meet long-term NZE performance goals, it is necessary to encourage the deployment of renewable energy at the project level. In the 2020 code cycle, it is proposed that at least 5 percent of commercial building energy use be supplied by on-site renewables. This requirement is in addition to requirements in the code for the roof to be solar ready. Requiring installed renewables helps ensure buildings are truly solar ready and are positioned for solar expansion for a time when the code will drive them closer to net zero. This requirement would be increased in subsequent code cycles. The renewable offset requirement represents the minimum percentage of total building load that must be met with renewables. Projects may choose to deploy more than the minimum amount of renewables to meet overall code targets, based on cost-benefit calculations and other considerations at the project level. • Envelope backstop. With the availability of inexpensive renewables, some projects simply deploy large solar arrays instead of investing in basic building efficiency. Taken to an extreme, ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 77 of 389 this can deliver inherently inefficient buildings that are at increased risk of excessive energy use if occupants or operators change over time. To discourage this, a backstop code is being developed to set a minimum level of performance (maximum allowable EUI) for building features to make sure that basic building efficiency is not ignored. Backstop requirements for building performance are designed to ensure that basic minimum building efficiency strategies are incorporated into each project, even while projects are given flexibility to determine the best set of building features and renewable energy deployment to achieve building performance targets. • Code Provisions for Alterations. Identical to the residential code, the International Building Code provides definitions for renovations to existing buildings and classifies three levels of alterations depending on the scope of the alteration. Currently, the 2017 COBECC requires commercial alterations make additional energy efficiency improvements when renovating commercial space. The requirements are currently based on the construction value of the project. Staff recommends continuing to require alteration projects make energy efficiency improvements when renovating. However, based on feedback staff have received from design professionals, building owners, and builders, staff is proposing the energy efficiency improvements be determined based on definitions for alterations instead of construction value. Accurate construction values are difficult to ascertain at the time of permit and therefore, community feedback suggests the code requirements are unevenly levied on projects across the city’s existing building stock. The 2020 proposed code language would require Level 1 & 2 alterations comply with the mandatory and prescriptive requirements in the code for the scope of work proposed. Level 3 alterations would need to comply with the mandatory and prescriptive requirements in the code and demonstrate an EUI reduction of 20 percent for the space being renovated. Projects proposing a change of use for the building or Level 4 alterations 3, which are substantial renovations, where buildings are making substantial building improvements and replacing multiple building systems, will be required to meet EUI requirements for alterations. Figure 6 below illustrates the code paths for commercial alterations. Staff will be available to project teams to help identify alteration levels and code requirements. 3 The proposed definition for a Level 4 alteration is: construction alterations to existing buildings, consisting of complete removal, replacement or reconfiguration of at least four building systems: interior partitions and walls; ceiling and floor finishes; building mechanical system, building electrical system; structure and exterior wall systems, including window and exterior door replacements and new building insulation. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 78 of 389 Figure 6: Energy Code Requirements for Commercial Alterations • Pilot for Outcome-Verified Code Path. Staff is proposing an outcome-verified code compliance path be piloted in the 2020 COBECC. Ultimately, the 2031 goal of Boulder’s energy code is to set standards that will result in buildings that are NZE, not just in theory and as designed, but verified through metered data once the building is constructed, commissioned, and occupied. The outcome path proposed for this code cycle would achieve this goal for projects that opt into this path. The pilot would serve as a model for the 2031 code, and would allow staff to collect data, evaluate, and make policy adjustments to suit Boulder’s commercial construction market. Projects following this path would: • Set an EUI target during the design phase based on modeling or targets established by building type per code. • Demonstrate at time of permit how the project will achieve this EUI target through energy modeling. • Construct the project, with an understanding of the energy performance expected of the building. • Complete, commission, and occupy the building. • Within 24 months of the building being occupied, submit metered data to the building official that verifies the EUI target is being achieved. This path would only be available to new construction projects. Projects that are unable to demonstrate that their building’s post-occupancy energy consumption complies with the targeted performance will be required to undergo building diagnostics and additional energy modeling to determine how to close the gap between modeled and metered energy use. Enforcement for this code compliance path will require staff to work directly with building owners and design teams to resolve building performance issues. Submitting metered data to the city is already a familiar process for building owners in Boulder. The Building Performance Ordinance currently requires all existing buildings of a certain size and all newly constructed buildings provide their energy consumption. Similarly, many design/build teams are already familiar with performance-based contracting, particularly when participating in rebate programs, such as Xcel Energy’s Business New Construction Program. The proposed outcome path will begin to fuse the energy code with the Building Performance Ordinance requirements to help staff understand, analyze, and improve Boulder’s commercial and industrial building stock. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 79 of 389 To effectively enforce this code compliance path, projects will be required to provide a fully refundable financial guarantee at the time of permit that can, if necessary, be used in case the building is unable to demonstrate compliance. The proposed financial guarantee will be determined based on project size at $2/gross square foot. Projects that demonstrate compliance are immediately refunded the full amount. Project that cannot demonstrate compliance will be permitted to draw down on the financial guarantee to lower operating energy use of the building, including building commissioning, repairs or improvements to the existing energy-consuming systems, or execution of additional energy saving measures. Any remaining funds would be returned to the applicant. For the purposes of the pilot, there would be no fines or other financial penalties beyond requiring investments up to the guarantee amount as a means of remedying the building’s performance. This energy code path also ties in with goals of the Community Benefits Project. The intent of that project is to ensure that new growth and development meets city goals and contributes positively to the community’s quality of life. The project is attempting to achieve this by tying specific community benefit requirements to projects requesting greater density or intensity than what’s allowed in the underlying zone district. The program being envisioned would include a menu of community benefit options that an applicant could choose from. Selecting this more rigorous energy code performance path is one of the menu items being considered for this project. Staff hope this meaningful incentive will attract applicants to this path. Outcome based energy code compliance can be a win for everyone: • Gives design teams ultimate flexibility in meeting code requirements • Supports quality installation, diligent design and construction, and effective operations and maintenance to achieve long-term energy performance • Provides a framework to help communities, code departments, building owners and design teams realize actual energy savings • Provides a framework to help communities, code departments, building owners and design teams realize actual energy savings • Reduces the burden on code departments to enforce difficult, beyond-minimum code requirements • Construction & Demolition Waste Management Requirements. Because commercial projects have the potential to create significant amounts of waste, the proposed 2020 code includes the same requirements that will apply to residential projects: all new construction projects must recycle 100 percent of all useable or recyclable wood, metal, and cardboard. For new construction projects that include a full demolition, contractors will be required to provide a deconstruction plan and prove through documentation that the project recycled or reused 75 percent of all waste, and at least three material types. As with the update to the residential requirements, staff proposes instituting a refundable deposit to increase accountability and adherence to the requirements. • Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Requirements. In 2017, requirements were added to the code requiring commercial and residential projects provide EV charging infrastructure. Technology has evolved and the demand for EV charging is better understood. Therefore, staff is proposing clarifications and adjustments to these requirements for commercial projects. The new ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 80 of 389 requirements are outlined in Figure 7 below and reflect the importance of providing EV charging infrastructure for multifamily housing development, hotels, and motels. No changes are being proposed for residential construction; new residential homes are required to provide EV charging outlets for all off-street parking. The proposed code would also give projects flexibility in meeting the requirements by allowing applicants to propose equivalent charging solutions to meet the code requirement—specifically, allowing fast charging options in lieu of installed Level 2 EV charging stations. Figure 7: EV Charging Requirements for Commercial Projects 4. ANALYSIS: EMBODIED ENERGY Boulder has a long history of being environmentally progressive and striving toward its zero- waste goal, but it has been difficult to identify and enforce a policy around reusing and recycling what already exists in our built environment. While embodied energy4 is an important consideration when seeking to preserve the resources that make up our community’s buildings, it is a complex topic that is still relatively new in terms of how best to measure and regulate it. As Boulder’s energy code becomes increasingly stringent, the importance of addressing embodied carbon grows. Figure 1 below illustrates that increasing building efficiency shrinks carbon emissions resulting from operational energy demand, which enlarges the portion of total lifecycle emissions caused by the embodied carbon of construction. 4 Embodied carbon is defined by the Carbon Leadership Forum as the sum impact of all the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to materials throughout their life cycle (extracting from the ground, manufacturing, construction, maintenance and end of life/disposal). ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 81 of 389 Figure 8: Embodied and operational energy over the life of a building (Source: Carbon Leadership Forum) Furthermore, new, modern construction is often favored over building retrofits and redevelopments. Because a majority of a building’s embodied carbon is accounted for by the foundation, structure, and envelope, it makes sense to encourage reuse of these building parts rather than demolish (which also emits carbon and air pollution) and rebuild when practicable. A report by the Preservation Green Lab, Skanska, and other partner organizations found that new buildings can take anywhere between 10—80 years to pay back the emissions generated from the construction process, even if the new buildings are 30 percent more efficient than average. Staff is currently working with Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance along with 12 peer cities (including: Portland, Seattle, Vancouver, San Francisco, and New York) to develop a roadmap for embodied carbon policy at a local level. As part of this group, Boulder staff hope to map out policy, better understanding the calculation methodologies, exploring procurement solutions, and collaborate with cities that are making progress in this area. As illustrated in Figure 2 below, the life cycle of a building begins with mining and extraction of the raw materials; continues through the energy used during the building’s life; and ultimately includes the deconstruction of the building. Of these stages, there are three areas that can potentially be addressed through changes to city building code: 1. Construction 2. Refurbishment 3. Demolition ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 82 of 389 Figure 9: Building Life Cycle Stages As part of this code update, the following updates are proposed to address embodied energy: • Improving existing construction and demolition waste requirements and increasing the consequences for non-compliance; • Expanding construction and demolition waste requirements to commercial projects; • Encouraging smaller residential construction by accelerating net zero energy requirements for homes greater than 3,000 square feet; and • Reducing barriers to building reuse. Recognizing that expensive energy-efficiency upgrades to existing homes and commercial structures can be a barrier to reuse and remodel, requirements for renovations/alterations are eased to encourage reuse in lieu of building scrapes. Staff plans to expand embodied energy regulations as local policy options are better understood. Likely first steps include: embodied energy tracking, purchasing guidelines and embodied energy limits for the most impactful materials (concrete and steel). More information can be found in Attachment E: City Council memo from December 14, 2018 addressing embodied energy and code strategies. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 83 of 389 5. ANALYSIS: 2018 ICC BUILDING CODE ADOPTION AND PROPOSED AMENDMENTS Collectively, as a comprehensive family of codes which complement one another, the International Building Codes are designed to protect the public health and safety in the built environment. Currently, the city has adopted the 2012 edition of the following International Building Codes: • International Residential Code (IRC) • International Building Code (IBC) • International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) • International Mechanical Code (IMC) • International Plumbing Code (IPC) • International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC) • International Fire Code (IFC) • International Wildland-Urban Interface Code (IWUIC) The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) is currently replaced with the 2017 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (COBECC). The International Existing Building Code (IEBC) is not currently adopted by the city but is recommended for adoption, as it replaces provisions previously contained within the IBC. The International Codes are developed and vetted through a national public consensus process and are utilized by most jurisdictions in Colorado and the United States. The International Building Codes are revised and updated on a three-year cycle. Boulder has adopted new codes every six years. Staff recommends council approve adoption of the 2018 edition of the International Building Codes, with the potential of local amendments as necessary. Staff is currently in the process of reviewing the 2018 International Codes to identify significant changes, as well as any proposed local amendments. The 2018 codes with any proposed local amendments will be presented to City Council with recommendation for adoption, after staff have facilitated a transparent and public process including education, collaboration and feedback with the community. Staff suggests there are five significant reasons to consider a local amendment: 1. To provide consistency with other regulatory departments and agencies 2. To address concerns of City Council 3. To address concerns of stakeholders 4. To incorporate local information and/or current data into the Codes 5. To address significant changes compared to current requirements Staff have currently identified the following two issues of local concern and requests direction from council on whether to prepare local amendments and incorporate into the public process. • Gender neutral restrooms. Both the IBC and the IPC have requirements specifying when restrooms are required to be provided for employees and for the public. When an area has no more than 15 employee and public occupants, one single-user restroom is all that is required, and it is required to be identified as gender neutral. Areas having higher numbers of occupants typically require gender specific restrooms. When gender specific restrooms are required in smaller areas, often both are single-user, and both are required to be identified with signage as being gender ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 84 of 389 specific. To make existing single-user restrooms gender neutral would typically only require changing the signage. Code provisions also specify the numbers and types of plumbing fixtures required (sinks, toilets, urinals), resulting in multiple-user restrooms. The 2012 and 2018 editions of the codes do not allow multiple stall restrooms to be used as gender neutral rather than gender specific without going through a code modification request. To help ensure inclusivity in restroom availability and counts and provide more flexibility, staff is evaluating the need for future code amendments to address this issue. Staff have received multiple requests for code modifications to approve multiple stall restrooms as gender neutral instead of gender specific as required by the building codes. Rather than requiring applicants to apply for and staff to review modification requests, a local amendment may be proposed to allow or require gender neutral restrooms. Staff requests council’s direction regarding a local amendment to address this concern. Should council agree with moving forward with a local amendment to address this concern, staff will seek community feedback to inform the specific options. • Residential sprinkler systems. Since the 2009 edition of the International Residential code, automatic sprinkler systems have been required in all newly constructed dwellings. This sprinkler requirement does not apply to remodels or additions, unless the dwelling already has an automatic sprinkler system. The issue of residential sprinklers was discussed extensively in 2013, during the process to adopt the 2012 International Building Codes. During that process, council requested and staff provided significant background information, which can found at this link. As an outcome of the 2013 process, the City of Boulder currently has an amendment exempting one-and two-family dwellings from the sprinkler requirement. At least seven Colorado jurisdictions have not amended this code requirement and do require all new dwellings to be protected with automatic sprinkler systems including Boulder County, Superior, Golden and Westminster. Staff recommends revisiting this issue as part of the 2018 code adoption process and requests council direction regarding this issue. 6. COMMUNITY SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT AND IMPACTS Updating current energy and building codes can produce economic, environmental and social benefits at multiple levels across a community. High-performance buildings reduce energy and environmental impacts, improve economic vitality, increase community pride and decrease utility costs for building owners and tenants. • Economic: Higher performing buildings increase property values, command higher lease prices, cost less to operate and improve occupant comfort, and reduce community greenhouse gas emissions. However, high performance buildings can come at a cost premium as the initial costs to construct these buildings are higher. The recommended residential code changes have been analyzed by our consultants and the resulting efficiency measures the code requires have all been found to be cost effective, with benefit to cost ratios ranging from 1.0 to 2.9. Cost effectiveness was determined over a 30-year lifespan, including first costs, replacements, maintenance, and energy savings. Please see Attachment B: 2020 Building Energy Code Cost Effectiveness Analysis. Also, please reference Attachment F: Rocky Mountain Institute’s recently released ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 85 of 389 The Economics of Zero-Energy Homes, which shows NZE homes are reaching cost parity with conventional construction and that, as the underlying technologies and design elements continue to improve and scale, these costs will continue to decline.as another resource , which shows NZE homes are reaching cost parity with conventional construction and that, as the underlying technologies and design elements continue to improve and scale, these costs will continue to decline.as another resource • Environmental: On Dec. 6, 2016, council adopted climate commitment goals for the city, including an overall target of an 80 percent reduction in GHG emission by 2050.5 In the modeling done by staff to show pathways to that goal, increasing the stringency of energy codes (eventually to net zero status for all new buildings and major alterations by 2031) was the largest contributing factor of any policy or program, other than transitioning our electricity supply to clean, renewable energy. Achieving and implementing net zero energy codes as soon as possible, while balancing economic and social interests, is a crucial step in Boulder’s climate commitment. In fact, when staff projected emissions reductions out to 2050, savings from the implementation of progressively more stringent energy codes was the largest of any building efficiency program, including EnergySmart, SmartRegs and the Building Performance Program. • Social: Improving the energy codes above the minimum standard requires energy conservation in the residential, public and private sectors results in less money flowing to energy costs over time, and more household and business income available for other uses. Additionally, the net outcome of decreased greenhouse gas emissions supports the community’s strong value of protecting the environment and living in a sustainable way. 7. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT AND BOARD FEEDBACK Once a draft of the 2020 City of Boulder Energy conservation code is complete, staff will provide the proposed code to the Environmental Advisory Board (EAB), the Transportation Advisory Board (TAB), and the Planning Board in Q2 of 2019 for their recommendations. Additionally, staff has engaged key community stakeholders including design professionals, architects, energy modelers, builders, developers, building owners, etc. through community engagement events, targeted meetings, and consultant interviews. Table 3 summarizes these engagement activities. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 86 of 389 Table 1: Public Outreach Activities to Solicit Stakeholder Feedback Outreach Activity Number of Respondents/ Attendees Description December 20, 2018 Residential Energy Code Engagement Session 29 (a list of attendees can be found in Attachment E) City staff organized a meeting to invite residential building stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the proposed energy code changes. February 11 & 20, 2019 Land Use Code Open House 30-50 The city’s Energy Code Coordinator participated in the Land Use Code Open Houses to field energy related questions and solicit feedback on energy code changes that could encourage more modest home sizes. February 21, 2019 Presentation to International Building Performance Simulation Association 86 City staff presented to the local chapter of the International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), an international society of building performance simulation researchers, developers and practitioners, dedicated to improving the built environment. Technical feedback from this group is important to development of an understandable, effective, and enforceable code. February 22, 2019 Energy Code Collaboration Session with Denver 20-30 The city’s Energy Code Coordinator participated in a collaboration meeting with Denver and local design professionals to discuss code changes and aligning code language where feasible. February 27, 2019 Commercial Energy Code Engagement Session 38 (a list of attendees can be found in Attachment D) City staff organized a meeting to invite commercial building stakeholders to discuss and give direct feedback on the proposed energy code changes. Ongoing The city’s Energy Code Coordinator continues to reach out to energy modelers, design professionals, contractors, and peer jurisdiction staff for feedback on the proposed code language. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 87 of 389 8. QUESTIONS FOR PLANNING BOARD • In response to feedback regarding the impact of large homes and large lots, staff is proposing to accelerate net zero energy (NZE) requirements for residential new construction. All new homes larger than 3,000 square feet would be required to be NZE. Currently all homes larger than 5,000 square feet are required to be NZE. Does Planning Board support this NZE acceleration? • In an effort to ensure construction waste reuse and recycling occurs, staff is proposing new enforcement mechanisms for the construction and demolition waste requirements. Does Planning Board support a financial penalty (in the form of a deposit that has been withheld) for non-compliance? • Does Planning Board support relaxing energy code requirements for renovation projects to encourage building reuse? • Currently construction and deconstruction waste requirements only apply to residential projects. Does Planning Board support expanding these requirements to commercial construction? • Does Planning Board support expansion of the Energy Impact Offset Fund (EIOF) as a last resort compliance pathway when projects are unable to meet net zero energy code requirements on-site and when off-site solar is unavailable? • Does Planning Board support a local amendment to allow or require gender neutral restrooms? • Does Planning Board support continuing the current amendment exempting one-and-two family dwellings from the sprinkler requirement or does Planning Board support revisiting the requirement for all newly constructed single-family dwellings to be protected with automatic sprinkler systems? 9. NEXT STEPS Provided City Council supports the code updates described in this memo, key next steps include: • April 2019: finalize draft code language and solicit community feedback on the code language. • May – June 2019: present proposed code changes to Planning Board, the Environmental Advisory Board, and the Transportation Advisory Board for their recommendations. • June – August 2019: Community engagement and outreach regarding code language and code administration requirements. • August – September 2019: finalize code language and workflow for implementing code changes. • October 16, 2019: Return to City Council for first and second readings to adopt new codes to take effect Q1 2020. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 88 of 389 •October – December 2019: Provide staff and community outreach training on the changes. Develop supporting documentation and resources on the city’s website to help explain the energy codes and the documentation materials required to demonstrate compliance. •Q1 2020: New codes will take effect. •2020: Effort will begin on 2023 code development with a focus on energy storage solutions, embodied energy incentives and regulations, and making progress on reducing building plug and process loads. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 89 of 389 ATTACHMENTS: A: City of Boulder Energy Code Roadmap. B: City of Boulder 2020 Energy Conservation Code Cost Effectiveness Analysis C: City of Boulder 2020 Commercial Energy Code Update D: Commercial Energy Code Engagement Session Summary of Attendees E: Residential Energy Code Engagement Session Summary of Attendees and Feedback F: Rocky Mountain Institute’s The Economics of Zero-Energy Homes G: Memo excerpt from December 4 City Council memo on Embodied Energy ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 90 of 389 Boulder Commercial Code Roadmap Getting to ZNE by 2031 Prepared by: New Buildings Institute Author: Mark Frankel Kevin Carbonnier Date: February 2019 Prepared for: City Of Boulder Christin Witco, Contract Manager ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 91 of 389 Contents Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 1 Building Performance ............................................................................................................................... 1 Challenges to Code in Achieving Net Zero Performance .............................................................................. 2 Scope of Code ........................................................................................................................................... 2 Design Predictions vs. Performance Outcomes ........................................................................................ 3 System Control, Integration, and Operation ......................................................................................... 3 Occupant Use Patterns ......................................................................................................................... 4 Code Implications .................................................................................................................................. 4 Current Building Performance Conditions .................................................................................................... 5 Current Code Performance ....................................................................................................................... 5 Performance Variability ............................................................................................................................ 6 Performance of Boulder’s Existing Building Stock .................................................................................... 6 Setting Building Maximum Performance Targets ......................................................................................... 8 Comparing Data on Max-Tech Performance ............................................................................................ 8 Data Sources ......................................................................................................................................... 8 Individual Building Types ...................................................................................................................... 9 Converging on Max-Tech and Interim Performance Targets .................................................................. 16 Interim Targets .................................................................................................................................... 17 Proposed Code Roadmap ........................................................................................................................... 18 Elements of the Code Roadmap ............................................................................................................. 19 Anticipated Stringency ........................................................................................................................ 20 Deployment of Renewables ................................................................................................................ 21 Energy Storage .................................................................................................................................... 21 Back-Stop Code ................................................................................................................................... 21 Modeling ............................................................................................................................................. 22 Unregulated Loads .............................................................................................................................. 22 Outcome Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 23 Normalization ...................................................................................................................................... 23 Enforcement Mechanisms .................................................................................................................. 24 Prescriptive Path ................................................................................................................................. 25 Summary ..................................................................................................................................................... 25 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 92 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 1 NBI Introduction Boulder has adopted a set of climate goals that depend on continued reduction in the carbon impacts of the building sector. To achieve these goals, steady improvement in building codes and continued improvement in building performance will be needed. This discussion is focused on energy code mechanisms to reduce building energy use and incorporate renewable energy generation at the building scale. This occurs in the context of the City of Boulder’s goal to require all new buildings to achieve ZNE performance by the 2031 code cycle, and a set of suggested improvements in the energy code over the course of five code cycles remaining before that date. As building performance requirements become more stringent, it is necessary to consider actual building energy use as a basis for energy code compliance, rather than rely on predictions of performance. ZNE performance implies a measured outcome of annual net zero energy use. This narrative describes a potential pathway from current code structures to an outcome pathway for code compliance, with a focus on immediate steps for adoption in the next code cycle in Boulder. A more detailed report on specific recommendations for the 2019 code cycle is provided separately. The focus of this narrative is commercial buildings. Building Performance The ultimate policy goal for the building sector is to eliminate the carbon impact of energy use in buildings. The intent is to use policy mechanisms to achieve this by reducing individual building energy use, offsetting grid energy use with renewable energy at the building level, and decarbonizing both buildings and the grid by transitioning to non-fossil fuel energy sources. Different jurisdictions target and quantify different aspects of these goals, and may adopt a subset of policy goals in their climate action plans. Boulder has adopted a relatively far-reaching set of policy goals to address all aspects of this larger performance target. Achieving building sector decarbonization is typically considered a balancing act between reducing building energy use, offsetting building energy use at the building level with renewable energy, reducing combustion fuels use in buildings, and reducing the amount of fossil fuel used to generate electricity at the grid level. The relationship between these issues is nuanced, but there are some general principles that guide building policy in these areas:  Renewable deployment at the grid level is increasing rapidly, but there is a long way to go to fully decarbonize the electric grid. Despite decreases in the cost of renewable energy, it would take a huge investment and a long time to simply ‘replace’ all fossil fuel generating resources at the grid scale. Reducing energy use in buildings therefore remains a critical component of large scale decarbonization.  Decreasing costs for renewable energy at the building scale make renewable deployment more cost effective than in the past. This cost of renewable energy deployment in this way sets a baseline for cost effectiveness calculations for energy efficiency. But a wide range of energy efficiency strategies remain less expensive to deploy at the building level than renewable energy at various scales, so there needs to be a continued policy focus on building energy efficiency even as building-scale renewable deployment increases. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 93 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 2 NBI  There are many built and operating examples of extremely efficient and ZNE buildings in the market today, demonstrating that deep efficiency in buildings is widely achievable with the right market and policy incentives and mechanisms. Challenges to Code in Achieving Net Zero Performance The imperative to move toward an outcome-based code is driven by several key limitations in the conventional energy code development and deployment process. Scope of Code Although we can identify performance levels and physical characteristics associated with buildings that achieve very high performance levels, energy codes are not able to require this level of performance as currently deployed. There are several key limitations to energy code that preclude widespread achievement of very high performance.  Building design can address a wide range of building features that affect building energy use, but design cannot address what equipment is brought into the building by building occupants, and how they use it. Computer equipment, kitchen equipment, medical devices, printers, task lighting, etc. are all examples of ‘unregulated loads’ which are outside the scope of energy codes. In buildings that meet current energy code requirements, these unregulated loads typically represent 40-70% of total building energy use, depending on building type. Unregulated loads set a practical limit on how much more stringent energy codes can become without structural changes to address unregulated loads through the code process. (See Figure 1 below.)  In the design process, assumptions are also made about how building systems will be operated and used. But once the building is operational, the design intentions have little influence on building use patterns. Thermostat set points, operating schedules, maintenance strategies, and a host of other operational characteristics have a major impact on building energy use patterns that is outside the scope of energy code regulations.  Some aspects of building performance are pre-empted by federal regulations, and cannot be modified within prescriptive code requirements. Heating equipment efficiency is a critical example which is particularly important in heating climates. Heating efficiency standards have not been modified for decades, in part due to industry pressure to maintain a pathway for inexpensive rooftop air handling equipment in code. No matter how stringent prescriptive code language is, by federal law it must include the option of using minimum efficiency rooftop package equipment as a viable alternative. Building designers may choose to exceed this performance level, but code cannot explicitly require it. When a code strategy becomes focused on a specific performance outcome with increased flexibility for how to achieve this outcome, the limits of code scope become less restrictive in achieving increased code stringency. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 94 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 3 NBI Figure 1: Unregulated Loads: In this diagram, the loads to the left of the dashed vertical line represent building loads outside the scope of energy code requirements, by building type, based on recent code stringency requirements. These loads have become a significant percentage of total building load, representing a challenge to increased code stringency goals. Design Predictions vs. Performance Outcomes Although we target low energy use in building design, in these buildings there is typically a disconnect between the level of performance anticipated in the design process and what we actually see when the building is operating. This is a critical issue to understand in the context of using energy codes to set aggressive performance targets for buildings. The disconnect between design predictions and actual performance is driven by two key issues: 1) assumptions made about system control, integration, and operation; and 2) actual occupant use patterns in the building compared to those assumed by the modeling. System Control, Integration, and Operation When we calculate energy loads for a building, we make assumptions about how well the building envelope is insulated, how efficiently the heating and cooling systems will operate, and how systems will be controlled to meet these expectations. By its nature, energy modeling predictions about building energy use assume that everything will work exactly as planned. In reality a whole range of performance issues tend to degrade the actual performance characteristics. Thermal bridging in envelope details may lead to lower thermal performance than anticipated, air leakage through the envelope may increase heating loads, thermostat placement may lead to zone overlap and result in simultaneous heating and cooling loads, economizers may not work as anticipated, maintenance practices may not occur frequently enough to keep system running optimally; these are all well documented building characteristics that adversely affect actual building energy use compared to design assumptions. Good design, construction, and operating strategies can minimize these impacts, but not necessarily eliminate them. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 95 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 4 NBI Occupant Use Patterns To insure consistency in comparing building performance to code requirements, energy modeling procedures make a number of assumptions about how buildings are typically operated that set up expectations in the design process for performance outcomes. These assumptions seldom align directly with actual operating parameters. For example, in actual use, buildings tend to be occupied for longer hours than assumed in design modeling, with consequent increases in lighting and space conditioning loads. Thermostat set points are often controlled to much narrower temperature bands than the modeling guidelines suggest, and office equipment is frequently left on all night. These loads add significantly to building energy use, leading to substantially higher actual energy use than anticipated in modeling assumptions about buildings that meet code requirements. The deployment of new types of office equipment, combined server closets, and other types of equipment also reflect loads that are typically not anticipated in the building modeling process, and which can increase actual building energy use compared to that anticipated in the design process. Code Implications The critical implication of this disconnect between predicted and actual building energy use is that policies designed around code performance of buildings tend to under-estimate actual building sector energy use. When code stringency is evaluated with national models under DOE determination protocols (or in any local analysis based on standardized determination protocols), these optimistic assumptions about system operation and occupant use patterns lead to overly optimistic predictions about what level of performance in buildings is being delivered by energy codes. (Note that optimistic assumptions about overall code performance are not the same as broader variability in individual building energy use, which can over- or under-estimate individual building energy use.) The gap between code predictions of building energy use and actual building energy use represents a significant challenge as we contemplate a transition from prescriptive requirements or comparative design predictions as a basis for code compliance, to a focus on actual building performance outcome as a compliance metric. This challenge needs to be addressed systematically over multiple code cycles to bring actual building performance into line with performance goals and predictions. To address these code challenges, Boulder has determined that the city will move from current code approaches to a method whereby compliance relies on the demonstration of actually achieving the energy performance targets identified in policy goals. Moving to an outcome based strategy will require several iterations of code to prepare the market for a ZNE outcome. These are the steps in that process:  Introduce building performance metric based on measured energy use  Incorporate renewable energy systems into compliance strategies  Enforcement follow up on actual building performance outcomes to improve alignment with performance targets  Require full offset of energy use with renewable systems ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 96 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 5 NBI Current Building Performance Conditions Current Code Performance The current Boulder Energy Code represents the starting point for a series of improved building performance targets in subsequent code cycles that eventually achieves net zero energy performance. Energy code stringency is typically evaluated through the development of a determination analysis, which uses energy modeling tools to predict the expected stringency of a code when applied to a series of standardized building prototypes. The US DOE conducts this analysis through PNNL on each new national model code. The City of Boulder has conducted a similar analysis on its code in comparison to national model code, in this case ASHRAE 90.1-2010. The results of several federal analyses, and the Boulder analysis are presented in Table 1 below. Boulder’s current code targets a 30% improvement over the national model code from 2010. Although most of the analysis values in the table below align well between the Boulder analysis and the national analysis, note that there is a significant discrepancy in the anticipated energy performances for office buildings. Modeling from Pacific Northwest National Labs (PNNL) shows the expected performance for the 90.1-2010 code to be significantly better than predicted by the City of Boulder analysis. Because office buildings are an important use type in the City of Boulder, this discrepancy will need to be explored in the context of setting realistic new performance goals for this building type. All other building types with matching prototypes in the PNNL modeling are in agreement. Building Type Boulder 90.1-2010 Prediction Boulder 30% Better Prediction PNNL 90.1- 2010, 5B Climate PNNL 30% Better, 5B Climate Education (primary) 46 - 57 32 - 40 56 39 Education (secondary) 40 - 49 28 - 34 46 32 Food sales/ Grocery 180 - 220 126 - 154 NA NA Full Service Restaurant 355 - 434 248 - 304 396 277 Hospital (Inpatient) 117 - 144 82 - 100 133 93 Outpatient Health Care 104 - 127 73 - 89 114 80 Lodging/ Hotel 85 - 104 59 - 73 103 72 Retail (other than mall) 51 - 62 35 - 43 57 40 Retail (enclosed and strip malls) 53 - 64 37 - 45 60 42 Office (small-5,000 sf range) 48 - 59 34 - 41 31 22 Office (medium- 50,000 sf range) 48 - 59 34 - 41 34 24 Public assembly 62 - 75 43 - 53 NA NA Public order and safety 66 - 81 46 - 56 NA NA Religious worship 40 - 49 28 - 34 NA NA Service (vehicle maint/dry clean/ beauty, etc.) 45 - 55 31 - 38 NA NA Warehouse and storage (non-refrigerated) 27 - 33 18 - 23 19 13 Vacant 9 - 11 6 - 7 NA NA Multifamily residence 43 - 52 30 - 36 50 35 Table 1: Code Stringency Comparison for Boulder (EUI) ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 97 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 6 NBI Performance Variability Although it is typical to compare code stringency for individual building types with a single EUI number, the reality is that there is a great deal of variability among buildings, even of the same building type. Some of this variability is a function of different ways the building is used. Two identical-seeming office buildings may house community kitchens, data centers, 24 hour tenants, vacant spaces, communications gear, etc., that drive significantly different energy use patterns. Mixed use buildings especially can house tenants with substantially different energy needs. This complicates the determination of specific energy performance targets. To account for routine variability, performance outcomes must consider reasonable variables to adjust specific energy targets. This process of adjusting fixed targets to account for customized use and consumption patterns is referred to as normalization. In the context of outcome based codes, normalization may occur in the design process when specific performance goals are identified, and after the building is occupied when unanticipated factors change performance expectations. Normalization in the design process occurs by manipulating energy model inputs to more accurately reflect expected use and operating conditions. Normalization in the occupancy phase allows project performance to be evaluated in the context of unusual weather conditions, alternate building uses, and actual occupancy patterns. Performance of Boulder’s Existing Building Stock Although new buildings subject to more stringent codes tend to be more efficient than older buildings, there is a wide range of energy performance observed even in new construction. As Boulder moves toward more closely reviewing and regulated the performance of new buildings, the gap between anticipated and actual building performance will become more critical, and steps will need to be taken to encourage a more accurate assessment of performance expectations. For context, the graphs below show the performance of buildings in Boulder, as reported under the city’s energy disclosure ordinance. The first graph, Figure 2 shows data from buildings built since the 1950’s. There is wide variability in energy use in existing buildings, with a very slight downward trend for newer buildings. The second graph, Figure 3 shows only those buildings built in Boulder since 2000. This graph suggests that the more recent trend in building performance has a steeper downward slope than is seen when older buildings are included. This data is encouraging, given that the impact of more aggressive energy codes would be expected in this newer set of buildings. Nevertheless, even buildings built to the newest and most stringent Boulder Energy Code demonstrate a wide range of performance, and may not seem to be performing at the EUI performance levels anticipated by the determination analyses that predict code stringency. This complicates the transition to an outcome based code enforcement strategy, since there is a gap between expected code performance and actual building performance outcome. The transition to outcome code will need to recognize that it will take several code cycles to close the gap between optimistic code expectations and actual performance outcomes. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 98 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 7 NBI Figure 2: EUI data from Disclosure for all building ages Figure 3: EUI data from Disclosure for all building ages ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 99 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 8 NBI Setting Building Maximum Performance Targets In the year 2031 energy code cycle, new buildings will be required to offset all of their annual energy use by deploying renewable energy systems that generate as much energy as the building uses on an annual basis. When we refer to net zero energy use in buildings, we are usually talking about a very efficient building that offsets remaining energy use by incorporating renewable energy generation. (On site or off site.) There are technical and physical limits to how low building energy use can get, based on the fact that even the most efficient buildings still require some level of lighting, space conditioning, and equipment use to maintain occupancy conditions. In referring to the very most efficient buildings that can be achieved with current technologies, we refer to the maximum technical potential for efficiency, or ‘max-tech’. This serves as the end goal for regulating building performance, which can then be combined with renewable energy requirements to achieve net zero energy performance. Max-Tech is not necessarily a static number, but may continue to decline with advances in technology and new building system innovations. Several recent studies have attempted to quantify max-tech performance numbers for buildings. We have used these studies as a basis for the max-tech targets identified in this analysis. While max-tech represents the ultimate performance targets for buildings (before energy use is offset by renewables), the City of Boulder anticipates that a series of interim targets will be set for the energy code cycles between now and 2031, as new building targets ramp down to net zero energy use. Comparing Data on Max-Tech Performance A number of studies have attempted to estimate or quantify the max-tech performance values for a variety of building types in different climate zones. NBI has also collected a significant set of data on currently built ZNE buildings. This data includes information about base building performance, before renewables are used to offset building energy use. In this section, we compare the values of topical max-tech studies and data from the NBI ZNE building database to help establish max-tech performance targets for the City of Boulder. This section includes a number of building prototypes representing typical building types in the City of Boulder. All energy performance values shown are for climate zone 5B, and are represented in site energy use intensity (EUI), in kBtu/sf/yr. Note that not all data sources are represented in each building type. Data Sources The data used to compare building performance come from the sources identified in Table 2 below. This data represents a broad array of analysis and actual performance data collected to identify building performance patterns, determine code stringency, and support deep efficiency targets. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 100 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 9 NBI Building Performance Data Sources Data Label Data Source Description Boulder Disclosure City of Boulder, collected performance data Actual energy use data for office buildings in Boulder reporting annual energy use under disclosure ordinance requirements CBECS 2012 CBECS 20121 National representative data set of office building energy use (for Boulder climate zone 5b) collected by DOE. Standard 100 ASHRAE Standard 1002 ASHRAE Standard 100 energy targets developed to represent existing building energy use in individual climate zones (climate 5b) ASHRAE 90.1-2004 Anticipated performance of prototype office buildings meeting 90.1-2004 for climate zone 5b according to PNNL determination analysis of code stringency. ASHRAE 90.1-2016 PNNL Modeling Data for 90.1-20163 Anticipated performance of prototype office buildings meeting 90.1-2016 for climate zone 5b according to PNNL determination analysis of code stringency. GTZ Tracker NBI Getting to Zero Tracker4 Actual performance data of buildings in NBI’s ZNE building database (before accounting for contribution of renewables) Oregon Bonus City of Portland, Oregon Policy performance target for increased density bonus for buildings in the city of Portland, Oregon (modified for climate 5b) Glazer Max-Tech GARD Analytics - Max Tech Potential5 National study of best anticipated building performance achievable using current best-practice design and operations strategies in climate 5b (not including renewables) Toronto Toronto Zero Emissions Framework6 Study by Integral Group to identify feasible maximum performance targets for ZNE buildings in City of Toronto to meet climate goals. (Similar climate zone) ARUP CA Feasibility ARUP - California Technical Feasibility7 Study by ARUP of best achievable building performance (for similar climate zone to Boulder) as a basis for ZNE code targets (not including renewables) NREL School Feasibility NREL - School Technical Feasibility8 Maximum achievable energy performance study WA Statutory Code Goals (2031) Mandated code improvement goal for 20312 code cycle in Washington State in similar climate zone. Table 2: Building Performance Data Sources and Description Individual Building Types The examples below show how NBI has correlated the data for office buildings to identify performance targets. Each graph shows a range of different data sources and studies of building energy use for 1 https://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2012/c&e/cfm/pba3.php 2 https://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/Files/Pub49965.pdf 3 https://www.energycodes.gov/sites/default/files/documents/02202018_Standard_90.1- 2016_Determination_TSD.pdf 4 https://www.energycodes.gov/sites/default/files/documents/02202018_Standard_90.1- 2016_Determination_TSD.pdf 5 https://www.techstreet.com/ashrae/standards/rp-1651-development-of-maximum-technically-achievable- energy-targets-for-commercial-buildings?product_id=1911167#full 6 https://www.integralgroup.com/projects/city-toronto-zero-emissions-building-framework/ 7 http://www.energydataweb.com/cpucFiles/pdaDocs/904/California_ZNE_Technical_Feasibility_Report_Final.pdf 8 https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy17osti/67233.pdf ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 101 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 10 NBI Boulder’s climate zone for individual building types. (Boulder’s climate is designated as climate 5b by ASHRAE in national data.) Figure 4: Office building energy performance comparison Reviewing the data demonstrates that multiple studies and data sources have begun to converge around what the anticipated maximum performance of office buildings looks like, before renewables are accounted for. In this data, EUI values in the low to mid 20’s represent the anticipated performance target for buildings before accounting for renewables. (Note that some high performance office buildings have already demonstrated lower EUI performance than this.) The degree of convergence of these data sources provides confidence that a consistent max-tech performance target can be identified for this building type. Office buildings are one of the most widely documented building types, with many studies examining the performance of this building type, and a relatively consistent set of loads driving building energy performance. Other building types lend themselves to similar analyses, though typically with less available data, while many building types demonstrate a wide range of energy use outcomes, making target setting more difficult. Below are some more examples of data comparisons by building type. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 102 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 11 NBI Figure 5: Primary School building energy performance comparison ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 103 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 12 NBI Figure 6: Secondary School building energy performance comparison Schools are another building type that has been extensively studied, and there are also many examples of schools in NBI’s ZNE database that help determine high performance expectations for this building type. The range of performance outcome for this building type is somewhat wider than for office buildings, in part because different schools may include different operating strategies and key features (like cafeteria kitchens) that can introduce more variability into expected performance outcome. Nevertheless, the frequency of available data and the alignment of max-tech studies suggests that reasonably consistent targets can be identified for school buildings. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 104 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 13 NBI Figure 7: Mid-rise Multifamily building energy performance comparison Multifamily buildings have also received a fair amount of attention in considering high performance targets, but there is less consistency in the predictions of high performance for this building type, and fewer completed examples of ZNE multifamily buildings. This is due in part to the fact that multifamily buildings can incorporate a wide range of potential amenities, and serve a wide demographic range of residents. High end residential buildings tend to include larger floor areas for fewer residents, and common area amenities not seen in lower income properties. At the same time low income residential projects may include higher individual unit density (each with kitchen and laundry equipment) into a smaller floor area. These factors introduce significant variability into multifamily residential building energy use. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 105 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 14 NBI Figure 8: Standalone Retail building energy performance comparison In standalone retail buildings there is a wide variability in energy use outcome, as can be seen from the extremely wide range of performance outcome seen in the CBECS data below. This building type is not well represented in existing ZNE buildings, so the data on what to expect for high performance for this building type is sparse. Although we identify max-tech targets, varying use and configuration suggests that a wide range of outcome would be expected even in high performing retail buildings. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 106 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 15 NBI Figure 9: Warehouse building energy performance comparison Warehouses are another building type that can exhibit a wide range of performance, depending primarily on whether tight climate control (or refrigeration) is needed for parts of the warehouse. This building type may also include varying degrees of processing and manufacturing, adding to energy use variability. However, since warehouses typically include large roof areas, they are often good buildings to deploy PV on. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 107 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 16 NBI Figure 10: Small Hotel building energy performance comparison Data sources on small hotel energy use are limited, making performance targets difficult to establish. Hotels may also have widely varying degrees of services, from simple accommodation to luxury facilities with restaurants, pools and spas, etc. Converging on Max-Tech and Interim Performance Targets Using the various building performance source data and performance studies demonstrated above, a summary of the predictability of individual building types with respect to max-tech performance is described in Table 3. This table indicates the relative availability of data sources available for each building type, and the range of performance outcome indicated in these data sources. Building types with few data sources and high range of performance prediction are not good candidates for specific performance targets, or mechanisms are needed to adjust the targets for individual building circumstances. Building types with many data sources and low or moderate data variability are better for specific performance targets. Regardless of data variability, this table identifies the current code performance value and the approximate max-tech performance value for each building type available. Values in the lower portion ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 108 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 17 NBI of the graph are subject to higher uncertainty, and would be more difficult to use as fixed performance targets. National Base Code and Max-Tech Values for Selected Building Types Building Type Data Sources 90.1-2016 Max-Tech Data Range Medium Office Many 30 16 Low Small Office Many 25 12 Moderate Primary School Many 45 24 Moderate Secondary School Many 41 18 Moderate Mid-rise Apartment Some 43 20 Moderate Warehouse Some 15 8 Low Retail Store Some 46 18 Moderate Small Hotel Few 53 32 Moderate (building types below this line are not good candidates for performance targets) Hospital Some 117 67 High Restaurant Some 374 Strip Mall Some 50 20 High Clinic Few 101 62 High Fast Food Few 588 415 High Fire station Some 30 Moderate Table 3: Data Availability and Consistency, and EUI Comparison for Key Building Types Interim Targets It is anticipated that the City of Boulder will move from its current code stringency to a net zero requirement over the course of five code cycles, culminating in 2031. This suggests a series of increasingly stringent performance requirements as the basis for code targets. The max-tech targets identified above represent the theoretical limit of base building performance. Achieving performance beyond that will require renewable energy to offset building energy use. In identifying interim code stringency targets, we can consider the impact of increasing stringency beyond the current code. In Table 4 below, the approximate EUI’s represented by various stringency increments over ASHRAE 90.1 base code are compared for various building types. Column 2 represents Boulder’s current code requirement, a target performance of 30% better than ASHRAE 90.1-2010. In the upcoming code cycle, Boulder will update the national reference to ASHRAE 90.1-2016. Columns 4 through 7 identify potential performance targets above the 90.1-2016 baseline. Note that Column 5 shows a potential target for the upcoming code cycle that represents an incremental improvement over current Boulder code requirements. The max-tech values described previously are indicated in Column ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 109 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 18 NBI 8. Note that a performance target of 50% better than ASHRAE 90.1-2016 (Column 7) represents an EUI very close to max-tech limits for most building types. The values in this table are meant to provide context for considering code stringency in upcoming code cycles, and do not represent specific recommendations for code performance increments. Code targets must be considered in conjunction with renewable deployment goals. Comparison of Performance Increments Above Base Code to Max-Tech Targets (EUI) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Building Type 90.1- 2010 90.1- 2010 90.1- 2016 90.1- 2016 90.1- 2016 90.1- 2016 90.1- 2016 Max- Tech +30% +20% +25% +40% +50% Medium Office 34 24 30 24 23 18 15 16 Small Office 31 22 25 20 19 15 13 12 Primary School 56 39 45 36 34 27 23 24 Secondary School 46 32 41 33 31 25 21 18 Mid-rise Apartment 50 35 43 34 32 26 22 20 Warehouse 19 13 15 12 11 9 8 8 Retail Store 57 40 46 37 35 28 23 18 Small Hotel 85 60 53 42 40 32 27 32 Hospital 133 93 117 94 88 70 59 67 Restaurant 396 277 374 299 281 224 187 Strip Mall 60 42 50 40 38 30 25 20 Clinic 114 80 101 81 76 61 51 62 Table 4: Impact of Incremental Code Stringency Increase on EUI Proposed Code Roadmap The issues described above set up an approach to the transition to ZNE outcome codes described in this section. At the highest level, this transition is based on three elements:  Incremental increases in code stringency to require reduced building energy use  Increasing deployment of renewable energy resources to offset remaining building energy use, culminating in ZNE performance  Transition to a focus on actual building energy use, first as a predicted value, but increasingly verified as a performance outcome The overall strategy for this transition is represented in Figure 11 below. On the left side of the chart, the ‘Current EUI’ bar represents actual building performance of buildings built to current code, while the second bar labeled ‘2016’ represents the ‘determination value EUI’ assumed for the energy code itself. As discussed above, there is a large variability in actual building energy use compared to code expectations. To achieve a performance outcome of ZNE, the Building Performance Trajectory and the Code Performance Trajectory lines need to converge on delivering ‘Max Tech EUI’ on the right side of ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 110 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 19 NBI the graph. And by 2031, all of the energy used by these buildings should be offset by renewable energy, labeled ‘Solar EUI’ in the graph. This sets up a series of trends to be encouraged by interim codes from 2019 to 2028. First of all, buildings will begin to focus on EUI starting in the immediate code cycle of 2019. This cycle will require that all buildings evaluate anticipated EUI, and achieve targets aligned with the ‘ZNE Performance Trajectory’. These targets will also include specific minimum required deployments of renewable energy that increase in subsequent code cycles. Within another cycle or two, buildings will also be required to follow up with actual performance data, and will be required to demonstrate that they are reasonably close to the predicted targets. In each cycle, the actual building performance trajectory will be required to converge more closely to predictions, to maintain progress toward ZNE goals. Recommendations for code improvement strategies are described in more detail in the sections below. Figure 11: Representation of increasing code stringency, renewable deployment, and building performance improvement through multiple code cycles to achieve ZNE. Elements of the Code Roadmap This section describes in more detail the individual components of the code that should evolve over the five code cycles between now and 2031 to achieve a ZNE outcome code. Table 5 below indicates the transition of each code element through the individual code cycles, and the potential relationship of these transitions to each other through the various code cycles. Each code element is discussed in more detail in the sections below. A more specific explanation of the proposed details of the upcoming 2019 code cycle are provided in a separate document. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 111 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 20 NBI Proposed Boulder Code Roadmap 2016 2019 2022 2025 2028 2031 Anticipated Stringency 90.1- 2010+30% 90.1-2016+25% 90.1- 2016+40% 90.1- 2016+60% 90.1- 2016+75% ZNE Renewable Offset (min.) Not Required 5% 10% 25% 50% 100% (ZNE) Energy Storage Not Required Not Required Encouraged Encouraged Required Required Back Stop Code none 90.1-2016 90.1-2016 90.1-2019 90.1-2022 90.1- 2025 Modeling Not required Model to establish EUI target Model to EUI target Model to EUI target Model to EUI target Model to EUI target Unregulated Loads in Modeling Not Addressed Some flexibility w/ pre- approval Flexible w/ pre-approval Flexible w/ pre- approval Flexible Flexible Outcome Requirements none Report on discrepancy in disclosure data Within 15% of target Within 10% of target Achieve target Achieve ZNE Normalization to Modify Target N/A Report on discrepancy Document use changes in model Document use changes in model Document use changes in model Not allowed Enforcement Mechanism Certificate of Occupancy Certificate of Occupancy, Disclosure Disclosure; Bond or Solar Credit Disclosure; Bond or Solar Credit Bond or Solar Credit Bond or Solar Credit Prescriptive Path Small/Remode l Projects only Small /Remodel Projects only Add renewables Add renewables Not Allowed Not Allowed Table 5: Incremental changes to energy code elements on the path to ZNE through five code cycles to 2031 Anticipated Stringency Energy code stringency will continue to increase to achieve ZNE in the 2031 code cycle. Boulder already implements an energy code that is well along on the path to ZNE. This code is currently linked to ASHRAE 90.1-2010, requiring projects to achieve 30% savings over that standard. Linking to 90.1 allows the jurisdiction to utilize important ASHRAE resources like Appendix G, which provides a basis for performance submittals required by the jurisdiction. As ASHRAE 90.1 continues to increase in stringency, Boulder can update the version of 90.1 referenced by the city code. In the upcoming code cycle, the code reference will be updated to reflect the 90.1-2016 standard. NBI recommends a performance increment above 90.1-2016 of 25%. (This issue is discussed in more detail in the separate report focused on the 2019 code cycle.) This stringency will increase incrementally until ZNE is achieved. Because building performance requirements are approaching technical limits, an increasing fraction of building performance goals are anticipated to be provided by renewable energy. Projects may choose to deploy more or less renewable to achieve the targets, with increasing minimums for renewable deployment in subsequent code cycles. Basic building performance will be insured by backstop code requirements to prevent over-dependence on renewables. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 112 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 21 NBI Deployment of Renewables Over time, it will be necessary to deploy renewable energy to offset building energy use to achieve ZNE performance. By the 2031 code cycle, the goal is that renewable energy will offset 100% of building energy use for buildings permitted under the code. Renewable energy installations are already proliferating, and there is no reason to delay accounting for renewable installations in the code process. It is desirable to start requiring increasing levels of renewable energy offset in the code cycles leading up to 2031. This supports steady market growth over time, giving designers and installers more time to become familiar with renewable technologies and providing a steady and predictable market growth trajectory. Renewable offset requirements represent the minimum percentage of total building load that must be met with renewables, which increases in subsequent code cycles. Projects may choose to deploy more than the minimum amount of renewables to meet overall code targets. In the 2031 code cycle, buildings must offset 100% of annual energy use with renewables to achieve ZNE performance. As renewable deployment requirements increase, solutions will be needed to current restrictions on off- site solar deployment, to support projects with large loads that cannot be met on-site. However, it is important to make sure that renewables are not used to offset basic building performance to a significant degree. For this reason NBI recommends the adoption of a ‘backstop code’ as described below, in which renewable deployment cannot offset basic building performance. Energy Storage Energy storage systems will become increasingly critical to reducing carbon impacts of building operation and supporting grid performance. As renewable deployment increases, the value of being able to spread building loads to time periods when renewables are not available increases significantly. Storage also allows surplus daytime power generation to more directly offset nighttime carbon-intensive electricity generating strategies. The cost of energy storage is anticipated to drop significantly over the next decade, making the inclusion of storage systems more feasible in subsequent code cycles. In the near term, strategies to give performance credit to storage systems can be incorporated in code to encourage deployment, perhaps by lowering the amount of renewables needed when storage is deployed, or magnifying the assumed impact of renewables on total energy use when deployed in conjunction with storage. Back-Stop Code Deep building efficiency requires the successful management of building operating characteristics. As actual performance targets are set for buildings, projects will begin to recognize that significant savings can be achieved independent of building design characteristics. With the availability of inexpensive renewables, some projects may decide to deploy large solar arrays instead of emphasizing basic building efficiency. Taken to an extreme, this can deliver inherently inefficient buildings that are at increased risk of excessive energy use if occupants or operators change over time. To discourage this, a backstop code should be deployed to set a minimum level of performance for building features to make sure that basic building efficiency is not ignored. In this example, the requirements of the ASHRAE 90.1-2016 energy code will continue to serve as the back stop in subsequent code cycles, eventually moving forward with new editions of the 90.1 Standard. No building will be allowed to incorporate features in subsequent code cycles that don’t at least meet the backstop ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 113 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 22 NBI requirements, even as creative efficiency strategies are encouraged to meet more stringent performance goals. The backstop code is applied to projects submitted using the performance modeling submittal pathway. Projects will not be allowed to trade off lower building performance features below the prescriptive backstop requirements. Modeling To take advantage of integrated system efficiencies and creative design solutions, the city will continue to require that most projects demonstrate code compliance with energy modeling. In the 2019 code cycle, projects will be required to use energy modeling tools to predict the anticipated energy use intensity (EUI) performance outcome of the building. This is a transition from comparing building performance to a baseline as a ‘percent better than’ performance metric. Predicted EUI’s will be required to meet specific targets set by the jurisdiction, either based on a look-up table, or on a modeling process that identifies the EUI target to be achieved. This will encourage the market to more broadly adopt energy modeling in the design process, increase familiarity with performance outcome predictions, and begin the transition to more explicit modeling and performance outcome requirements. The 2019 code cycle will be a subtle transition from comparative performance modeling that will encourage more attention to performance outcome by design teams and building owners. To reinforce this trend, beginning with the 2019 code cycle, the city will require that disclosure data submitted under the city’s disclosure ordinance be compared to the modeling data under which the building was permitted. Buildings built under the 2019 code cycle will be required to provide a narrative explanation of how the performance of the building differed from the performance predicted by the modeling, with a simple analysis of why the variance occurred. Over time, subsequent code cycles will require more comprehensive review of actual performance, and adjustments to building performance or renewable deployment to meet required performance targets. Note that the accuracy of EUI predictions submitted in the design process is not likely to be very high until the market becomes more accustomed to modeling strategies that improve accuracy. As the market becomes more used to the EUI metric, and to tracking performance outcomes, it is anticipated that the modeling process will become more accurate. Unregulated Loads Deciding how to handle unregulated loads in energy modeling is one of the biggest challenges to the transition to a performance outcome code. For the most part, modeling protocols and the code submittal practices associated with them have been designed to focus on those aspects of the building that are regulated by code. Strategies to reduce operating energy by managing plug loads or unregulated equipment energy have been discouraged in most energy modeling, to reduce the opportunity for projects to manipulate unregulated loads to make the building appear more efficient for code compliance. In the early stages of the transition to outcome codes, manipulation of unregulated loads in the modeling process will be limited, and specific schedules will be provided as the basis for modeling. But as we encourage increased attention on total building energy use, strategies to reduce plug loads and other unregulated loads should be encouraged as part of the code process. The most widely adopted protocol describing modeling strategies is ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G. This standard explicitly requires comparative modeling to use the same plug loads in the proposed building ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 114 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 23 NBI model as in the baseline building model, except with special permission from the code authority. This strategy will form the basis of the review of unregulated loads in this code process. To encourage projects to begin to address the impact of unregulated loads on building energy use, specific credits may be allowed in the modeling process to account for commitments by the project to reduce unregulated load energy use. In the early stages of this, credit for unregulated load reduction will be limited to a small percentage of anticipated loads. As the building department and projects become acquainted with strategies to pursue and document reduction in unregulated loads, the amount of savings allowed in this category may be increased. By the 2031 cycle, managing unregulated loads will be an integral part of achieving ZNE building performance. Outcome Requirements Outcome requirements refer to the degree to which projects are held accountable for achieving the performance goals identified during the modeling submittal process. By the 2031 code cycle, the intent is that projects are directly responsible to prove that they are achieving ZNE performance, and that enforcement mechanisms are focused on that outcome. In the meantime there is a transition to ZNE based on increasing levels of attention of building performance outcomes. To start this process, the transition to EUI compliance targets brings a focus onto individual building performance metrics. To encourage this process, NBI strongly recommends that projects submitted under the 2019 code be required to review and report on actual performance of the building, compared to the performance predicted in the code submittal. (Boulder’s disclosure ordinance already requires all projects to report on actual energy use.) No other enforcement mechanism is proposed for this cycle, but an important goal is achieved if projects actually follow up to understand how their modeling diverged from actual outcome. This is an important step to push the industry toward more accountability on predictive modeling. In subsequent code cycles, buildings will be required to demonstrate that they are within increasingly constrained ranges near the predictive modeling, or take additional steps to reduce or offset building energy use. The focus on actual performance outcome also encourages continued attention to efficient building operation once the building is occupied. Normalization Despite the best intentions of designers, energy modelers, and building operators, building energy use can vary from year to year based on factors outside the control of these groups. Changing weather from year to year will introduce variability, as will changes in tenants, occupant density, building use, etc. These are perfectly normal reasons for building energy use to fluctuate, and must be accounted for in considering whether a building is achieving its performance goals/requirements. Adjusting building energy targets based on these factors is called ‘normalization’ of performance expectations. Once enforcement mechanisms focus on measured building performance data, performance targets will need to be able to account for normalization strategies so that buildings can carry on with their typical market function of adding and reducing occupants, changing use types (like adding a deli on the main floor), and maintaining comfort in a particularly cold winter. Normalization accounts for routine weather and market variability that is an expected part of building operation. NBI is developing specific normalization factors to account for performance variability that is not the result of poor operations and inefficient system operation, so that buildings can adjust ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 115 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 24 NBI performance targets over time based on actual weather and use characteristics. It is to be anticipated that individual projects may request specific adjustments to performance criteria based on unanticipated tenant and operating characteristics. This ability to adjust performance targets will become more critical over multiple code cycles, as buildings are expected to perform more closely to the performance targets set in the design process. Enforcement Mechanisms By transitioning the energy modeling process to focus on building performance outcomes, the city sets in motion a series of adjustments to enforcement strategies that will need to be developed and deployed over the course of the transition to ZNE performance outcomes in the commercial sector. As described above, the energy modeling used for permit submittals will be focused on predicted annual energy use (EUI) compared to a code baseline. To implement the backstop code and prevent manipulation, additional restrictions on modeling assumptions will be deployed in the submittal process. This represents a small change to the existing model submittal process. Code enforcement at time of permitting will also need to include review of required renewable energy systems. In order to begin to focus on building performance outcomes, new collaboration between city departments currently enforcing the energy code and the disclosure ordinance will need to be developed. Over time the city will need to develop specific feedback mechanisms that track and target recently permitted buildings for review of performance achievement in association with disclosure requirements. In later code cycles, as the city requires better alignment between predicted and actual building performance as a condition of energy code compliance, new enforcement mechanisms will be needed to insure compliance, and to provide projects with remediation mechanisms to resume compliance. Several scenarios might be considered to serve as enforcement mechanisms for buildings in operation. These include options such as:  Performance bond, collected at the time of permit, that is released back to the project when compliance with actual performance requirements is demonstrated, or invested in additional renewable energy resources to make up for the performance shortfall  Temporary Certificate of Occupancy, granted at the time of project completion, is not converted to a permanent status until performance is proved  Tax or utility fee structure for projects that are not in compliance within the specified compliance window  Detailed audit and retro-commissioning requirements for projects not meeting performance goals Any of the enforcement mechanisms identified above will require new policy and enforcement scope for city departments in order to implement. Any project that is out of compliance with performance requirements is potentially likely to request modifications to performance targets based on normalization criteria described above. This will require additional review of modified modeling submittals and proposed adjustments to performance requirements. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 116 of 389 Boulder Code Roadmap 25 NBI Although there are many variations on potential enforcement mechanisms for building performance outcome, these will require careful consideration in the context of the city’s organizational structure, legal context, and community goals. It should be noted that city efforts to encourage or require performance improvements in existing building stock will grow in parallel to the strategies to require new building performance outcomes. Many of the same strategies and mechanisms that the city might deploy for an outcome code will also support broader efforts to improve the existing building stock. As building performance disclosure data becomes the basis for new incentives or mandates for existing buildings, the city mechanisms to track and deploy these strategies will be directly related to the new construction code advancements described in this section. An extensive discussion of jurisdictional options for transitioning to building performance enforcement can be found in the report ‘Addressing Building Life-Cycle Energy Performance: A Framework for Cities ’, from NIBS and NBI, 2016. Prescriptive Path Continued increases in the stringency of the prescriptive path for many building types is reaching the end of its evolution. Continued improvement in building performance requires consideration of system integration not addressable by prescriptive requirements, federal preemption of equipment efficiency precludes additional progress, and unregulated loads (outside the scope of prescriptive codes) have become a major element of building energy use. Boulder already requires that most new construction projects use the performance pathway to demonstrate code compliance. Only small commercial buildings and remodel projects are allowed to use the prescriptive path for compliance. In the 2019 code cycle, NBI proposes that the threshold for prescriptive compliance remain the same as the previous version. Stringency modifications to the prescriptive requirements themselves will be incorporated into the updated Boulder Code. Subsequent efforts will focus on adding renewable requirements to prescriptive compliance requirements. Eventually the prescriptive pathway will be phased out. Note that prescriptive compliance may continue to be allowed to demonstrate achievement of the back stop code. Summary This document describes the elements of a pathway to a ZNE commercial building code. Several aspects of the code and enforcement process must evolve together to achieve the levels of stringency envisioned by the City of Boulder. By describing the incremental steps on this pathway, it is possible to envision a successful strategy to achieve ZNE goals by the 2031 code cycle. This is a critical transition to achieve the climate goals that the City of Boulder has adopted. The city is in a strong position to successfully implement this strategy, based on the strength of its current energy code, and the deep commitment of the city to these goals. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 117 of 389 City of Boulder 2019 Residential Building Energy Conservation Code Cost Effectiveness Analysis April 1, 2019 Submitted To: City of Boulder Christin Whitco Energy Code Coordinator 1777 Broadway, Boulder CO 80302 436 14th St, Oakland CA 94612 Phone: (510) 473-8421 Email: FFarahmand@trcsolutions.com ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 118 of 389 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Limitations......................................................................................................................................................... 2 2 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................................................ 3 2.1 Prototypes ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Cost Effectiveness ........................................................................................................................................... 4 3 MEASURE DESCRIPTIONS ........................................................................................................................ 6 4 COST EFFECTIVENESS RESULTS .............................................................................................................. 8 5 POLICY CONTEXT AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................. 10 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 119 of 389 1 Introduction The City of Boulder has demonstrated leadership in targeting energy conservation code advancement, and in deploying new approaches to building energy use regulation. The City of Boulder engaged TRC and New Buildings Institute (NBI) to research and analyze the cost effectiveness of residential energy code measures exceeding 2018 International Energy Conservation Code (2018 IECC). Boulder policy goals require higher energy performance as single-family residence size increases. For homes 3,000 ft2 or greater, this includes Zero Net Energy (ZNE) by using on-site solar photovoltaics (PV) to offset annual energy usage, as measured by an Energy Rating Index (ERI), as show in Figure 1.1 Figure 1 also depicts future code targets that reduce the maximum home size required to achieve ZNE. Figure 1 . Current and Targeted Boulder Energy Conservation Code Because solar PV is limited in size to 120% of the total kWh electricity consumption of the building according to Xcel utility rate interconnection rules, mixed fuel buildings may not be able to achieve ZNE by generating enough electricity to offset their natural gas consumption. 1.1 Scope TRC has assessed the cost effectiveness of packages of energy efficiency measures and solar PV relevant to new construction single family buildings. TRC determined cost effectiveness by comparing the costs of the packages with the on-bill energy savings benefits, described in more detail in Section 2: Methodology. The City of Boulder intends to use TRC’s analysis to identify cost effective Energy Rating Index (ERI) values for single family homes that are mixed-fuel and all-electric. 1 More information available: https://bouldercolorado.gov/plan-develop/residential-construction-energy-conservation- code 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000Energy Rating Index (ERI)Residential Structure Floor Area (square feet) 2017 2019 2022 2025 2028 2031 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 120 of 389 The development and adoption of an ERI approach to regulating residential energy performance has allowed jurisdictions to incorporate a broader range of features into residential building regulation, providing a pathway to deep efficiency and path to ZNE. The structure of the ERI allows for incremental increases in efficiency accounting all energy using features of the building and the gradual incorporation of renewable resources to meet the net zero goal. The current ERI structure requires a minimum level of efficiency for the building envelope to ensure that efficiency is not traded away for renewables which will encourage building innovation as the ERI scores are made more stringent. TRC’s analysis uses the ERI compliance approach looking at prototype homes with and without renewables to determine feasibility. The 2018 IECC performance path allows building developers to run simulations to determine the ERI of their building. The 2018 IECC performance path sets a maximum ERI of 61 on a 0 to 100 scale, however the 2018 IECC has an intentionally enhanced stringency of the ERI performance compliance pathway relative to the IECC prescriptive pathway. As a result, homes modeled solely with prescriptive features do not achieve IECC’s ERI performance standard for climate zone 5b, an ERI=61. Further description on how this affected methodology is included in Section 2.1. 1.2 Limitations This study has the following limitations: ♦ Applicability. All analysis performed is intended to be relevant to Boulder climate, utility rates, and labor/material costs. ♦ Prototypes. The prototypes studied are single family residential. Findings may not pertain to accessory dwelling units or multifamily residential. ♦ Federal Pre-emption. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulates the minimum efficiencies required for all appliances, such as space conditioning and water heating equipment. State or city codes that mandate appliance efficiencies higher than the DOE’s may risk litigation by industry organizations. Thus, TRC used baseline equipment and appliance efficiencies for energy conservation code measures, even though efficiency increases are often the simplest and most affordable ways to improve building performance. ♦ Sensitivity. The study assumes one set of market conditions at one specific point in time, including utility rates and equipment costs. This study does not analyze potential cost-effectiveness outcomes under a variety of market conditions. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 121 of 389 2 Methodology TRC analyzed the cost effectiveness of potential energy efficiency and solar PV measures by simulating them in prototype single family buildings to determine annual energy impacts. Construction and replacement costs and on-going energy bill impacts were assessed over a 30-year period. 2.1 Prototypes TRC estimated the energy impacts of most measures using Ekotrope version 3.1.1 to simulate a set of residential prototypes in Boulder, Colorado (ASHRAE climate zone 5b). TRC used the following three prototypes to determine cost effectiveness in coordination with the City of Boulder: ♦ 1,500 ft2 single family single-story home ♦ 3,000 ft2 single family two-story home ♦ 4,500 ft2 single family three-story home, two-stories above grade and one-story conditioned basement Each prototype has the same 1,500 ft2 floorplate and an attached garage. TRC used a box floorplate that is 50- feet wide by 30-feet deep, with 9-foot ceilings, and an attached garage that covers the entirety of the 1st floor’s left wall. The roof is 1,875 ft2 and estimated to be able to accommodate a 9 kW PV system. Each home has an 20% window-to-floor area glazing ratio for the above grade stories. All windows have RESNET standard shading with no overhangs or side-fins. TRC modeled the 1,500 ft2 and 3,000 ft2 prototypes with an enclosed vented crawl space, while the 4,500 ft2 prototype has a below-grade conditioned basement. Each home is modeled with an exhaust-only mechanical ventilation system that meets ASHRAE standards. TRC made each of these home-geometry decisions based on a consensus opinion between TRC, NBI, and City of Boulder employees that they represent a typical Boulder home. TRC developed a mixed fuel and an all-electric version of each home. The mixed fuel home uses a gas-fired water heater, space heating furnace, and cooking range. The all-electric home uses air source heat pumps for water heating and space conditioning, and an electric cooking range. New construction prototype baseline characteristics are summarized in Figure 2, and are based on prescriptive 2018 IECC requirements. The one characteristic that changes when layering on efficiency measures is that the ducts would be located in conditioned space, as described further in Figure 4. TRC developed the 2018 IECC prescriptive code model by first applying the 2018 IECC prescriptive energy efficiency measure mix for all wall and roof assembly U-factors, equipment efficiencies, duct location, appliance efficiencies, lighting efficacies, air-sealing, and hot-water distribution system efficiencies. The 2018 IECC has an intentionally enhanced stringency of the ERI performance compliance pathway relative to the IECC prescriptive pathway. As a result, homes modeled solely with prescriptive features do not achieve IECC’s ERI performance standard for climate zone 5b, an ERI=61. TRC added enough solar PV generation for each model so that the baseline code prototypes have an ERI of 61 using a combination of the prescriptive energy features plus some solar. TRC selected solar PV in lieu of energy efficiency measures because solar PV will not have an impact on the energy consumption of the baseline building and will allow for more accurate analysis of energy efficiency measures above and beyond 2018 IECC. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 122 of 389 Figure 2 . Residential Baseline Prototypes Summary Building Attribute One-Story Two-Story Three-Story Area (ft2) 1,500 3,000 4,500 Roof Area (ft2) 1,875 1,875 1,875 Foundation Enclosed vented crawlspace Enclosed vented crawlspace Conditioned basement with slab flooring Window-to-Floor Area Ratio 20% 20% 20% HVAC System – Mixed Fuel Central Ducted Split Air Conditioner (13 SEER) with Gas Furnace (80 AFUE) HVAC System – All-electric Central Ducted Air Source Heat Pump (14 SEER, 8.2 HSPF) HVAC Distribution System Ducts in Attic Domestic Water Heating – Mixed Fuel Natural Gas Storage Water Heater (66 gallon, 0.69 EF) Domestic Water Heating – All-electric Heat Pump Water Heater (55 gallon, 2.0 COP) 2.2 Cost Effectiveness TRC determined cost effectiveness by assessing the incremental costs of each measure above and beyond the 2018 IECC minimum requirements, and compared them to the energy cost savings, over 30-years. The baseline building in each case is an ERI=61 building – the mixed-fuel building cost effectiveness is compared to a mixed- fuel building with an ERI=61, and the all-electric building cost effectiveness is compared to an all-electric building with an ERI=61. Incremental costs represent the equipment, installation, replacements, and maintenance costs of the proposed measure. TRC obtained measure costs through several online resources, including: ♦ Department of Energy Building Component Cost Community (DOE BC3) ♦ National Renewable Energy Laboratory Residential Efficiency Measures Database (NREMD) ♦ Online retailers such as Home Depot ♦ Previous cost effectiveness analysis including California IOU Codes and Standards Enhancement (CASE) Studies for California building standards cost effectiveness analysis and code development. TRC used CASE reports when other sources did not provide adequate information, and adjusted values both using inflation and locational factors from DOE BC3.2 2 DOE BC3 Locational adjustment factors: https://bc3.pnnl.gov/location-factors ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 123 of 389 TRC estimated energy cost savings using Xcel utility rates for each calendar month for electricity and natural gas consumption using Ekotrope simulation software outputs.3,4 TRC used the electric rate schedule R and gas rate schedule RG as summarized in Figure 3 below to estimate bill impacts. TRC coordinated various adjustment factors and simplifications to the rate schedules in co-ordination with the City of Boulder. Figure 3 . Xcel Rate Schedule Structure Summary Electric Gas Xcel rate schedule R RG Commodity charge Summer (First 500 kWh) $ 0.10859/kWh $0.48473 per therm Summer (>500 kWh) $ 0.15602/kWh Winter $ 0.10859/kWh Fixed charge $7.00512 per month 5 $15.79604 per month The scope of this study includes solar PV installation on all residential models. TRC assumed that the production meter charge is added in the overall electric costs shown above. 6 There is no requirement for residential PV customers to be on a specific rate schedule. Under the rates selected, excess kWh generation is compensated at the full retail rate and the credit is carried over to consequent months. TRC performed a net present value (NPV) calculation over 30 years, assuming a 3% discount rate and a 2% energy escalation rate. TRC used benefit-to-cost ratio (B/C ratio) as the cost effectiveness metric. If the benefits of a measure package are greater than the costs, then the B/C ratio is greater than 1.0 and the package is considered cost effective. 3 Xcel electric rates: https://www.xcelenergy.com/staticfiles/xe/PDF/Regulatory/CO-Rates-&-Regulations-Entire-Electric- Book.pdf 4 Xcel gas rates: https://www.xcelenergy.com/staticfiles/xe/PDF/Regulatory/CO-Rates-&-Regulations-Entire-Natural-Gas- Tariff-Book.pdf 5 Monthly fixed charge includes production meter charge in addition to service and facility charges. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 124 of 389 3 Measure Descriptions TRC categorically analyzed the 2018 IECC baseline and identified market-ready opportunities for efficiency improvements based on proposed IECC code updates, and other codes including California’s Title 24, Parts 6 and 11, publicly available measure databases, and City planning department experience. Figure 4 summarizes the measures the 2018 IECC baseline, the estimated measure cost, and the cost sources. Measure categories are envelope, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), DHW (domestic hot water), lighting, and renewables (solar PV) measures. All measures in Figure 4 were applied to all three single family prototypes. There were several measures that were investigated but not ultimately included in the measure package due to low cost effectiveness in the Boulder climate, including R-60 ceiling insulation, R36 floor insulation, door U- factor, and heat recovery ventilation. TRC performed the solar PV sizing differently for the mixed-fuel building versus the all-electric building. Solar PV is limited in size to 120% of the total kWh electricity consumption of the building according to Xcel utility rate interconnection rules. Because mixed-fuel buildings also include gas consumption, they are not able to achieve an ERI=0 without violating the Xcel utility rules. All-electric buildings, however, can achieve an ERI=0 by generating 100% of the kWh consumption. Thus, the PV size limit for a mixed-fuel building is 120% of the kWh electricity consumption, while it is 100% for an all-electric building. In addition to the efficiency measures in Figure 4, TRC modeled appliance efficiency improvements as a ‘market package.’ The ‘market package’ represents additional measures that achieve ERI reductions but cannot be prescriptively required by the City of Boulder due to potential for federal pre-emption (see Section 1.2 Limitations). Although these strategies cannot be explicitly required by code, they are routinely deployed by builders in the market to achieve performance goals. Modeled appliance efficiency improvements included: ♦ Energy Star refrigerator, dishwasher, clothes washers and clothes dryer ♦ SEER 16 air conditioner with an electronically commutated motor (ECM) for cooling ♦ Mixed-fuel homes ♦ 96% AFUE furnace with an ECM motor for gas heating ♦ 95% EF condensing tankless gas water heater for gas water heating ♦ All-electric homes ♦ 10.0 HSPF/ 16 SEER air source heat pump with an ECM ♦ COP 3.4 heat pump water heater for electric water heating ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 125 of 389 Figure 4 . Single Family Energy Efficiency Measures Measure Category Measure 2018 IECC Baseline Incremental Measure Cost Cost Source Envelope Fenestration U-factor = 0.27 U-factor = 0.30 $1.42/ft2 of window DOE BC3 7 Exterior wall R13 cavity + R13 exterior insulation R13 cavity + R5 exterior insulation $0.39/ft2 of wall Home Depot Below roof deck radiant barrier No radiant barrier $0.43/ft2 of roof NREMDB 8 HVAC Dropped ceiling ducts in conditioned space / soffit Exposed ducts in the attic $0.50/ft2 of conditioned floor area CASE 9 DHW Tankless water heater, Energy Factor = 0.81 Gas storage water heater, EF = 0.76 $300/appliance CASE 10 Distribution horizontal length to furthest fixture = 30 feet Distribution horizontal length to furthest fixture = 77 feet $263/home CASE 11 Low-flow fixtures Normal flow fixtures $0/home Home Depot 12 Lighting 100% LED 90% Compact fluorescent, 10% incandescent $0.10/ft2 of conditioned floor area CASE 13 Renewables Solar PV to achieve either: 1. 120% of kWh generation for mixed-fuel home, or 2. ERI = 0 for all-electric home Solar PV to achieve ERI=61 $2.58/W including inverter replacements, maintenance, and federal income tax credit NREL 14 CASE 15 7 https://bc3.pnnl.gov/component-database 8 https://remdb.nrel.gov/measures.php?gId=13&ctId=51&scId=643&acId=644 9 http://title24stakeholders.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/2016-CASE-Study-Results-Report-HPA-DCS-v2.pdf 10 http://title24stakeholders.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/2016-T24-CASE-Report-Res-IWH-Feb-2015-V2.pdf 11 Ibid 12 TRC found that the majority of kitchen and bathroom faucets are under 2.0GPM flow rate and cost varies widely depending on quality, not flow rate. Showerhead flow rate and cost are also dependent on quality rather than flow rate. 13 http://title24stakeholders.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/2016-CASE-Study-Results-Report-Res-Ltg-v2.pdf 14 https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy17osti/68925.pdf. 15 https://efiling.energy.ca.gov/getdocument.aspx?tn=221366 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 126 of 389 4 Cost Effectiveness Results Figure 5 through Figure 7 present the cost effectiveness results for each prototype building. Cost effectiveness is shown for energy efficiency packages alone and for energy efficiency plus solar PV in terms of a benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio. Cost effectiveness is determined over a 30-year lifespan, including first costs, replacements, maintenance, and energy savings. The ‘market package’ was not explored for cost-effectiveness because of federal pre-emption limitations. The baseline building in each case is an ERI=61 building – the mixed-fuel building cost effectiveness is compared to a mixed-fuel building with an ERI=61, and the all-electric building cost effectiveness is compared to an all- electric building with an ERI=61. Note that solar PV system sizes for the “EE measures alone” packages were sized to achieve an ERI=61 per the 2018 IECC performance requirements as described in Section 2.1. These PV systems are considered part of the baseline building, and thus do not have associated incremental costs. Incremental costs for additional PV to achieve lower ERI values are included in “EE measures + solar PV” packages. Figure 5 through Figure 7 show that all prototypes are cost effective with the efficiency measures listed in Figure 4, with benefit to cost ratios ranging from 1.0 to 2.9. Other key takeaways: ♦ All-electric buildings generate significantly higher kWh savings than mixed-fuel buildings because they include heat pump water heating and heat pumps space heating, and many of the efficiency measures applied save space heating and water heating loads. ♦ All-electric prototype bill savings are significantly higher than mixed-fuel scenarios because electricity rates are higher than gas in terms of $/Btu. ♦ Adding solar PV generally increases the B/C ratio for mixed-fuel buildings but reduces the B/C ratio for all- electric buildings. It appears that EE measures applied to the all-electric building have a higher B/C ratio than the solar PV B/C ratio. These findings highlight the importance of both EE measures and renewable generation to cost effectively designing high-performing buildings. ♦ In some instances, the PV system size exceeds the size that can fit on the prototype roof (9 kW). In these instances, TRC has assumed that a ground-mounted array can be installed at similar costs to a roof-mounted system. Figure 5 . 1500 ft2 Cost Effectiveness Results Fuel Scenario Package PV System Size (kW) ERI kWh Savings Therms Savings Incremental Package Costs Energy Bill Savings B/C Ratio Mixed Fuel EE measures alone 2.0 46 493 129 $2,938 $2,948 1.0 EE measures + solar PV 4.3 21 3,968 129 $8,868 $12,521 1.4 All Electric EE measures alone 1.8 47 2,098 0 $2,938 $5,864 2.0 EE measures + solar PV 6.4 0 9,046 0 $14,797 $25,011 1.7 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 127 of 389 Figure 6 . 3000 ft2 Cost Effectiveness Results Fuel Scenario Package PV System Size (kW) ERI kWh Savings Therms Savings Incremental Package Costs Energy Bill Savings B/C Ratio Mixed Fuel EE measures alone 3.5 43 873 242 $4,713 $5,586 1.2 EE measures + solar PV 6.4 21 5,253 242 $10,415 $17,657 1.7 All Electric EE measures alone 3.8 40 4,737 0 $4,713 $13,492 2.9 EE measures + solar PV 9.6 0 13,498 0 $17,891 $37,693 2.1 Figure 7 . 4500 ft2 Cost Effectiveness Results Fuel Scenario Package PV System Size (kW) ERI kWh Savings Therms Savings Incremental Package Costs Energy Bill Savings B/C Ratio Mixed Fuel EE measures alone 3.8 46 1,039 201 $5,605 $5,821 1.0 EE measures + solar PV 8.2 21 7,610 201 $14,153 $24,265 1.7 All Electric EE measures alone 4.4 42 5,734 0 $5,605 $16,527 2.9 EE measures + solar PV 12.4 0 17,818 0 $23,562 $50,231 2.1 The lowest ERI achieved is approximately ERI=21 for the mixed fuel buildings and ERI=0 for all-electric buildings, including solar PV. These cost-effectiveness findings support the significant lowering ERI targets from 2018 IECC for Boulder single family new construction in Boulder’s climate zone across all building sizes. Further considerations for the solar PV necessary to achieve these ERI targets and the impact of Boulder’s energy conservation code are in Section 5 Policy Context and Recommendations. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 128 of 389 5 Policy Context and Recommendations In addition to the cost effectiveness analysis, TRC and NBI assessed modeling trends to inform the Boulder Energy Conservation Code, presented for each prototype in Figure 8 through Figure 10. These figures represent the relationship between PV deployment and reduced ERI scores. The figures display the ERI values achieved by mixed fuel homes (represented by reddish lines) and all electric homes (represented by bluish lines) as a function of PV size and three potential measure packages: ♦ Prescriptive: Measures that achieve ERI=61 per the 2018 IECC performance requirements. As described earlier, this includes some solar PV generation to achieve an ERI=61 in the baseline code prototypes. ♦ Cost-effective: Measures above 2018 IECC found to be cost effective as a package. ♦ Market: Appliance efficiency improvements that represent a feasible and readily available approach to reducing ERI but cannot be prescriptively required by the City of Boulder due to potential for federal pre- emption. The ERI trends for the mixed fuel and all electric prototypes are not significantly different – in other words, the reddish lines generally align with the bluish lines. This analysis demonstrates that there are cost effective packages available to significantly reduce the ERI scores of buildings across all sizes and fuel scenarios. The cost effective packages of energy efficiency measures alone reduce the ERI scores by 14 to 21 points, depending on the building size and fuel. For all building sizes evaluated, there are pathways to achieve ERI=0 through the incorporation of PV systems to offset energy use. However, due to local utility interconnection rules for PV sizing which allow only 120% of electric load to be offset with renewables, only all-electric buildings will be able to successfully target ERI scores approaching zero. This implies that larger buildings will need to be all-electric to meet Boulder’s ZNE policy goals depicted in Figure 1. The market package analysis demonstrates that appliance efficiency improvements can feasibly reduce ERI scores by approximately 10 points and offset the PV system size by approximately 0.5 kW to 2 kW, depending on the size of the building and fuel. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 129 of 389 Figure 8 . 1500 ft2 ERI Trends for Mixed-Fuel and All-Electric Buildings Figure 9 . 3000 ft2 ERI Trends for Mixed-Fuel and All-Electric Buildings ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 130 of 389 Figure 10. 4500 ft2 ERI Trends for Mixed-F uel and All-Electric Buildings ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 131 of 389 2020 Boulder Commercial Code Protocol Draft New Performance Target Approach Prepared by: New Buildings Institute Authors: Amruta Khanolkar Mark Frankel Date: Feb. 2019 Prepared for: City of Boulder Christin Witco, Contract Manager ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 132 of 389 [This page intentionally blank] – may not be needed if no printing planned Also – Consider if standard research report items need to precede the TOC such as ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PREFACE, ABSTRACT (this is the standard order) and any required disclaimers ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 133 of 389 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ..................................................................................... 1 CITY OF BOULDER’S 2020 CODE FRAMEWORK ................................................................... 1 Energy Use Metric .................................................................................................................. 1 2020 Performance Targets ..................................................................................................... 2 COMMERCIAL SUBMITTAL PATHWAYS ................................................................................. 3 Prescriptive Pathway .............................................................................................................. 3 Performance Pathways .......................................................................................................... 4 Performance Pathway 1: Modeled Performance Target ...................................................... 4 Performance Pathway 2: Fixed Performance Target ........................................................... 5 EUI Performance Targets for Performance Pathway 2 ........................................................ 5 Optional Outcome-Based Performance Pathway ................................................................ 6 REQUIRED DEPLOYMENT OF RENEWABLES ....................................................................... 7 MODELING GUIDELINES AND BACKSTOP REQUIREMENTS ............................................... 7 Backstop Requirements and Guidelines ................................................................................. 8 Submetering ........................................................................................................................... 8 Regulated Loads .................................................................................................................... 9 Energy Model and Infiltration............................................................................................... 9 Other Requirements ............................................................................................................ 9 Unregulated Loads ................................................................................................................10 Plug and Process Loads ....................................................................................................11 Schedules ..........................................................................................................................12 MODELING FEEDBACK AND BENCHMARKING ....................................................................13 SUMMARY ...............................................................................................................................14 APPENDIX A: PLUG LOAD EQUIPMENT POWER DENSITY ..................................................15 APPENDIX B: REQUIRED BUILDING SCHEDULES ................................................................19 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 134 of 389 Figures and Tables Table 1: Comparative Stringency ............................................................................................... 3 Table 2: Fixed Performance Targets for Performance Pathway 2. ............................................. 5 Table 3: Energy Model and Infiltration Backstop Requirements ................................................. 9 Table 4: Backstop Requirements for Building Performance ....................................................... 9 Table 5: Plug Load Modeling Requirements- Whole Building ....................................................15 Table 6: Plug Load Modeling Requirements- Space-by-Space .................................................16 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 135 of 389 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND The City of Boulder has committed to set of City-wide energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets to support the climate commitment goals adopted by City Council on December. 6 2016. This includes a goal of reducing the community’s GHG emissions by 80% of 2005 levels by 2050 1 and reducing organizational GHG emissions by 80% of 2008 levels by 2030. To reduce the demands placed on power generation infrastructure and reduce emissions, the City has also planned to increase renewables and community/district energy generation across the city. The goal is to deploy 100% renewable electricity by 2030. In support of these goals, the City of Boulder has set a target of reaching net zero energy construction for new buildings and major alterations through building and energy code requirements by 2031. NBI and the City of Boulder have developed a strategy to achieve that target; adopting increasingly aggressive performance-based energy codes is a key part of the strategy. This longer term strategy is described in more detail in the report: Boulder Code Strategy Narrative, published separately. This document is focused on proposed changes to the commercial sections of the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code. The 2017 COBECC is based on the 2012 edition of the International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC®), with a specific reference to ASHRAE 90.1-2010 (+30%) as a basis for commercial building code compliance. For the 2020 update, the base code will be the 2018 IECC with reference for commercial buildings to ASHRAE 90.1 2016 with some additions and alterations. The objective of this code cycle is to move away from relative targets (% better than code) and move closer to actual building performance targets based on an energy use intensity (EUI) metric. This will help Boulder to be on track for reaching NZE codes by 2031. CITY OF BOULDER’S 2020 CODE FRAMEWORK To meet Boulder’s climate targets the 2020 framework represents a shift from the relative building approach (% better than code) in the previous versions of the COBECC to an absolute performance approach. The goal is to reduce the performance gap between the design and the operating building. To achieve this, building performance will be evaluated based on predicted building energy use, rather than on percentage improvement. The sections below provide details about the new metrics and the compliance paths. Energy Use Metric Under the new framework, new buildings in Boulder will be required to identify and target specific levels of energy performance, measured as an Energy Use Intensity (EUI). This metric provides individual building-specific energy consumption data and encourages higher efficiency in buildings and lower utility costs. EUI is easily calculated and measured at the building level. EUI accounts for a building’s total annual energy demand, including plug and process loads that 1 https://www-static.bouldercolorado.gov/docs/2017_City_of_Boulder_Energy_Conservation_Code_2nd- 1-201711151002.pdf?_ga=2.134179533.234461591.1545935870-129887707.1539902798 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 136 of 389 can make up a significant portion of building’s energy use. The metric is calculated with the following units: 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸=𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵 𝐴𝐴𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐴𝐴𝐵𝐵 𝐸𝐸𝐵𝐵𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐵𝐵𝐸𝐸 𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐶𝐵𝐵𝑠𝑠𝐵𝐵𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝐵𝐵𝐶𝐶𝐵𝐵 (𝑘𝑘𝐵𝐵𝑠𝑠𝐵𝐵/𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸)𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵 𝐴𝐴𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐴𝐴 (𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠.𝑓𝑓𝑠𝑠) This EUI metric is familiar to design teams, building owners, and Boulder staff for two reasons: 1) the current, 2017 energy code requires buildings calculate their EUI as part of the Energy Model Report that must be submitted with permit application, and 2) all new commercial buildings and existing ones>10,000 square feet are required to report their EUI annually to the city as part of the city’s Building Performance Ordinance. By moving the energy code in the direction of an EUI outcome focused code, Boulder hopes to close the gap between modeled and metered energy consumption in our building stock. 2020 Performance Targets Boulder’s current commercial building energy code requirement is that buildings demonstrate through energy modeling that the proposed project will achieve a performance of 30% better than ASHRAE 90.1 2010. In the 2020 code cycle, the baseline reference code will be updated relative to ASHRAE 90.1-2016. Although code stringency varies somewhat by building type and climate zone, the 2016 version of 90.1 is approximately 10% more stringent than the 2010 version for the Boulder climate zone (designated 5b). Therefore a performance level of 20% better than 90.1-2016 is approximately equivalent to the current Boulder target of 30% better than 90.1-2010. With this in mind, NBI is recommending a stringency target of 25% better than 90.1-2016 for the 2020 COBECC. We think the performance target of 25% better than ASHRAE 90.1 2016 adds to the stringency required to be on the path to zero and at the same time makes the targets achievable with strategic energy efficiency measures. Note that with a recommended 5% solar requirement, the actual minimum building performance target is 20% better than 90.1-2016. Also, when using the 90.1 Appendix G modeling process to demonstrate compliance, the reference building performance is calibrated to a 90.1-2004 performance reference. Target performance values will be calibrated accordingly. The table below shows the EUI’s associated with the comparative stringency of the proposed code to national code metrics. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 137 of 389 Table 1: Comparative Stringency Comparative EUI Performance Targets Current Requirement Proposed Requirement Building Type 90.1- 2010 90.1-2010 +30% 90.1- 2016 90.1- 2016 +20% 90.1-2016 +25% 90.1- 2016 +30% Medium Office 34 24 30 24 23 21 Small Office 31 22 25 20 19 18 Primary School 56 39 45 36 34 32 Secondary School 46 32 41 33 31 29 Mid-rise Apartment 50 35 43 34 32 30 Warehouse 19 13 15 12 11 10 Retail Store 57 40 46 37 35 32 Small Hotel 85 60 53 42 40 37 Hospital 133 93 117 94 88 82 Restaurant 396 277 374 299 281 262 Strip Mall 60 42 50 40 38 35 Clinic 114 80 101 81 76 70 COMMERCIAL SUBMITTAL PATHWAYS In the 2020 code cycle, commercial building project submittal pathways will be similar to current requirements, with one significant modification: Projects not using the prescriptive pathway will be required to determine EUI performance targets as a basis for compliance, instead of comparing relative performance to a baseline. As a pilot option, and Outcome-Based Pathway will also be adopted. The submittal pathways are described below. Prescriptive Pathway Small projects and remodels with total construction cost of $500,000 or less are covered under this track. The prescriptive requirements will be based on updated Boulder commercial code which will be a more stringent version of 2018 IECC, with specific additions to the language to reflect stringency targets set by the City of Boulder. In order to comply with this track, all of the ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 138 of 389 prescriptive requirements (i.e. sections 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5) of the 2020 COBECC should be met. To achieve a comparable stringency to that required by the performance submittal pathways described below, additional requirements have been added to the IECC 2018 baseline to reflect Boulder’s code performance goals. These requirements include the following key features: • Improved requirements for isolating building envelop elements create thermal bridging • Increased envelope and fenestration thermal performance • Advanced occupancy controls for lighting and HVAC • Expanded heat recovery ventilation requirements • Improved envelope infiltration performance Taken together, these and other measures incorporated into prescriptive code requirements should improve building performance by approximately 25% above the base code requirements. Performance Pathways All projects with total construction cost of $500,000 and above are required to follow the performance pathway. This pathway includes two options: Performance Pathway 1: Modeled Performance Target In this pathway buildings will use the ASHRAE 90.1 2016 Appendix G modeling guidelines (with minor modifications to reflect Boulder code requirements) to determine a baseline building performance requirement, expressed in EUI. Performance values in Appendix G will be adjusted to reflect EUI targets that are 25% lower than the 90.1 2016 baseline. Proposed buildings will be required to demonstrate through energy modeling that they are anticipated to achieve this target EUI, with the following additional requirements: • No performance trade-offs are allowed below the prescriptive performance tables for individual building elements in 90.1-2016. This code serves as a performance ‘backstop’ for individual building components. See specific requirements in the Backstop Requirements section below. • At least 5% of building load must be met by renewables on-site. • Building schedules and unregulated loads must be modeled using mandatory schedules provided, unless specific alternative schedules are pre-approved by code officials during the permit review process. • Reductions in unregulated loads of up to 10% of total unregulated load may contribute to the achievement of the EUI targets, provided the project submits and receives approval for a clear plan for specific load reduction strategies to be implemented during occupancy. • Within 2 years of Certificate of Occupancy, the project must provide a written narrative comparing the proposed building EUI submitted for permit to the actual energy use indicated in annual disclosure data. This narrative should reflect a good-faith effort to understand variations between predicted and actual energy use for the project. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 139 of 389 Performance Pathway 2: Fixed Performance Target For specific project types, NBI has identified EUI performance targets deemed to comply with the intended stringency of this code. Projects may choose to use these targets as a compliance baseline, forgo baseline modeling, and instead provide a proposed building model demonstrating that the building can achieve the listed EUI target, with the following additional requirements: • No performance trade-offs are allowed below the prescriptive performance tables for individual building elements in 90.1-2016. This code serves as a performance ‘backstop’ for individual building components. See specific requirements in the Backstop Requirements section below. • At least 5% of building load must be met by renewables on-site. • Building schedules and unregulated loads must be modeled using mandatory schedules provided, unless specific alternative schedules are pre-approved by code officials during the permit review process. • Reductions in unregulated loads of up to 10% of total unregulated load may contribute to the achievement of the EUI targets provided the project submits and receives approval for a clear plan for specific load reduction strategies to be implemented during occupancy. • Within 2 years of Certificate of Occupancy, the project must provide a written narrative comparing the proposed building EUI submitted for permit to the actual energy use indicated in annual disclosure data. This narrative should reflect a good-faith effort to understand variations between predicted and actual energy use for the project. EUI Performance Targets for Performance Pathway 2 Some building types have relatively consistent occupancy and usage patterns and therefore may be able to achieve more consistent EUI performance. For these building types, a project may choose to use fixed EUI targets as a basis for code compliance documentation. In these cases, the project will need to demonstrate that the predicted EUI of the proposed building will meet or improve upon the established fixed performance targets. Only the proposed building will need to be modeled in this case, as described in the Modeling Guidelines section below. Buildings identified in Table 2 below are eligible to utilize the Fixed Performance Pathway as a basis for compliance. Alternately, these projects may choose to submit using the Modeled Performance Target pathway. The establishment of this new pathway helps projects to move toward delivering measured building performance aligned with the city’s 2050 GHG reduction goals by encouraging the building industry to begin to consider building performance outcome as a basis for energy code compliance. In Table 2 below building types which can utilize the Fixed Performance Pathway are identified, as well as the targets to be used in the compliance documentation. Projects with multiple use types within the building may develop area-weighted targets based on the values in this table. Table 2: Fixed Performance Targets for Performance Pathway 2. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 140 of 389 Site EUI (kBtu/ft²) by Building Type for Boulder Climate (5B) Building Type 90.1 2016 90.1 2016+ 25% Better Medium Office 30 23 Mid-rise Apartment 43 32 Primary School 45 34 Small Office 25 19 Secondary School 41 31 Warehouse 15 11 Small Hotel 53 40 Hospital 117 88 Retail Store 46 35 Strip Mall 50 38 Optional Outcome-Based Performance Pathway Over the next several code cycles, the City of Boulder will move to a code strategy where buildings are required to achieve specific performance outcomes, as demonstrated by review of actual energy use data during building occupancy. The EUI Performance Target Pathway is the first step to a focus on measured energy use outcomes. To facilitate additional market transition to measured outcome, the City of Boulder is adopting a zoning density bonus for certain project types. As a requirement of the density bonus, projects will be required to demonstrate achievement of specific energy performance targets during building operation. This will be insured through the collection of a financial surety held by the city until building energy performance is demonstrated. This zoning incentive effectively sets up an option pilot compliance pathway focused on building performance outcome. The pilot would serve as a model for the 2031 code, and would allow city staff to collect data, evaluate, and make policy adjustments to suit Boulder’s commercial construction market. Projects following this path would: • Set an EUI target during the design phase based on modeling or targets established by building type per code. • Demonstrate at time of permit how the project will achieve this EUI target through energy modeling. • Construct the project, with an understanding of the energy performance expected of the building. • Provide a surety bond at the time of permit, fully refundable to the project if performance is achieved. • Complete, commission, and occupy the building. • Within 24 months of the building being occupied, submit metered data to the building official that verifies the EUI target is being achieved. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 141 of 389 Projects that are unable to demonstrate that their building’s post-occupancy energy consumption complies with the targeted performance will be required to undergo building diagnostics and additional energy modeling to determine how to close the gap between modeled and metered energy use. REQUIRED DEPLOYMENT OF RENEWABLES In order to meet long-term ZNE performance goals, it is necessary to encourage the deployment of renewable energy at the project level. In the 2020 code cycle, NBI proposes that at least 5% of commercial building energy use be supplied by on-site renewables. This requirement will increase in subsequent code cycles. Renewable offset requirements represent the minimum percentage of total building load that must be met with renewables. Projects may choose to deploy more than the minimum amount of renewables to meet overall code targets, based on cost-benefit calculations and other considerations at the project level. However, it is important to make sure that renewables are not used to offset basic building performance to a significant degree. For this reason NBI recommends the adoption of a ‘backstop code’ as described below, in which renewable deployment cannot offset basic building performance requirements. The cost of renewable energy deployment at the project level has dropped precipitously in the past decade, with the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) estimating that the cost of photovoltaics has declined by two-thirds in the past seven years alone.2 This has made the on- site installation of photovoltaic generating systems cost-effective at the project level in many cases. For many projects, increased solar installation may be the most cost-effective way to achieve the stringency targets anticipated by this code. By allowing individual projects to incorporate on-site renewable generation into the building, the code sets up significant flexibility for individual projects to evaluate local conditions and efficiency options to identify the least-cost strategy to achieve energy code performance goals. MODELING GUIDELINES AND BACKSTOP REQUIREMENTS Projects submitted using the Modeled Performance Target track will be required to use ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G and Table G3.1 modeling guidelines for calculating baseline and proposed building performance EUI. The baseline building EUI will be used to define the proposed building performance target. The performance target for proposed building will be a 25% EUI reduction compared to baseline EUI. For the Fixed Performance Target track the proposed building targets will be provided by the jurisdiction. Modelers will use the 90.1 Appendix G guidelines and are required to model the actual building performance to demonstrate that the proposed EUI will meet with the specified targets. The modelers will have the freedom to skip the baseline model building and directly prove the performance through the proposed model. However, they will have to make sure their design meets with the minimum performance requirements through the backstop requirement checklist. 2 U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System Cost Benchmark: Q1-2017, Ran Fu, David Feldman, Robert Margolis, Mike Woodhouse, and Kristen Ardani, National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO, 2017. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 142 of 389 Backstop Requirements and Guidelines With the availability of inexpensive renewables, some projects may be tempted to deploy large solar arrays instead of emphasizing basic building efficiency. Taken to an extreme, this can deliver inherently inefficient buildings that are at increased risk of excessive energy use if occupants or operators change over time. To discourage this, a backstop code will be deployed to set a minimum level of performance for building features to make sure that basic building efficiency is not ignored. Backstop requirements for building performance are designed to insure that basic minimum building efficiency strategies are incorporated into each project, even while projects are given flexibility to determine the best set of building features and renewable energy deployment to achieve building performance targets. The backstop requirements include a set of minimum building performance requirements aligned with the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2016, and a set of standardized schedule assumptions to guide consistent modeling assumptions. No building will be allowed to incorporate features that don’t at least meet the backstop requirements, even as creative efficiency strategies are encouraged to meet more stringent performance goals. The modeling protocol is based on the requirements of ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G modeling guidelines, with specific adjustments to incorporate backstop performance requirements and standardized building schedule assumptions. Modeling requirements apply to both regulated and unregulated loads, with specific backstop performance or schedule requirements for the following categories: • Basic Energy Model Requirements • Infiltration • Envelope Performance • HVAC System Performance and Characteristics • Lighting Power Density • Domestic Hot Water Equipment Performance • Plug and Process Loads • Operating Schedules More detail on the specific requirements in these categories is provided in the sections below, and in Appendices A and B of this document. Submetering To support Boulder’s long term goals to improve building energy performance outcomes, projects will be required to install sub-metering to support the on-going evaluation and improvement of building performance. This requirement will also allow projects to separate ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 143 of 389 different load and use types from primary building energy use evaluation. Sub-metering will be required for large and consistent loads such as data centers, restaurant tenants, car charging, and other loads that are likely to significantly complicate the evaluation of building energy use patterns. Sub-metering to determine building energy end use will also be required for larger buildings. The ability to sort out key building loads will be critical to long-term analysis of building energy use patterns. Regulated Loads The IECC as well as ASHRAE 90.1 have regulations on building envelope heat transmission properties, infiltration requirements, lighting power density limits, HVAC and DHW equipment efficiency requirements. Therefore they are categorized under regulated loads. Most of the backstop requirements are in line with the req uirements of Appendix G, except for building envelope insulation and HVAC and DHW system efficiencies. For envelope and HVAC system efficiencies the backstop requires projects to follow the prescriptive requirements from ASHRAE 90.1 2016 i.e. sections 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5. The sections and the tables below summarize the backstop requirements. Energy Model and Infiltration ASHRAE 90.1 Appendix G modeling guidelines will be used for the energy modeling and infiltration requirements. Table 3: Energy Model and Infiltration Backstop Requirements Building Performance Element Backstop Requirements Model Simulation program that can perform 8760 hourly analysis Appendix G Use Boulder weather TMY3 file Each HVAC zone should be modeled as separate thermal block as per HVAC design drawings Building Infiltration Air leak rate (.4 cfm/sq.ft) Other Requirements The Table 4 below summarizes minimum requirements for building envelop. HVAC, DHW and Lighting end uses. Table 4: Backstop Requirements for Building Performance ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 144 of 389 Building Performance Element Backstop Requirements Envelope Insulation (R Value/U Value) Roof Prescriptive requirements, ASHRAE 90.1 2016 Walls, Above Grade Walls, Below Grade Floors Slab-on-Grade Floors Vertical Fenestration Skylights Window to wall Ratio Use Appendix G guidelines. No project may exceed 40% total WWR in proposed model. HVAC Air side system efficiencies Prescriptive requirements, ASHRAE 90.1 2016 Water side system efficiencies Prescriptive requirements, ASHRAE 90.1 2016 Minimum Ventilation CO mechanical code ventilation requirements/ design ventilation Service Water Heating Water Heater Efficiency Prescriptive requirements, ASHRAE 90.1 2016 Lighting Lighting Power Densities Appendix G Unregulated Loads The codes and standards used by the modeler proscribe specific values for many building components as regulated by the energy code or baseline to which the project is being compared. But there are also a wide range of values that are not regulated or proscribed by the code, and are therefore determined at the discretion of the energy modeler. Although the code and program modeling protocols typically require that the baseline and proposed building models use identical values for these components, the input values themselves are not specified. Current codes and energy modeling protocols have not allowed projects to claim savings from reductions in unregulated loads as part of their code compliance strategy. Hence this end-use is neglected by the designers and the modeling community. As energy codes become more stringent, the percentage of total building energy use represented by the unregulated loads becomes a more and more significant component of overall building energy use. And the influence of plug loads and other unregulated elements on heating and cooling loads in the building also increase proportionally. In the absence of guidance or regulation on what these loads should be, the variability inherent in the discretion of the energy modeler becomes increasingly significant in the accuracy of the modeled outcome. The modeling community uses hypothetical numbers and schedules in both baseline and proposed models to account for plug/equipment loads. Since the code does not allow savings in this category, there is little incentive by designers and modelers to accurately determine this number, and no incentive to explore savings strategies. Energy modeling assumptions about ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 145 of 389 these values can vary widely, and can contribute to inaccurate estimation of building electrical and thermal loads. This adversely effects the electrical service sizing and HVAC equipment sizing in the building design, which can generate adverse use energy impacts. To provide the design community with baseline guidance and to achieve the levels of performance anticipated by Boulder’s strategic plan for codes, a mechanism to allow projects to address a wider range of building loads is needed for energy modeling submittals. The sections below address unregulated loads and how they will be handled in the upcoming code cycles. Plug and Process Loads For most building types, the main component of unregulated energy loads is plug and process loads. This category includes computers, printers, monitors, and a host of other user electronics. Restaurant and refrigeration equipment also falls in this category. Despite increasing code stringency, unregulated energy consumption from plug and process loads is expected to continue to rise in office buildings and other building types. This is no surprise considering the proliferation of electronic devices and technology advancement. Dependency of building users on high energy consuming gadgets continues to increase. And with the power and influence of newer technologies like multi-function units (MFU) and multiple monitors the energy consumption of offices is expected to go up even more. Building energy codes will need to play a more substantial role in the coming years to curtail the unregulated loads and to bring synergy between the expected and actual energy performance of the buildings. By incorporating strategies to incentivize reductions in plug and process loads, significant additional energy savings are possible in energy codes. The approach to plug and process loads described below will help the City of Boulder review and deploy measures that directly impact plug and equipment loads. The objective of this approach is to add enforceable code language in the Boulder Code to reduce currently unregulated plug and equipment loads. The goal of bringing this new regulation on plug loads in the Boulder code is to encourage building designers to consider energy efficiency strategies related to equipment and appliances to reduce building energy use during operation. Because the actual deployment of these strategies occur in the occupancy phase of the building, the strategy includes limits on the total savings from plug and process loads that can be accounted for in the submittal process. NBI is proposing default assumptions for equipment power densities and equipment schedules per building type or space type. Default values will guide the modelers and the building industry on the baselines and industry standards. The possibility of accounting for savings in unregulated loads will encourage the industry to come up with innovative appliance savings strategies/measures to claim savings. The submittals for such measures will be required to have supporting drawings, specification sheets, and sequence of operation etc. with the detailed explanation on how the savings are calculated. To support a consistent approach to plug and process load calculations, submittals will be required to use standardized baselines. These standardized baselines will be based on the COMNET Modeling Standard. The COMNET Standard was developed as a mechanism to bring consistency to the practice of energy modeling across practitioners and jurisdictions around the country. In the ten years since the first version of the standard was developed, the COMNET Standard has seen increasing recognition and use in the industry. COMENT has proven to be highly influential in the industry and has been widely adopted by major participants ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 146 of 389 in the energy modeling space. The COMNET standard has been worked into modeling protocols published by major jurisdictions and federal organizations to support increased consistency in energy modeling. The building schedules developed by COMNET and anticipated for use in the Boulder energy code are provided in Appendix B. For plug loads, the COMNET-published default plug loads will be the baselines. The equipment power density (EPD) is estimated for each of the approximate 5,000 sites in the 2003 CBECS dataset using a modification of the procedure described in Section C.14 of NREL/TP-550- 41956 3. For each site in the CBECS dataset, the equipment power was calculated using Equation 1. Four of the independent variables in Equation 1 are taken from Section C.14 of NREL/TP-550-41956. Equation 1 𝑃𝑃= (𝐶𝐶𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠∙𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠+𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑠𝑠𝑚𝑚)∙𝐵𝐵 Where, P the estimated equipment power density for the space or building in W/ft². PDsd an estimate of receptacle power for “surveyed devices” including personal computers, monitors, servers, printers and other equipment. Units are W/ft². This term varies for each CBECS site and is based on fields in the CBECS dataset. PDmisc an estimate of miscellaneous receptacle power for equipment not specifically accounted for in PDsd. This is from NREL/TP-550-41956 and varies for each building classification in CBECS. Csd, a coefficient to scale the Psd power of “surveyed devices”. This coefficient along with PDmisc accounts for unreported equipment. This is from NREL/TP-550-41956 and varies for each building classification in CBECS. d a diversity factor that affects the entire estimate of EPD. For most building classifications this is unity. This is from NREL/TP-550-41956 and varies for each PBAPLUS8 building classification in CBECS. Specific values for plug loads can be calculated based on whole building energy use patterns, or on a space by space basis, just as with lighting loads. Specific values for baseline plug loads are provided in APPENDIX A: Plug Load Equipment Power Densities. Schedules In energy modeling, schedules describe operating characteristics of various building elements, such as when and how many lights are on, what temperature the building is maintained at, what hours occupants are present, etc. To maintain consistency in modeling submittals, NBI recommends adding standardized default requirements for schedules used in models submitted for the performance target tracks. The default schedules included in Appendix B include a set of standardized building operating schedules based on extensive building energy use characteristics research aggregated under the COMNET program. 3 NREL/TP-550-41956, Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector, March 2008. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 147 of 389 Projects with special operating hours or other non-standard operating conditions may be allowed to submit alternate schedule assumptions with proper documentation. However, care should be taken to insure that this strategy is not used to artificially inflate EUI targets. Specialized loads, such as server rooms, will be required to be sub-metered to facilitate management and tracking of these loads in the context of overall building operation. Projects proposing custom schedules should also be required to evaluate the EUI impact of proposed schedule changes by comparing the predicted EUI of the building using these proposed schedule changes to the predicted EUI of the building using the baseline schedules. This will allow the reviewer to evaluate the impact of the proposed schedule changes on overall building energy use. Designers will have the flexibility to adopt innovative savings opportunities related to lighting and equipment control strategies with legitimate documentation. The design team is expected to submit operating guidelines, product cut sheets, supporting drawings, specification sheets etc. with detailed explanation on how the savings is modeled for innovative energy savings strategies which modify the standardized schedule requirements. The following modeling schedules will be expected to utilize standardized assumptions from COMNET, as provided in the Appendix B: Required Building Schedules document. • Occupancy Schedule • Lighting Schedule • Equipment Schedule • Cooling Set-point Schedule • Heating Set-point Schedule • Service Hot Water Schedule • Infiltration Schedule • Servers/ 24/7 Processes Schedule MODELING FEEDBACK AND BENCHMARKING The 2020 code update attempts to build stronger relationship between the jurisdiction’s energy codes and the actual performance of the building. By adopting Energy Use Index as a compliance metric, the performance target approach will encourage the building industry to tak e into account the building’s energy performance from the conceptual design stage through operation. To provide better feedback to the design community on whether the building are performing as anticipated, beginning with the 2020 code cycle, projects will be required to review actual building energy use in the context of what level of energy use was anticipated in the submittal process. Benchmarking4 is the practice of comparing the measured performance of a device, process, facility, or organization to itself, its peers, or established norms, with the goal of informing and motivating performance improvement. When applied to building energy use, benchmarking serves as a mechanism to measure energy performance of a single building over time, relative to other similar buildings, or to modeled simulations of a reference building built to a specific 4 https://www.energy.gov/eere/slsc/building-energy-use-benchmarking ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 148 of 389 standard (such as an energy code). Benchmarking is a critical element of an organization's energy management strategy. Benchmarking will play a very crucial role in the jurisdiction’s long term vision of outcome based codes as well. Commercial buildings in Boulder are required to submit annual energy use data to the city under the Boulder Building Performance Ordinance 5. For new buildings constructed under the 2020 COBECC, the city will implement a strategy to compare the actual energy use reported to the city to the predicted performance submitted for energy code compliance. Within the first two years of building occupancy, the building owner will be required to submit an analysis of how actual building energy use diverges from proposed building energy use. This process will help the building team understand how well their building performs compared to the performance anticipated in the modeling submittal process. Projects will be encouraged to examine building use patterns and sub metered data to identify performance discrepancies or opportunities for improvement. In this first code cycle where performance follow-up is required, the focus of this effort will be educational and informational for the design community in Boulder and will help with data mining for the City. This process will set the stage for an increased focus on actual building performance in subsequent code cycles by creating performance feedback loops from design to building operation, and by beginning to leverage the value of disclosure data in driving improved building performance. SUMMARY The commercial code strategies identified in this document will set Boulder on a pathway to deep building sector energy savings aligned with Boulder’s climate goals. These strategies will be incorporated into code language proposals for the City of Boulder to be adopted in the 2020 upgrades to the COBECC. 5 https://bouldercolorado.gov/sustainability/boulder-building-performance-home ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 149 of 389 APPENDIX A: PLUG LOAD EQUIPMENT POWER DENSITY Table 5 below summarizes whole building level equipment power density requirements. Table 5: Plug Load Modeling Requirements- Whole Building Whole Building Categories Default Equipment Power Density (W/ft²) Automotive Facility 0.50 Convention Center 0.75 Courthouse 1.67 Dining: Bar Lounge/Leisure 1.32 Dining: Cafeteria/Fast Food 1.37 Dining: Family 1.26 Dormitory 1.96 Exercise Center 0.67 Fire Station 1.54 Gymnasium 0.67 Healthcare Clinic 1.22 Hospital 1.25 Hotel 1.56 Library 0.94 Manufacturing Facility 0.34 Motel 1.56 Motion Picture Theater 0.74 Multifamily 1.42 Museum 0.74 Office 1.67 Parking Garage n.a. Penitentiary 1.49 Performing Arts Theater 0.74 Police Station 1.54 Post Office 0.91 Religious Building 0.30 Retail 0.70 School/University 0.69 Sports Arena 0.75 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 150 of 389 Town Hall 0.75 Transportation 0.52 Warehouse 0.30 Workshop 0.43 Table 6 below summarizes space-by-space level equipment power density requirements. Table 6: Plug Load Modeling Requirements- Space-by-Space Space-by-Space Classifications Default Equipment Power Density (W/ft²) Audience Seating Area, Auditorium 0.75 Audience Seating Area, Convention Center 0.75 Audience Seating Area, Exercise Center 0.67 Audience Seating Area, Gymnasium 0.67 Audience Seating Area, Motion Picture Theater 0.74 Audience Seating Area, Penitentiary 0.75 Audience Seating Area, Performing Arts Theater 0.74 Audience Seating Area, Religious Building 0.73 Audience Seating Area, Sports Arena 0.74 Audience Seating Area, Transportation Facility 0.75 Audience Seating Area, Other 0.75 Atrium, Less than or equal to 40 ft n.a. Atrium, More than 40 ft n.a. Banking Activity Area, 1.72 Classroom/Lecture/Training, Penitentiary 0.59 Classroom/Lecture/Training, K-12, laboratory and shops 0.59 Classroom/Lecture/Training, Other 0.59 Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose, 0.73 Confinement Cells, 1.49 Copy/Print Room,* UWBD Corridor, Assisted Living 1.40 Corridor, Hospital 1.25 Corridor, Manufacturing 0.34 Corridor, Other* UWBD Courtroom, 1.49 Computer Room, n.a. Dining Area, Penitentiary 1.26 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 151 of 389 Dining Area, Assisted Living 1.32 Dining Area, Bar Lounge/Leisure 1.26 Dining Area, Cafeteria or Fast Food 1.37 Dining Area, Family Dining 1.32 Dining Area, Other 1.32 Electrical/Mechanical,* UWBD Emergency Vehicle Garage, 0.58 Food Preparation , 1.32 Guest Room, 1.56 Judges Chambers, 1.49 Laboratory, Classrooms 3.34 Laboratory, Other 3.34 Laundry/Washing Area, 0.52 Loading Dock, Interior, n.a. Lobby, Assisted Living 1.40 Lobby, Elevator* UWBD Lobby, Hotel 1.56 Lobby, Motion Picture Theater 0.74 Lobby, Performing Arts Theater 0.74 Lobby, Other* UWBD Locker Room , n.a. Lounge/Break, Healthcare 1.25 Lounge/Break, Other* UWBD Office, Enclosed 1.67 Office, Open Plan 1.67 Parking Area, Interior, n.a. Pharmacy Area, 0.55 Restrooms , Assisted Living 1.40 Restrooms , Other* UWBD Sales Area, 0.55 Seating Area General,* UWBD Stairway,* UWBD Storage, Hospital 1.25 Storage, >= 50 ft² 0.31 Storage, < 50 ft² 0.31 Vehicular Maintenance, 0.50 Workshop, 0.43 Assisted Living, Chapel 1.40 Assisted Living, Recreation Room 1.40 Convention Center, Exhibit Space 0.75 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 152 of 389 Dormitory, Living Quarters 1.96 Fire Station, Sleeping Quarters 1.54 Gymnasium/Fitness Center, Exercise Area 0.67 Gymnasium/Fitness Center, Playing Area 0.67 Healthcare, Emergency Room 1.25 Healthcare, Exam/Treatment 1.25 Healthcare, Supply Room 1.25 Healthcare, Nursery 1.25 Healthcare, Nurses’ Station 1.25 Healthcare, Operating Room 1.25 Healthcare, Patient Room 1.25 Healthcare, Physical Therapy 1.25 Healthcare, Recovery Room 1.25 Library, Reading Area 0.94 Library, Stacks 0.94 Manufacturing Facility, Detailed Manufacturing 0.34 Manufacturing Facility, Equipment Room 0.34 Manufacturing Facility, Extra High Bay (>50 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 0.34 Manufacturing Facility, High Bay (25–50 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 0.34 Manufacturing Facility, Low Bay (<25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 0.34 Museum, General Exhibition 0.74 Museum, Restoration 0.43 Post Office, Sorting Area 1.67 Religious Building, Fellowship Hall 0.30 Religious Building, Worship/Pulpit/Choir 0.30 Retail, Dressing/Fitting Room 0.82 Retail, Mall Concourse 0.00 Sports Arena Playing Area, Class I 0.67 Sports Arena Playing Area, Class II 0.67 Sports Arena Playing Area, Class III 0.67 Sports Arena Playing Area, Class IV 0.67 Transportation, Baggage/Carousel Area 0.76 Transportation, Concourse 0.76 Transportation, Ticket Counter 0.76 Warehouse, Medium/Bulky Items on Pallets 0.31 Warehouse, Smaller Hand Carried Items 0.31 Note: *UWBD = Use whole building data ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 153 of 389 APPENDIX B: REQUIRED BUILDING SCHEDULES (Attached as a separate document) ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 154 of 389 First Name Last Name Email Kyle Callahan kyle@kylecallahan.com Fernando Gonzalez fernando@rodwinarch.com Lauren Folkerts lauren@hmhai.com Brad Guinn brad@wwreynolds.com Jim Kadlecek jim@rodwinarch.com Rebecca Reel rreel@noresco.com Sally Blair sblair@noresco.com Robert Rody rrody@treanorhl.com Kristi Ennis kennis@boulderassociates.com Chad Huilman ChadH@PNEinterests.com John Tenney john@tenneyicf.com Jack Vultaggio Jack.Vultaggio@ibm.com Brandon Farrand brandon@caddispc.com Denise Grimm dlgrimm@bouldercounty.org Mike Lotte mlotte@integrollc.com Jim Williams jmwillia@ball.com Bill Hayes bhayes@bouldercounty.org Ethan Miley michael@boulderengineering.com Michael Vair michael@boulderengineering.com Juana Gomez juana@lawrenceandgomez.com John Wyatt john@wyattconstruction.com Rob Van Vleet rob@wwreynolds.com Kimberly Cattau kim.cattau@surroundarchitecture.com Katherine Willis kim.cattau@surroundarchitecture.com Tim Laughlin kim.cattau@surroundarchitecture.com Ambra Sutherlin asutherlin@bouldercounty.org Chip Weincek chip@cwa-architect.com Danica Powell danica@trestlestrategy.com Mark McIntyre mark@markmcintyre.me Cole Meleyco cole@trestlestrategy.com Alex Cassidy alex@wwreynolds.com Judy Porter jporter@noresco.com Cole Meleyco cole@trestlestrategy.com 2020 Commercial Energy Code Outreach Attendee Summary Wednesday, February 27, 20 1:30 PM to 2:30 P ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 155 of 389 Kirk Moors kmoors@bouldercolorado.gov Will Birchfield wbirchfield@bouldercolorado.gov Liz Hanson lizhanson22@gmail.com Carolyn Elam celam@bouldercolorado.gov ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 156 of 389 2020 Residential Energy Code December 20, 2018 Brenton Building Community Engagement Feedback • Provide permit data analysis that illustrates the 2017/18 square footage ranges for new construction to better understand and provide context for the proposed 2020 ERI targets. • Put the energy code update in context of broader community issues and priorities, specifically affordable housing and social equity. Look for opportunities to solve these issues innovatively through zoning and planning solutions (e.g. incentivize higher density development and mixed use development, eliminate code incentives to build larger homes, re-evaluate parking requirements to address density, etc.) Recognize that energy code requirements have real first cost implications. • Recognize the state regulation that limits PV size to 120% of the home’s demonstrated usage impacts smaller homes more so than larger homes as the flat, $2,000 Design Load Analysis fee disproportionately impacts smaller homes with smaller budgets. Follow-up note from staff: Xcel will also accept the HERS/ERI analysis for the purpose of sizing the PV array. The Design Load Analysis is only necessary if the home is trying to install PV in excess of the HERS. • The triggers and requirements for alterations need further analysis. Construction Value and Actual Value as currently defined in the 2017 code and as proposed in the 2020 code feel disconnected and inequitable. If code requirements depend on the Assessor’s data rather than market value rates for home value, the Construction Value for improvements should reference the Schedule of Values rather than market value cost estimates. Additional conversation on this topic raised numerous concerns about what energy efficiency improvements should be triggered for alterations. Staff agreed to investigate alternative triggers for alterations that rely less on the Assessor’s database. • Alternative energy performance requirements for alterations were discussed that would require existing homes to establish a baseline HERS/ERI score and then make improvement on that baseline HERS/ERI score. This idea was supported by several present, and it was discussed that Denver recently adopted similar policy. • It was requested that the IMC ventilation requirements for make-up air to prevent back-drafting be adjusted if combustion closets are required for open combustions equipment or if closed combustion equipment is installed. This could save a homeowner as much as $1,000 on a kitchen renovation. • Regarding proposed renewable offset requirements, it was requested that unpermitted hot tubs be grandfathered in. It was suggested that staff solicit feedback from the County on this regulation. • Regarding the proposed construction waste and demolition waste requirements, several design professionals voiced concern over their inability to control how this is tracked. Subcontractors ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 157 of 389 performing the work do not adequately carry the burden of complying with these requirements. The owner and builder are held responsible when waste haulers fail to comply. • The design professionals present suggested staff solicit feedback from homeowners directly, as the alteration requirements ultimately effect homeowners ability to make improvements to their homes. • There was much discussion on the need for city process improvements not just related to the energy code, but with regard to the many city regulations/ordinances that design teams must demonstrate compliance with. It was suggested that the cost to assemble a permit package for the City of Boulder was up to $20,000 more than other jurisdictions. It was recommended that the city consider streamlining these requirements and rely more on the professionalism and ethics of the consultants. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 158 of 389 ROCK Y M OUN T AI N INSTI T U T EUPDATED 2019 WITH COLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS BY ALISA PETERSEN, MICHAEL GARTMAN, AND JACOB CORVIDAE ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 159 of 389 AUTHORS Alisa Petersen, Michael Gartman, and Jacob Corvidae *All authors from Rocky Mountain Institute unless otherwise noted. ADDITIONAL CONTRIBUTORS Sam Rashkin, Department of Energy James Lyons, Newport Partners CONTACTS Alisa Petersen, apetersen@rmi.org Michael Gartman, mgartman@rmi.org SUGGESTED CITATION Petersen, Alisa, Michael Gartman, and Jacob Corvidae. The Economics of Zero-Energy Homes: Single-Family Insights. Rocky Mountain Institute, 2019. www.rmi.org/economics-of-zero-energy-homes EDITORIAL/DESIGN Editorial Director: Cindie Baker Editor: David Labrador Creative Director: Romy Purshouse Design: Luke Weisman Images courtesy of iStock unless otherwise noted. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank the following individuals/ organizations for offering their insights and perspectives on this work. Anthony Aebei, Greenhill Contracting Ted Clifton, Clifton View Homes Bill Decker, Decker Homes Geoff Ferrell, Mandalay Homes C.R. Herro, Meritage Homes Corporation Parlin Meyer, BrightBuilt Home Gene Myers, Thrive Home Builders Net Zero Energy Coalition Tom Wade, Palo Duro Homes, Inc. AUTHORS & ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 160 of 389 ABOUT US ABOUT ROCKY MOUNTAIN INSTITUTE Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI)—an independent nonprofit founded in 1982—transforms global energy use to create a clean, prosperous, and secure low-carbon future. It engages businesses, communities, institutions, and entrepreneurs to accelerate the adoption of market-based solutions that cost-effectively shift from fossil fuels to efficiency and renewables. RMI has offices in Basalt and Boulder, Colorado; New York City; Washington, D.C.; and Beijing. ROCK Y M OU N T AI N I NSTI T U T EATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 161 of 389 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................................06 01 THE COST BARRIER FOR ZE HOMES .................................................................................................10 What Is ZE? What Is ZER? ..............................................................................................................................................................................13 Introducing Cost Thresholds ........................................................................................................................................................................13 02 THE CURRENT COST OF ZE HOMES .................................................................................................15 ZER Cost Thresholds Snapshot ..................................................................................................................................................................17 ZE Cost Thresholds Snapshot .....................................................................................................................................................................18 The Added Cost of Ensuring Indoor Air Quality ...................................................................................................................................19 03 COST-OPTIMAL BUILDING PRACTICES FOR ZER ..........................................................................21 HVAC: Heat Pumps Are an Essential Opportunity ............................................................................................................................22 Easy Wins in Lighting, Appliances, and Water Fixtures ...................................................................................................................23 Heat Pump Water Heaters ..........................................................................................................................................................................24 Envelope ............................................................................................................................................................................................................24 Solar-Ready Roofing ......................................................................................................................................................................................25 04 FUTURE COST PROJECTIONS .............................................................................................................26 Solar PV Installed Costs ................................................................................................................................................................................27 More Efficient Equipment to Reduce Solar Requirements .............................................................................................................28 Other Component Cost Savings ...............................................................................................................................................................30 Labor Costs Yield Uncertainty .....................................................................................................................................................................31 05 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BUILDERS ..............................................................................................34 Use This Report to Inform Future Construction ..................................................................................................................................35 Collaborate in the DOE ZER Program .....................................................................................................................................................35 Find the Right Subcontractors ...................................................................................................................................................................35 Hone Your Salesmanship ............................................................................................................................................................................36 Engage with Local Policymakers ..............................................................................................................................................................36 06 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICYMAKERS ..................................................................................37 Clarify Goals to Inform Actions ..................................................................................................................................................................38 Use This Report to Inform and Support Policy ....................................................................................................................................38 Support Labor Training Programs ............................................................................................................................................................38 Support Training for Other Influencing Parties ....................................................................................................................................39 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 162 of 389 07 CONCLUSION ..............................................................................................................................................40  08 COLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM..............................................................................................................42 Electrification Should Be Implemented Thoughtfully .......................................................................................................................46 Cost-Optimal Building Practices ................................................................................................................................................................47 Conclusion .........................................................................................................................................................................................................49 09 APPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS ......................................................................................50 10 APPENDIX B: HOW TO SCALE ZE COST RESULTS .....................................................................60 11 ENDNOTES ..................................................................................................................................................66 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 163 of 389 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY EX ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 164 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 7 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EBuilding new single-family homes to zero-energy (ZE) or zero-energy ready (ZER) home standards can save consumers thousands of dollars over the home’s life cycle. ZE homes produce as much renewable energy as they consume over the course of a year, and ZER homes have similar levels of efficiency without on- site solar photovoltaics (PV). In addition, increasing market penetration of ZE homes can help cities meet their aggressive greenhouse gas emission goals while building a more future-proofed and energy-secure building stock. Despite these benefits, ZE and ZER homes make up less than 1% of the residential market, partially due to outdated perceptions of the incremental cost for these offerings. This report demonstrates that the cost increase to build a ZE or ZER home is modest (with incremental costs of 6.7%–8.1% for ZE homes and 0.9%–2.5% for ZER homes as shown in Figure 1)—far less than consumers, builders, and policymakers may realize—and highlights methods builders and policymakers can use to drive increased market penetration. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FIGURE 1: INCREMENTAL COSTS FOR ZE AND ZER HOMES ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 165 of 389 8 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FIGURE 2: INCREMENTAL COSTS FOR ZER HOMES COMPARED AGAINST COST THRESHOLDS Consumer Thresholds Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) compared the incremental costs of building ZE and ZER homes in four US locations against four key consumer cost thresholds that reflect the metrics that both homebuyers and builders use to make investment decisions: • Mortgage: The anticipated energy savings over the life of the mortgage.• Resale: The anticipated energy savings over 12 years (the typical length of time homeowners stay in a home).• Consumer Willingness to Pay (WTP): The 4% first cost premium customers have stated they’re willing to pay, according to consumer research. • First Cost: The cost to build an identical home that meets local energy code. When the incremental costs of building ZE and ZER homes are equal to or less than the cost thresholds, decision makers are more likely to bear the cost of investment in ZE or ZER homes. In many cases, the cost thresholds have already been achieved. Figure 2 and Figure 3, respectively, summarize the results for ZER and ZE homes compared against these cost thresholds. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 166 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 9 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EActions for Builders and Policymakers Builders can use the recommendations provided in this report to fine-tune home designs and construction processes to minimize incremental costs. This report also outlines key actions that policymakers can take to drive increased adoption of ZE and ZER homes in their jurisdictions. Both builders and policymakers are essential to driving progress in this industry. For the cases in which the cost thresholds are not met, it is important to remember that costs of building ZE and ZER homes continue to decline, with a projected incremental cost for ZE homes of 3%–5% by 2030. Although our analysis yielded concrete recommendations for cost-optimal ZE home designs, a variety of other solutions are available and may be specified based on local conditions or consumer priorities. This analysis also focused on all-electric solutions; we did not analyze natural gas options. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FIGURE 3: INCREMENTAL COSTS FOR ZE HOMES COMPARED AGAINST COST THRESHOLDS ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 167 of 389 THE COST BARRIER FOR ZE HOMES 01 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 168 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 11 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ETHE COST BARRIER FOR ZE HOMES The energy performance of highly efficient ZE and ZER homes can provide myriad benefits to homeowners, builders, utilities, and communities at large, as documented in a growing body of evidence.¹ Figure 4 provides a summary of these benefits across key stakeholder groups. FIGURE 4: BENEFITS OF ZE HOMES ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 169 of 389 12 THE COST BARRIER FOR ZE HOMES Yet, most stakeholders never consider the opportunity that ZE and ZER homes represent due to outdated perceptions of the price tag these benefits carry: A National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) 2017 survey found that 81% of single-family home builders either don’t know how much more it will cost to build a green home or thought green home building would add more than 5% to the cost, while 58% think consumers are willing to pay less than a 5% premium for a green home.2 Consumer research yields a similar result for home buyers. These perceptions are preventing or disincentivizing stakeholders from acting in their own long-term interests. While ZE and ZER single-family homes still comprise less than 0.1% of the current US residential housing stock,3 the market for these homes is growing rapidly: Net Zero Energy Coalition reported an astounding 60% market growth from 2016 to 2017,4 while DOE’s Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program reported 104% growth in certified projects over the same time period (see Figure 5). Additionally, DOE’s ZERH program has forecasted 1,150 certified homes in 2018, nearly doubling the number of certified homes for the third straight year. This report attempts to further accelerate that growth by addressing outdated cost perceptions and showing 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 2013 2014 2015Number of Homes2016 2017 FIGURE 5: ZERO ENERGY READY HOMES CERTIFIED EACH YEAR5 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 170 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 13 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ETHE COST BARRIER FOR ZE HOMES that the superior long-term performance of ZE and ZER homes deserves consideration from a variety of stakeholders. The following pages identify the current incremental cost of ZE and ZER homes, describe best practices for builders to minimize costs, shed light on dropping cost trends, and provide policymakers with recommendations for how to promote growth of ZE homes in their cities. This report is focused on single-family homes. A similar report focused on multifamily housing will be produced at a later date. What Is Zero Energy? What Is Zero Energy Ready? A ZE home is a highly efficient home that produces as much renewable energy as it consumes over the course of the year. This report defines a ZER home as a home that could be certified under the DOE ZERH program. DOE defines a ZER home as “a high-performance home so energy efficient all or most annual energy consumption can be offset with renewable energy.” A home builder may choose to pursue ZER instead of ZE if there is excessive roof shading (e.g., trees, urban locations), unconducive roof design for solar PV (e.g., orientation, complexity), budget constraints requiring a lower up-front cost, or preference to wait until solar prices drop further before purchasing. Although not all buildings can be built to ZE standards, all buildings can be built to ZER standards. ZER helps “futureproof” homes against changing expectations and allows for other renewable energy solutions, such as community solar programs, utility renewable power purchase options, and purchase of carbon offsets. The DOE ZERH program requires independent verification to ensure that homes will perform as intended, and it offers easy-to- follow guidance for builders that are new to building ZER homes. Although ZE homes don’t need to be all electric (this is not a requirement of the DOE ZERH program), this report focuses on completely electric ZE homes. Natural gas, fuel oil, and propane in residences currently account for one-tenth of total US carbon emissions and cannot be directly offset using renewables.6 Further, RMI’s research and analysis have found that in many cases electrification of space and water heating in new construction homes reduces homeowner costs over the lifetime of the appliances when compared with fossil fuels.7 This focus also reflects the industry trend of electrifying building components as related technology matures: most notably, 43% of new homes now use air source heat pumps (ASHPs) for heating and cooling, compared with 10% of all existing homes as of 2015.8 Note that a wide range of terminology exists for these super-efficient building definitions. ZE homes are commonly referred to as net-zero energy homes; ZER homes are similarly referred to as net-zero energy ready homes. Net-zero carbon homes share very similar features but may not be identical to a ZE home. This report uses the terms “zero energy” and “zero- energy ready” to align with DOE-adopted terminology. Introducing Cost Thresholds Many prospective homebuyers don’t factor in long- term costs associated with homeownership, such as utility bills, maintenance, and future value. Although some consumers might be willing to overlook sticker price because they understand the added benefits of a ZE home, this is not typical. Therefore, to increase market penetration, ZE and ZER homes need to be financially appealing to the broader market. RMI centered the analysis in this report upon four “cost thresholds” that reflect metrics that both homebuyers and builders use to make investment decisions. When these cost thresholds are achieved (as some already have been), these decision makers are more likely to bear the cost of investment in ZE or ZER homes. The cost thresholds considered are: • Mortgage Threshold: This threshold compares the incremental cost to build a ZE and ZER home ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 171 of 389 14 THE COST BARRIER FOR ZE HOMES (compared with an identical home that meets local energy code efficiency standards) to the net-present value of the anticipated energy savings over the life of the mortgage (30 years is most common).9 This threshold might be desirable to long-term consumers who have no intention of moving and are likely interested in owning a ZE home for more than just financial reasons. Another way of thinking about this threshold is using net monthly cash flow: if the monthly mortgage payment increase is less than or equal to the monthly energy bill savings, then the mortgage threshold has been achieved.10 • Resale Threshold: This threshold compares the incremental cost to build a ZE and ZER home (compared with an identical home that meets local energy code) with the net-present value of the anticipated energy savings over the typical length a homeowner is expected to stay in the home (which is 12 years).11 • Consumer Willingness to Pay Threshold: This threshold compares the incremental cost to build a ZE and ZER home (compared with an identical home that meets local energy code) with the first cost premium customers have stated they’re willing to pay in consumer research. According to the latest NAHB research, 42% of consumers are willing to pay a 4% premium for a green home, and 51% of consumers are willing to pay a 4% premium for a ZE home, according to an Opinion Dynamics survey performed in California.12 Another study by NAHB found that consumers would be willing to spend an average of $10,732 more for every $1,000 in annual energy savings, which roughly translates to a 3.9% incremental cost.13 Although none of these consumer WTP metrics perfectly represents how much more consumers nationally would be willing to pay for a ZE home, combined they point to a similar threshold that people would be willing to pay for a ZE home— roughly a 4% premium. • First Cost Threshold: This threshold compares the incremental cost to build a ZE and ZER home with an identical home that meets local energy code. If the first cost threshold is achieved, a ZE and ZER home will cost the same as a code-compliant home. If this threshold is achieved, the cost barrier to ZE and ZER homes has been eliminated. Policymakers can use these cost thresholds to inform ZE programs and determine the level of incentives or cost reduction strategies required to overcome the first cost objection. Builders can use these cost thresholds to set targets for cost reduction in their ZE and ZER homes. This can help support their net profits by reducing costs and increasing the pool of customers they can serve with ZE and ZER homes. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 172 of 389 THE CURRENT COST OF ZE HOMES 02 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 173 of 389 16 THE CURRENT COST OF ZE HOMES RMI’s techno-economic analysis confirmed that ZE homes have already passed the mortgage and some resale thresholds and that ZER homes have already passed the mortgage, resale, and consumer WTP thresholds in most US markets. To determine the current state of ZER and ZE home costs, RMI analyzed a typical single-family home in four cities (Houston, Atlanta, Baltimore, and Chicago) representing International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones 2–5, where 90% of new construction homes are being built.14 These locations collectively represent an array of utility rates, labor costs, and solar resources, providing a diverse look at ZE costs across the country. The updated version of this report now also includes an addendum covering findings for climate zones 6 and 7. RMI used BEopt, a free software tool developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to complete this analysis. BEopt can model various energy efficiency measure packages to find the “optimal” ZE package at the lowest cost.15 Embedded in BEopt is a measure database that is set up to easily model certain envelope, lighting, large appliance, heating and cooling equipment, and hot water energy conservation measures (ECMs). The measure database has costs associated with each ECM using the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database (NREMD); these costs were updated or verified using RSMeans data; American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) data; National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) data; Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) data; manufacturer cost quotes; and other available resources. The cost resource used for each ECM can be found in Appendix A. RMI derived the baseline home cost from RSMeans and altered cost by location using RSMeans city- specific location factors. We also created a baseline model in BEopt to determine baseline energy consumption and baseline costs associated with energy-related equipment. We then compared the cost-optimized ZE home with the baseline BEopt home cost to determine incremental cost of energy- related equipment. Each baseline model was the same 2,200-square-foot, three-bedroom, two-bathroom home with a two-car garage but envelope and HVAC properties were climate zone-specific to the levels required by IECC 2009 energy code. Because the home was modeled to mimic typical construction, passive design strategies, such as optimized window placement, were not considered. IECC 2009 energy code was selected as the baseline code because that is the most common code in the United States,16 and most cities with an energy code that isn’t IECC 2009 have a more aggressive code, which would result in even smaller incremental costs to achieve ZE or ZER homes. Additionally, one goal of this analysis is to be able to scale the results from the four-city analysis throughout the United States. ZE and ZER home costs vary widely based on location. Labor and material rates, climate zones, utility rates, and building energy codes all play a role in determining the incremental cost to construct a ZE and ZER home. Appendix B summarizes how these results can be used to approximate the cost of ZE and ZER homes in 50 other cities as well as a methodology to use the results to approximate the cost in additional cities. Additional details about the assumptions that went into the baseline building models can be found in Appendix A. The results from the four-city analysis are summarized in Table 1. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 174 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 17 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ETHE CURRENT COST OF ZE HOMES TABLE 1: RESULTS FROM THE BEOPT ANALYSIS ZE homes have an average 7.3% cost premium and ZER homes have an average 1.8% cost premium compared with code baseline efficiency homes, based on the techno-economic analysis performed by RMI and summarized in Table 1. This is the cost to builders and does not include the cost of land. Incremental increases for ZE homes for developers and home buyers will be a smaller percentage of the total cost. ZER Cost Thresholds Snapshot The maximum incremental cost to meet each cost threshold was calculated and compared with the current incremental cost to build ZER homes. Figure 6 summarizes the results. Houston has the lowest mortgage and resale thresholds because it has the lowest utility rates, as Table 1 shows. The city also has a lower incremental cost because it doesn’t require significant envelope upgrades beyond IECC 2009. FIGURE 6: SUMMARY OF ZER HOME COST THRESHOLD ACHIEVEMENT CZ2 CZ3 CZ4 CZ5 Modeled City Utility Energy Rate ($/kWh) Baseline Energy Use Intensity (kBtu/sf/yr) Proposed Energy Use Intensity (kBtu/sf/yr) Solar PV Size (kW) Baseline Cost ($) Incremental Cost for ZER Homes($) Incremental Cost for ZER Homes (%) Incremental Cost for ZE Homes ($) Incremental Cost for ZE Homes (%) Incremental Cost for ZE Homes with ITC ($) Incremental Cost for ZE Homes with ITC (%) Houston, TX $0.096 22.0 13.0 6.5 $228,479 $2,065 0.9% $21,240 9.3% $15,488 6.8% Atlanta, GA $0.121 23.6 13.3 6.2 $242,243 $6,094 2.5% $25,314 10.4% $19,548 8.1% Baltimore, MD $0.147 26.9 13.8 6.8 $253,254 $5,993 2.4% $24,693 9.8% $19,083 7.5% Chicago, IL $0.122 33.1 16.0 8.4 $346,848 $5,368 1.5% $30,736 8.9% $23,125 6.7% ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 175 of 389 18 ZER homes are consistently less expensive than the mortgage, resale, and consumer WTP thresholds. Surprisingly, these homes almost meet the first cost threshold; on average, they only cost 1.8% more than a code-compliant home. ZE Cost Thresholds Snapshot The maximum incremental cost to meet each cost threshold was calculated and compared with the current incremental cost to build ZE homes. Figure 7 summarizes the results. ZE homes consistently passed the mortgage threshold and are close to passing the resale threshold. This analysis includes the solar Investment Tax Credit (ITC), a federal tax credit that reduces solar cost by 30% until 2019. This tax credit is in the process of being phased out; the impact of this phaseout is addressed in the “Solar PV Installed Costs” section of the report. FIGURE 7: SUMMARY OF ZE HOME COST THRESHOLD ACHIEVEMENT THE CURRENT COST OF ZE HOMES ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 176 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 19 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EHow Does Builder Expertise Affect Cost? Builder expertise and experience with ZE homes play a large role in the incremental cost to build a ZE home. Builders new to ZE homes might initially see higher costs than the costs highlighted above, but new ZE builders should be able to achieve these costs or lower as they optimize technical solutions and get crews acclimated to these approaches. This learning curve will likely be much steeper for minimum code builders compared with ENERGY STAR builders, but all builders should rapidly find opportunities for cost reductions from systems integration and optimization often only gained with experience. A recent NAHB study showed that builders that build majority green homes think green homes have less than a 4% incremental cost to build, whereas builders that have only a small green building portfolio typically think it has a 10% incremental cost.17 When builders are first starting to build ZE homes, there is a large learning curve. The typical subcontractors they work with might not be familiar with the new technology, selection of the cost-optimal package may take a few iterations, and builders need to integrate completely new processes into their design, such as the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) rater. Could Local Incentives Help Achieve Cost Parity? This analysis conservatively assumes no local incentives. Where efficiency incentives are available, ZER homes may already have a lower cost than standard construction. For example, in Chicago, Commonwealth Edison offers incentives for appliances, smart thermostats, mini splits, and hot water heat pumps, for a combined incentive of $1,450. These incentives bring ZER homes even closer to cost parity with only a 1.1% incremental cost compared with a code baseline home. For local incentives to help increase market penetration of ZE buildings, incentives will need to be effectively communicated to builders and easy to use. Could a Solar PPA or Lease Help ZE Homes Achieve Cost Parity? Although this analysis assumes outright purchasing of solar PV, financing options could offset most or all PV first costs and spread them over the life of the system. Because third-party solar providers offer power purchase agreements (PPAs) and solar leases, homeowners can use these financing vehicles to capture the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) tax credit, which is normally available only to businesses.18 In some locations, PPA providers can offer contracts that provide homeowners with cheaper electricity rates than those available through utilities, allowing consumers to purchase ZE homes at ZER prices.19 Policymakers can encourage businesses to offer PPAs and loans by working with utilities to offer favorable interconnection and net-metering policies and local financial incentives and by providing clarity around any legal or regulatory requirements for third- party solar ownership models. The Added Cost of Ensuring Indoor Air Quality ZE and ZER homes have better indoor air quality than most residential homes on the market because they require mechanical ventilation, which means that fresh air entering the home isn’t dependent on occupants opening windows or high levels of infiltration. Having good indoor air quality reduces the risk of mold, asthma symptoms, moisture, radon, carbon monoxide, and toxic chemicals.20 Better THE CURRENT COST OF ZE HOMESATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 177 of 389 20 indoor air quality can reduce eye irritation, allergies, headaches, and respiratory problems. To qualify for the ZER certification, a home must also be certified under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor airPLUS program, which adds an estimated $1,000 to the incremental cost.21 This would have a minor effect on the incremental cost. For example, this would increase the ZER cost in Chicago from 1.5% to 1.8%. This added cost comes from requirements such as radon-resistant construction in EPA Radon Zone 1; supplemental dehumidification in hot/humid climates; low-formaldehyde wood products and adhesives; corrosion-proof rodent screens; low-volatile organic compound (low-VOC) interior paints, finishes, and carpets; home ventilation before occupancy; and equipment manuals. This program also improves pest management in the home, which reduces residue from pests that can trigger allergy and asthma attacks. Although Indoor airPLUS certification is required to qualify for the DOE ZERH program, this cost was not included in the cost thresholds report because a home can become ZE without being certified. Are ZE Homes More Resilient? ZE homes can provide an added resilience value to homeowners if the right components are in place. However, solar PV alone doesn’t help with resilience currently because most grid-tied solar PV systems are designed to turn off during a power outage. One low-cost solution to this challenge is a secure power supply inverter, which allows solar PV systems to supply energy to ZE homes during grid outages at an added cost of only $350 to $400.22 The technology does have some restrictions: It will only provide power when the solar PV system is producing energy, and it can only supply a set amount of power. This low-cost solution would help during a natural disaster, but it would still leave ZE homes without power at night and wouldn’t support 100% of typical energy usage in the home. An even more robust resiliency solution is to add an energy storage system, which can store energy produced by a solar PV system to be used even when the sun isn’t shining. Energy storage systems provide resilience to homeowners and stability to the electricity grid and can even insulate homeowners against changes to utility rate structures (such as time of use, demand charges, or elimination of net metering). An energy storage system adds $7,900 to $14,600 to the total ZE package before incentives23—but, like solar, costs are dropping rapidly. An energy storage system would allow the home to move away from zero energy and toward zero carbon and resilience. Policymakers should include energy storage and secure power supplies in conversations about ZE policies to ensure a solution that minimizes grid costs and improves reliability. Although energy storage is rarely economical in residential applications under current conditions (due to a lack of demand charges or time-of-use rates), new utility business models often emphasize these strategies. Policymakers should work with utilities to ensure that future efforts to address grid volatility incorporate incentives and rate structures that support energy storage solutions. Builders and policymakers should also consider the Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety FORTIFIED Home program for regionally specific design strategies to help fend against natural hazards. Builders can also work with their local utility to help promote resilient ZE homes. Mandalay Homes, one of the largest ZE home builders in the United States, is building 3,000 ZE homes in Arizona with solar PV and energy storage and is coordinating with the local utility to set up a plan for the utility to pay homeowners to use the stored power.24 THE CURRENT COST OF ZE HOMES ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 178 of 389 COST-OPTIMAL BUILDING PRACTICES FOR ZER 03 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 179 of 389 22 COST-OPTIMAL BUILDING PRACTICES FOR ZER There is no “one-size-fits-all” solution for constructing a cost-optimized ZER home. A truly cost-optimized design is influenced by not only local climate but also site constraints, local labor rates, utility tariffs, and existing financial incentives. However, our analysis revealed several universal insights that can provide guidance for builders and policymakers alike. HVAC: Heat Pumps Are an Essential Opportunity Until recently, heat pumps have primarily been relegated to the milder winter climates of the southeastern United States due to an inability to operate in subfreezing temperatures. However, technological advancements have now yielded hundreds of models that can operate efficiently in temperatures as low as 5°F, with some units performing down to -12°F,25 allowing year-round performance even in the cold climate of Chicago.26 These systems now represent an essential component for ZE and ZER homes. A range of options exists for builders specifying heat pump HVAC systems: • Ductless Mini Splits: Mini split systems are capable of outperforming the efficiency of best-in-class central air conditioners (ACs) by over 30%.27 Ductless mini splits can represent the lowest-cost system option in milder climates and smaller homes where whole-house comfort can be provided with only two heads and high-transfer grilles between rooms. Using additional heads can provide occupants with a level of personalized comfort control that isn’t possible with centralized systems. Builders and policymakers must work with experienced installers or manufacturers to understand the limitations of ductless systems in their local context. • Partially-Ducted Mini Splits: Builders can incorporate ductwork into mini split systems to promote whole-house comfort without the need for additional heads. They can use exposed ductwork, or tray or drop ceilings, to ensure that perimeter spaces are adequately ventilated while avoiding the energy losses introduced by situating ductwork in unconditioned attics. Targeting home layouts and mini split siting to minimize necessary distribution equipment can reduce duct costs by over 50% compared with traditional central system ductwork at a similar cost to ductless systems (see Figure 8 for a cost comparison). • ASHPs: Centralized ASHP systems are typically more robust than mini split systems and do not present the same home design constraints (e.g., a need for open floor plans and careful siting of HVAC equipment). Centralized ASHPs are also capable of incorporating high-capture filtration systems,28 a potentially significant benefit in urban environments. Progress in this industry is yielding a variety of offerings capable of competing with the cost of mini split systems. Figure 8 provides a sampling of costs for the three heat pump HVAC systems specified for a ZER home in Baltimore. It is important to note that these costs are estimated for a single-family home layout and that cost-optimal solutions may vary for different home designs and climates. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 180 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 23 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ECOST-OPTIMAL BUILDING PRACTICES FOR ZER $12,500 $10,000 $7,500 $5,000 $2,500 $- Ductless Mini Split Partially Ducted Mini Split Air Source Heat Pump Distribution System Cost of EquipmentCurrent-generation mini split ACs use an inverter to drastically increase efficiency by allowing the unit to ramp up or slow down to match heating or cooling loads, yielding unique commissioning and maintenance requirements that local contractor pools may not be adequately trained to handle. Policymakers can directly address this potential bottleneck by promoting training and education programs. Ductless mini split units may not be the ideal HVAC solution for all situations. Radiant floor systems bring a measurable comfort advantage that may be appropriate in luxury applications. In mild climates, home builders may be able to avoid heating or cooling systems entirely. Like all the recommendations in the report, builders should perform their own research and consider local factors before specifying heat pump HVAC systems. Easy Wins in Lighting, Appliances, and Water Fixtures ENERGY STAR–certified appliances (namely refrigerators, dishwashers, and clothes washers), ENERGY STAR–certified LED lighting,30 and EPA WaterSense–certified water fixtures were cost-optimal measures for all four locations modeled. These efficiency measures combined were able to reduce electric loads enough to downsize the necessary solar PV system by 1.5 kW–1.9 kW (a $3,000–$4,100 cost savings) at an average incremental cost of only $260. FIGURE 8: COST OF MODELED HEAT PUMP HVAC OPTIONS FOR BALTIMORE29 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 181 of 389 24 It is important to acknowledge that some home builders and developers may be skeptical of the minimal incremental cost reported for these measures. LED lighting in particular was known as a low-value efficiency measure just a decade ago. However, costs have dropped by over 75% since 2010 and are now nearing cost parity with conventional options, while LED bulb efficiency has more than doubled over the same timeframe.31 It may be necessary to educate builders about the rapidly changing market to ensure support for these solutions. Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) use the same process as heat pump HVAC systems to provide domestic hot water (DHW) at an efficiency two to three times greater than conventional electric DHW heaters.32 HPWH systems also cool and dehumidify the space they’re in, making them ideal for hot and humid climates.33 However, experts remain concerned about HPWHs’ ability to perform in colder climates. Although the system modeled in this analysis successfully provided hot water year-round (even in Chicago), home builders and policymakers should work to verify that locally available options can provide comfort before specifying HPWH units. Specifying products that align with the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Tier 3 HPWH specification may help ensure robust performance in colder climates.34 Beyond cold-climate performance concerns and a substantial added cost, HPWH systems also need more space than conventional systems, add complexity in commissioning and maintenance, and suffer from a reputation for being noisy. Similar to heat pump HVAC systems, there is potential for policymakers to begin addressing this issue by hosting or subsidizing training programs for this technology. If performance issues are a concern, builders could consider tankless water heaters or solar water heating. Electrification in new developments: For new housing developments, specifying HPWHs in conjunction with electric heating and cooking systems carries the added benefit of negating the need to install new natural gas pipelines, yielding developers additional cost-saving potential. Envelope The builders interviewed for this report used a wide array of framing systems to achieve their ZE designs, including structurally insulated panels (SIPs), insulated concrete forms (ICFs), and double-stud construction. Some builders used triple-pane windows. And much has been made of strategies to minimize air leakage, with builders reporting targets as low as 0.12 air changes per hour (over 50 times below IECC 2009 code).35 However, our analysis found that even in new construction, many of the most aggressive envelope measures were not part of a cost-optimized design. Table 2 provides a summary of the envelope recommendations detailed in Appendix A. Envelope Component Cost-Optimized Recommendations Windows Use high-performance windows. Specifications vary widely by climate, with an incremental cost range of $360 (climate zone 2) to $2,840 (climate zone 5). Wall Insulation Add R5 continuous insulation layer to wall sheathing in climate zones 3 and 4 at an added cost of $2,000–$2,100. Roof Insulation Use the minimum required by the DOE ZERH program (i.e., 2012/2015 IECC code levels) as a rule of thumb at an added cost of $300–$1,200. Slab Insulation Remain code compliant in all climates. TABLE 2: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COST-OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COMPONENTS COST-OPTIMAL BUILDING PRACTICES FOR ZER ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 182 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 25 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ECOST-OPTIMAL BUILDING PRACTICES FOR ZER Although builders can typically construct ZE homes with envelopes that perform only marginally above code based on nominal specifications (such as wall R-value), ZER homes also integrate strategic enhancements (such as thermal breaks, air barrier continuity, and insulation installation quality checks) to ensure that envelopes adequately control moisture and perform to their potential. Envelopes are far more sensitive to regional climatic conditions (including temperature, humidity, and sunlight availability) than other high-performance building components, and builders must work to ensure that they take these details into consideration when specifying envelope components. Builders should not simply use the recommendations outlined in this report, especially in climate zones outside the scope of our analysis (IECC climate zones 1, 6, 7, and 8), where envelope investments may be more prudent. Working with an energy auditor, or collaborating with other builders in the DOE ZERH program, can lead to smarter design. For builders, there may be long-term advantages to over-engineering a super-efficient home’s envelope design. Thicker walls and windows can reduce noise penetration, potentially increase a home’s longevity, and improve indoor comfort in colder climates. Both SIPs and ICF wall systems bring the added benefit of increased seismic and wind resistance. Although these building methods can add thousands of dollars to the hard cost of home construction, they may result in significant cost offsets over time, including quicker construction, fewer tools, less waste, greater dimensional accuracy requiring less work, and inherently fewer defects. Solar-Ready Roofing Builders can employ several strategies to minimize the cost of a future PV installation in situations where immediate installation isn’t preferred:36 • Use roof pitches of 10-30 degrees to allow for flush- mounted installation• Use roofing that does not require roof penetrations to mount PV systems (e.g., metal stand and seam roofs)• Minimize roof complexity: avoid wings, ells, and dormers; use gable end roof framing37 • Where possible, orient to maximize southern exposure• Ensure landscaping and neighboring structures do not block solar exposure• Minimize rooftop equipment, vents, and other obstructions• Install mounting hardware and safety harness connection points upon roof construction These measures have no immediate impact on a home’s energy performance and may require city or state incentives to support adoption. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 183 of 389 FUTURE COST PROJECTIONS 04 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 184 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 27 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EFUTURE COST PROJECTIONS Although the results of this report show that constructing ZE homes can be economical for most homeowners in most locations today, it’s important to understand how costs are expected to change in the future. Industry progress and demand for super- efficient building components are expected to drive cost savings over the next decade. The cost factors detailed in this section significantly impact the cost for ZE homes, yielded from declining solar costs and reduced PV system size requirements (due to equipment efficient gains). These factors should bring ZE homes in the four locations modeled within a 3.1%–5.5% incremental cost by 2030, compared with a 6.7%–8.1% incremental cost today. The opportunity for cost savings in ZER homes is less significant, with incremental costs projected to drop roughly 20% by 2030 (see Figure 9). FIGURE 9: INCREMENTAL COSTS FOR ZER AND ZE HOMES, TODAY VS. 2030 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 185 of 389 28 FUTURE COST PROJECTIONS However, despite a period of volatility with little accumulated savings through 2025, costs are expected to continue declining beyond 2030. NREL projects that $1.10/W rooftop solar may be available to homeowners by the end of 2030; third-party financing mechanisms allowing the capture of MACRS tax incentives could enable sub-$1.00/W PV systems in the same timeframe. It’s important to note that a majority of the cost savings potential for solar PV stems not from projected material cost savings but from soft-cost reductions, which can be accelerated through incentivizing policies.39 More Efficient Equipment to Reduce Solar Requirements The past decade has yielded impressive progress in the efficiency of many of the building components incorporated in a cost-optimized design. Many of these trends are expected to continue through at least 2030, as summarized in Table 3. FIGURE 10: SOLAR PV COST TO CONSUMERS WITH CURRENT ITC PHASEOUT TIMELINE38 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 ITC Savings Cost to Consumer Installed Cost ($/W-DC)Year $3.00 $2.50 $2.00 $1.50 $1.00 $0.50 $- Solar PV Installed Costs Solar PV represents both the most significant incremental cost in reaching ZE today—and the most significant opportunity for future cost savings. However, the phasing out of the ITC could make these systems more expensive for a short time period, as Figure 10 shows. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 186 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 29 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EFUTURE COST PROJECTIONS Technology Recent Progress Future Projections Heat Pump HVAC Heat pump HVAC systems were once relegated to warmer climates but are now capable of operating below -10°F.40 Efficiency has also drastically improved, with Carrier recently releasing a 42 SEER unit. Global efforts are underway to commercialize a mini split AC technology that consumes 80% less electricity than the current average, or at least 50% better than current best-in-class offerings.41 LED Lighting Average bulb efficacy has increased from below 50 lm/W in 2010 to roughly 130 lm/W in 2018.42 Bulb efficacy is expected to reach 200 lm/W by 2030, a 35% efficiency gain.43 ENERGY STAR Appliances US and California appliance standards continue to drive efficiency gains, with refrigerators increasing efficiency over 40% since 2000.44 An additional 20% efficiency gain by 2030 has been assumed in Figure 11. HPWH Efficiency factors of 2–2.5 were once typical,45 but now efficiency factor 3.0–3.5 models are common.46 An additional 20% efficiency gain by 2030 has been assumed in Figure 11. Forthcoming innovations may also resolve performance concerns in cold climates. Windows The use of thin glass in television screens has reduced material costs by over 80%, making triple-pane windows cost-effective in the coldest climates.47 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is working with manufacturers to bring R5 to R7 windows to market at or near cost parity with existing double-pane options.48 TABLE 3: RECENT PROGRESS AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS IN RESIDENTIAL EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 187 of 389 30 This expected progress in unit efficiency will significantly reduce the internal load of a ZER home, minimizing the size of the solar PV installation necessary to achieve ZE. Expected cost savings ranged from $1,600 to $2,500 across the four locations modeled in this report.49 10 8 6 4 2 0 PV System Size (Today) 8.4 6.7 0.86 0.21 0.29 0.16 0.18 PV System Size (2030)PV Size (kW)Other Component Cost Savings Additional cost savings may occur as other super- efficient building components—particularly HPWHs and HVAC systems—enter the mainstream following consumer demand, builder leadership, and government policies. However, these savings are expected to be minimal in comparison with the solar PV savings available through declining costs and efficiency improvements (as shown in Figure 12). “With California implementing zero requirements, manufacturers are going to have a much bigger market for their high- efficiency products. I expect that to bring costs down, even for us in Colorado.” GENE MYERS, Owner and CEO at Thrive Home Builders FUTURE COST PROJECTIONS FIGURE 11: PROJECTED PV SYSTEM DOWNSIZING FROM FUTURE EFFICIENCY GAINS FOR CHICAGO ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 188 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 31 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EFUTURE COST PROJECTIONS $6,000 $5,000 $4,000 $3,000 $2,000 $1,000 PV Cost Savings PV Downsizing Other Savings Opportunities HPWH Ductless mini split LEDs Cost SavingsLabor Costs Yield Uncertainty The cost of labor is a significant concern for conventional and super-efficient home builders alike. The cost for construction labor has steadily risen since the recession, with the trend recently rising above a 4% per annum increase as shown in Figure 13. Notably, the cost for subcontractor labor has outpaced the cost of labor overall, signifying a shortage of carpenters, electricians, HVAC technicians, and other skilled construction labor. FIGURE 12: COST SAVINGS OPPORTUNITIES BY 2030, AVERAGE ACROSS FOUR LOCATIONS50 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 189 of 389 32 FUTURE COST PROJECTIONS What this means for the incremental cost of ZE homes is unclear. Most of the home builders interviewed for this report noted that their ZE homes required more labor expenditures than code-compliant construction, a sensible conclusion given the technical complexity and lack of subcontractor familiarity with many modern building components. Modern mini split AC units, HPWHs, and air sealing barriers require more effort to properly install and commission than legacy products. However, these labor cost increases are counteracted by the fact that the cost-optimized designs covered in this report avoided advanced framing systems and heating/cooling ductwork (components that many interviewed builders still use in their designs). Whether costs are offset entirely will depend largely on local factors and will require further study. It is important to note here that the shortage of skilled labor is an ongoing crisis for the residential construction industry—one that policymakers have the potential to influence. Providing or sponsoring training programs focused on high-performance building components represents an essential step for ensuring that the supply of ZE homes is capable of meeting demand—and for turning an industry-wide crisis into an opportunity to proliferate efficient home building practices. “The labor market aging out is a massive issue for all home builders. This industry simply doesn’t have enough resources to meet demand. But the other side of that coin is that as new labor comes on, you can teach them new tricks.” C.R. Herro, Vice President of Energy Efficiency and Sustainability at Meritage Homes FIGURE 13: ANNUAL INCREASE IN HOME BUILDING COSTS, 2012–201751 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 190 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 33 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EFUTURE COST PROJECTIONS Note Potential for Evolving Design: Advancements in nascent building technologies may fundamentally change the cost-optimized design of a ZE home in the near future. This is particularly true of SIPs and energy recovery ventilators. Although these technologies were not identified as cost-optimal design components in our analysis, they bring measurable benefits, can be sensible solutions in the right situation, and may yet have a significant impact on the home building industry. Both builders and policymakers should stay apprised of these technologies and consider incentivizing them. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 191 of 389 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BUILDERS 05 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 192 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 35 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ERECOMMENDATIONS FOR BUILDERS The following sections summarize the implications of this report for home builders and developers looking to provide ZE or ZER offerings. Use This Report to Inform Future Construction Both prospective and established ZE home builders can use the cost-optimized efficiency measures identified in this report as a starting point for informing or updating their home designs. Note that DOE provides additional ZERH climate-optimized efficiency packages as part of its Building America Solution Center.52 Home builders should iterate on these recommendations to ensure that the recommendations adequately consider their local context, including existing contractor relationships and pricing, climate considerations, code requirements, and available incentives.53 A truly cost-optimized design is dependent on an integrated design that considers the various systems that comprise home energy use in parallel. The Building America program is helping builders navigate these issues with focused research and development on integrated solutions, and it may be a valuable supplement to the resources provided in the DOE ZERH program.54 Builders should also work with energy modeling professionals to analyze integrated solutions that account for local climate, costs, incentives, and site constraints. Collaborate in the DOE ZERH Program The fact that home builders specializing in green homes report a cost premium less than half that stated by conventional home builders shows just how significantly experience itself can influence costs.55 However, for those conventional home builders looking to break into a new market segment, the promise of reduced costs after their first, tenth, or hundredth green home is not particularly soothing. The DOE ZERH program works to address this hurdle by offering dozens of case studies,56 encouraging collaboration between green home builders, providing training webinars on advanced building topics, and providing prescriptive guidance on the design and construction of ZER homes. The ZER certification process also provides builders with a method of quality control by requiring that buildings undergo a HERS rating (including blower door tests and energy modeling) and use checklists for thermal and air barriers, quality HVAC installation, comprehensive indoor air quality measures, and solar-ready construction (in locations with a significant solar resource). These steps can help home builders (especially those new to super-efficient construction) ensure quality, regardless of whether they complete the other requirements for ZER certification. Although this report focuses on ZER certification, builders can pursue other certifications that also provide design guidance and credibility to a ZE home, including LEED, National Green Building Standard, and ENERGY STAR for homes. Find the Right Subcontractors The costs identified in this report assume that projects are bid competitively by subcontractors. Builders and developers rooted in conventional building practices may find that their preferred subcontractors have limited experience in the super-efficient technologies and building techniques incorporated in this report (e.g., commissioning the inverters on ductless mini splits) and that they thus quote prices substantially higher than those listed here to minimize their risk and uncertainty. The costs listed in this report are derived from trusted resources based on real-world cost data (see Appendix A for details). Home builders should be able to achieve similar costs in their locations. Home builders should look for subcontractors that ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 193 of 389 36 are amenable to taking on new technologies and techniques without introducing extreme contingency costs to learn new skills—more likely if a high-volume builder is asking. Where meeting resistance to change, home builders should look to establish and build new relationships. Hone Your Salesmanship There is some disagreement in the real estate community regarding the difficulty in selling green homes, with 34% reporting a sales advantage and 29% reporting a disadvantage.57 Regardless of the current state of affairs, it’s clear that there is room to improve. Many of the first movers in this industry can share painful stories about the overly technical presentations they first used to try to sell a ZE or ZER home. These builders have learned through experience that a successful sales pitch does not focus on technical aspects. In fact, many home builders report that even highlighting the superior total cost of ownership for a super-efficient home doesn’t provide the emotional pull necessary for a prospective buyer. Green home builders are quickly learning that establishing this emotional connection is essential to their success. “We don’t talk about just ‘energy performance’ with our homebuyers. We focus instead on how that performance impacts the pain points they encounter every day: comfort, quiet, air quality, health, and price predictability.” Parlin Meyer, Director at BrightBuilt Home “The last thing a customer wants is for you to tell them how the engine works under the hood.” Tom Wade, Owner at Palo Duro Homes, Inc. Home builders can learn more about successful marketing strategies and phrases for super-efficient homes using the Building America Building Science Translator58 and the Building America Solution Center Sales Tool.59 Engage with Local Policymakers This report includes recommendations for policymakers interested in promoting ZE or ZER new construction. Builders should share those recommendations with government officials in the cities or states where they operate to help accelerate this industry. Better, they should work with those government officials to share their perspective as a local home builder to ensure that enacted policies represent an optimal approach to accelerating adoption. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR BUILDERS ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 194 of 389 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICYMAKERS 06 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 195 of 389 38 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICYMAKERS Policymakers have an important role in improving grid reliability, meeting community energy needs, supporting affordability, improving the housing stock, and addressing climate change. Driving ZE home construction can be an essential action in addressing all of these issues. The following sections summarize the implications of this report for policymakers interested in driving the construction of ZE and ZER single-family homes in their city, county, or state. Clarify Goals to Inform Actions It is essential to set clear, ambitious, and measurable goals to guide policies and actions. The content of this report can be used in concert with other available resources to inform the discussions and analysis necessary to define the goals that policies will drive toward. RMI will be providing additional tools for policymakers to accelerate ZE construction in 2019.60 Use This Report to Inform and Support Policy The cost-optimized home constructions highlighted in this report can be used to guide incentives and quantify the economic impact that these measures will have on real estate developers and home buyers. The previous pages highlight several high-value opportunities, including: 1. Prescriptive incentives, especially for heat pump HVAC systems, HPWHs, and high-performance windows (climate dependent) 2. Subsidized costs for building certifications (e.g., the DOE ZERH program); the cost of ZER certification can make up over one-quarter of the cost for a ZER home,61 though the cost is significantly less for production homes 3. Incentives for solar-ready roofing 4. State standardization of permitting, inspection, and interconnection procedures to reduce soft costs for installing solar PV 5. State legislation enabling community solar, PPAs, or property-assessed clean energy (PACE) financing Policy can also be used to enable a number of other benefits to incentivize first movers, including expedited permitting, density or height bonuses, and setback exceptions. Although most builders interviewed didn’t consider these bonuses essential drivers of adoption, they can be provided at little to no cost to governing bodies and communities. It’s also worth highlighting the benefit of energy disclosure programs in promoting the value of high- performance homes. Particularly innovative disclosure programs are in place in Portland, Oregon; Austin, Texas; and Berkeley, California.62 Although these policies aren’t focused on new construction, they are important pieces in ensuring that the energy performance of all homes is considered and properly valued by consumers. Support Labor Training Programs This report highlights that an essential aspect driving adoption of ZE and ZER homes is supporting a larger and more skilled construction workforce. Labor shortages are driving up costs as the industry struggles to secure skilled specialty subcontractors. Policymakers can address this issue by supporting, promoting, or partnering with local trade schools. Super-efficient home builders are particularly affected by skilled labor shortages due to the specialty requirements for advanced building techniques and products. Policymakers can work to address this issue by establishing or supporting training programs, especially in the following topic areas:• Installing, commissioning, and servicing heat pump ACs with inverters• Installing and servicing HPWHs• Air sealing techniques and products ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 196 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 39 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T E• Certification program compliance• Solar-ready roofing• Window specification It is worth incentivizing home builders to collaborate with the DOE ZERH program, which provides both a performance and prescriptive path for ZER homes that has been vetted with hundreds of buildings on thousands of homes across the country. Moreover, the program actively encourages collaboration between builders to share experiences and proliferate lessons learned. “The Zero Energy Ready Homes program has been a huge benefit to this industry. It helps builders to see that this isn’t just possible, it is easy, and repeatable.” Ted Clifton, founder and CEO at Clifton View Homes Support Training for Other Influencing Parties Home builders are not the only stakeholder group that will need to enhance skill sets to support a push toward ZE or ZER new construction. The real estate appraisal industry is critical to ensuring that efficiency and renewable energy investments are properly and transparently considered as part of the home valuation process. The Appraisal Institute, the nation’s largest professional association of real estate appraisers, offers a professional development program on the valuation of sustainable buildings (among other resources), and its registry of green residential appraisers continues to grow.63 Real estate agents can also benefit from training to learn how to best market the largely hidden value of high-performance features to prospective home buyers. In addition, as with skilled labor in the construction industry, training and capacity building for residential solar installers—particularly in less- developed solar markets in parts of the country outside of California—can also be important as demand for ZE and ZER new construction scales nationally. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICYMAKERSATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 197 of 389 CONCLUSION 07 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 198 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 41 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ECONCLUSION As this report highlights, ZE and ZER homes can be built without a significant cost burden, and current costs are already meeting consumer thresholds—and continuing to decline. With ZE and ZER incremental costs as low as they are, builders and policymakers should seriously consider providing and supporting ZE offerings. Policymakers can also use findings from this report to begin a conversation around how they can increase market penetration of ZE and ZER homes in their states, regions, and cities. Based on the analysis in this report and extensive case studies in the DOE “Tour of Zero” project database, ZER homes routinely save tens of thousands of dollars on utility bills for consumers over the lifetime of a 30-year mortgage.64 Where solar financing is available, solar panels can bring these homes to ZE at little or no added cost (and greater long-term value). Because first cost is no longer a significant barrier, state and city policymakers should consider how to support building ZE homes from the start and avoid developments that will suffer from obsolescence and require expensive retrofits in the future. In addition, city policymakers should think about barriers beyond the first cost that builders and consumers may be facing and provide resources such as trainings, incentives, and benefits for first movers to drive the industry forward. In the end, ZE and ZER homes are good business for communities, as the value of these homes adds up to additional housing value and tax revenue over their lifetimes. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 199 of 389 COLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM 08 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 200 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 43 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ECOLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM Cold climates face challenges in ZE and ZER design that aren’t as present in more moderate climates, including performance concerns and higher energy consumption. This cold climate addendum is intended to add to the original report and offer additional guidance for ZE and ZER homes built in climate zones 6 and 7. The key results provided in the main body of this report for climate zones 2–5 have been replicated below for climate zones 6 and 7. Local climates range widely even within a specific climate zone, and climatic conditions in these coldest climates can have a significant influence on optimized home construction practices. Builders and policymakers in cold climates should consider employing their own energy models to ensure that the recommendations given here can provide adequate indoor comfort in local conditions. TABLE 4: KEY RESULTS CZ6 CZ7 Modeled City Utility Energy Rate ($/kWh) Baseline Energy Use Intensity (kBtu/sf/yr) Proposed Energy Use Intensity (kBtu/sf/yr) Solar PV Size (kW) Baseline Cost ($) Incremental Cost for ZER Homes ($) Incremental Cost for ZER Homes (%) Incremental Cost for ZE Homes ($) Incremental Cost for ZE Homes (%) Incremental Cost for ZE Homes with ITC ($) Incremental Cost for ZE Homes with ITC (%) Bozeman, MT 0.101 57.0 18.0 8.6 $247,435 $5,358 2.2% $28,750 11.6% $21,733 8.8% Duluth, MN Tiered ($0.07/kWh–$0.14/kWh) 80.0 20.0 10.9 $273,553 $6,722 2.5% $36,508 13.3% $27,572 10.1% ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 201 of 389 44 COLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM FIGURE 14: INCREMENTAL COSTS FOR ZE AND ZER HOMES 9% 10% 11% Bozeman Duluth Surprisingly, both ZE and ZER homes in these cold climates meet similar cost thresholds to the four cities covered in the main body of this report, achieving the resale, willingness to pay, and mortgage threshold for ZER homes and the mortgage threshold for ZE homes. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 202 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 45 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ECOLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM FIGURE 15: SUMMARY OF ZER HOME COST THRESHOLD ACHIEVEMENT IN COLD CLIMATES Bozeman (CZ6)Duluth (CZ7) ZER Incremental Cost $5,358 $6,722 Mortgage Threshold (30 years)$13,877 $19,953 Resale Threshold (12 years)$7,047 $10,133 Customer Willingness to Pay Threshold (4%)$9,897 $10,942 First Cost Threshold (0%)$0 $0 FIGURE 16: SUMMARY OF ZE HOME COST THRESHOLD ACHIEVEMENT IN COLD CLIMATES Bozeman (CZ6)Duluth (CZ7) ZE Incremental Cost $21,733 $27,572 Mortgage Threshold (30 years)$36,358 $46,590 Resale Threshold (12 years)$18,465 $23,661 Customer Willingness to Pay Threshold (4%)$9,897 $10,942 First Cost Threshold (0%)$0 $0 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 203 of 389 46 COLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM Electrification Should Be Implemented Thoughtfully One significant change in assumptions has taken place in performing this cost analysis for colder climates: the baseline HVAC system is assumed to be natural gas. This assumption is guided by existing industry trends: electric heating systems remain relatively uncommon in climate zones 6 and 7, representing 8% of existing homes and 12% of new construction,65 because they can result in significantly higher annual utility costs in heating-dominated climates. See Table 5 for a summary of the costs and energy savings noted between these design alternatives. Selected baseline assumptions are highlighted. Table 5 illustrates that while an all-electric baseline home assumption in climate zones 6 and 7 would have resulted in lower first costs (as it was for climate zones 2–5), the same assumption would have dramatically increased the estimated life-cycle value of ZER and ZE homes. Builders and policymakers in these climates should carefully consider the assumptions made in this report regarding electrified systems and adjust according to their priorities and local context. TABLE 5: MODELED COSTS AND ENERGY SAVINGS FOR ELECTRIC AND NATURAL GAS BASELINES Note: Bold numbers indicate the baseline used for each location. Chicago Bozeman Duluth Electric Baseline Incremental Cost of Building to ZER $5,369 $4,499 $5,029 Annual Energy Bill Savings $1,052 $985 $2,934 Payback (years)5.1 4.6 1.7 Natural Gas Baseline Incremental Cost of Building to ZER $3,652 $5,358 $6,722 Annual Energy Bill Savings $921 $708 $1,018 Payback (years)4.0 7.6 6.6 Moving from an Electric Baseline to Natural Gas Change in Incremental Cost for Building ZER -$1,717 -$859 -$1,693 Change in Payback (years)-1.1 +3 +4.9 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 204 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 47 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ECOLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM Policymakers should keep in mind that in heating- dominated climates, the electrification of heating systems will be an important (perhaps even requisite) strategy for achieving any stated climate or carbon goals due to the inability to offset GHGs from natural gas or heating fuels. This reality may support a rationale for following an all-electric baseline assumption. Furthermore, comparing the cost-benefit of building electrification with other carbon mitigation strategies may support a case for aggressively incentivizing electric heating systems to offset any increased energy cost to consumers. Cost-Optimal Building Practices Many of the key results from warmer climate zones still hold true: all-LED lighting, ENERGY STAR appliances, and EPA WaterSense hot water fixtures are still among the most cost-effective energy measures. More surprisingly, heat pumps are still an important technology for both space and water heating. However, the extreme cold of climate zones 6 and 7 yields some unique recommendations for ZE and ZER homes in these locations. Maximize South-Facing Solar Optimized energy models in climate zones 6 and 7 both maximized available south-facing rooftop area for solar PV; climate zone 7 required additional north-facing panels in order to achieve zero-energy performance. While these north-facing PV panels remained a more cost-effective measure than alternative investments in envelope insulation, they are substantially less cost-effective than their south- facing counterparts. Homebuilders can beat the costs stated in this report for ZE and ZER homes in climate zone 7 by ensuring their home designs maximize the capacity for south- facing solar PV panels. With sufficient capacity, the production of the 10.9 kW system specified in our analysis (8.5 kW south facing and 2.4 kW north facing) could be replaced with a 10.0 kW south-facing system, reducing the first cost for a ZE home in Duluth by roughly $2,500. Added south-facing capacity could be achieved with a home design maximizing south-facing roof space, an unshaded ground-mounted system, a community solar program, or other off-site options. Capacity for south-facing solar PV is thus a limiting factor for ZE and ZER home designs in both climate zones, and should be considered by homebuilders in the early stages of design. Heat Pump HVAC Systems Need Help Despite the extreme winter temperatures in these colder climates, optimized BEopt models still utilized ductless mini splits as the primary HVAC system. These heat pump units were supported by electrical resistance heating systems, which provided 4% of annual heating demand in climate zone 6 and 10% of annual heating demand in climate zone 7. These electric resistance systems can be included in an integrated ASHP system or can take the form of separate electric resistance baseboard units. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 205 of 389 48 COLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM The availability of heat pump systems capable of performing in subzero temperatures is a relatively recent development. Some homebuilders, code officials, and prospective users may be skeptical of these systems’ potential due to past experience; some areas may not have an established market for the purchase and installation of these systems. The Cold Climate Housing Research Center provides research that can be used by policymakers, builders, and other stakeholders to advocate for and guide the deployment of heat pump systems.66 The Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnership offers best practice guides for both the design, installation, and operation of cold-climate heat pump systems that builders can use to ensure intended performance.67 Heat Pump Water Heater Considerations Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are typically not capable of performing in extreme winter temperatures unless they are sited indoors. HPWHs cool the air around them and thus present an energy penalty to space heating systems when sited indoors. This may present an issue for developers and homeowners in climate zones 6 and 7 who are unwilling to relinquish conditioned square footage to mechanical systems. The NEEA Advanced Water Heater Specification should be utilized to ensure adequate long-term performance.68 Balance Envelope Measures with Indoor Air Quality BEopt models specified more efficient envelope systems in climate zones 6 and 7; see Appendix A for details. The impact on the incremental costs noted in Figure 14 and Table 4 was mitigated by the more aggressive baseline building energy codes in these colder climates. BEopt energy models initially recommended a significantly tighter envelope in climate zone 6. However, increasing the airtightness of envelope wall systems beyond code requirements reduces passive ventilation and has the potential to introduce indoor air quality (IAQ) issues not considered by energy modeling software. Mitigation can be achieved with two different strategies: 1. Allow for a leakier envelope: Code-compliant envelopes (3 ACH with standard exhaust systems) typically allow enough active and passive ventilation to address IAQ concerns. Heating systems will need to be sized slightly larger to accommodate for the higher air exchange. This was the most cost-effective option identified by energy models. 2. Install an energy recovery ventilator: An energy recovery ventilator (ERV) allows for increased ventilation without a significant thermal energy penalty by harnessing the heat from exhaust air and using it to warm intake air. ERVs were only identified as a cost-optimal measure in climate zone 7; they often aren’t cost-effective in milder climates because the thermal energy saved is offset by increased fan power. This active ventilation strategy allows for increased control but increases the complexity of the building system and depends on proper occupant behavior for operation. There is no “one size fits all” solution to envelope systems in ZE and ZER homes, and this is especially true in colder climates, where it is important to consider the added comfort and resilience benefits of a better insulated home. The need for higher levels of insulation and airtightness in these climates supports a case for considering complex envelope systems, including double-stud walls, structurally insulated panels, and insulated concrete forms. These solutions may prove more economical in certain locations given local labor rates, installer expertise, and/or site characteristics. However, the results of our BEopt energy models support the idea that more extreme insulation levels are not necessary for cost-optimized solutions for ZE and ZER home design (other benefits aside), even in the coldest climates where they are most cost-effective. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 206 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 49 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ECOLD CLIMATES ADDENDUM Conclusion The recommendations in the body of this report hold true for colder climates: builders should continue to consider design alternatives, take advantage of available resources, and control quality in construction; policymakers should continue to prime the market by designing incentive programs for high-impact building components and offering workforce development programs. The results covered in this addendum also support an increased focus on two important issues: 1. Electrification: Policymakers in cold climates should realize that deep efficiency paired with electrification is oftentimes more cost- effective than electrification using code baseline equipment. Therefore, they should consider an increased focus on incentive programs that are less prescriptive and more integrated. 2. Solar: Builders in cold climates can minimize incremental costs by harnessing all available options for solar PV, including both on-site resources (e.g., south-facing roof area or ground- mounted installations) and off-site options (e.g., community solar programs). Policymakers should work to support off-site procurement with enabling legislation and incentive programs. The results of the energy and economic analysis for this report show that ZE and ZER homes can be cost- effective even in some of the United States’ coldest climates. This conclusion is supported by a growing body of evidence, including case studies and research projects sited as far north as the Arctic Circle.69 Stakeholders should prepare now for these super- efficient homes to enter the mainstream. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 207 of 389 APPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS 09 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 208 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 51 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EAPPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS Key Assumptions:• For consistency, each house was identical across climate zones, with exception to code required climate zone differences (roof insulation, wall insulation, window properties). An image of the BEopt energy model is shown in Figure A1.• For simplicity, this analysis used an all-electric baseline when justifiable. Although ASHPs are not very common in the existing residential market, they are the most typical HVAC system for new construction homes in climate zones 2–4.70 In climate zone 5, natural gas is still most common for heating, so both a natural gas and electric baseline were modeled for consistency and accuracy. • IECC 2009 code was used as the baseline code because that is the most common baseline code.71 In addition, choosing a less aggressive code was more conservative in considering incremental cost. • This analysis assumed a fuel escalation rate of 2% and a discount rate of 5%.• The locations determined to represent climate zones were based on the Pacific Northwest National Library (PNNL) detailed code analysis.72 • Cost included certain requirements of the ZERH program including HERS rater because this quality check is crucial for high performance. FIGURE A1: A VISUALIZATION OF THE BEOPT BUILDING ENERGY MODEL USED IN THIS REPORT ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 209 of 389 52 APPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS TABLE A1: SUMMARY OF HOUSTON (CZ2) ANALYSIS Baseline Proposed Incremental Cost Baseline Source Geometry Two-story, 2,200-square-foot home with 400-square-foot garage, three bedrooms, two bathrooms $0 ZERH for size, RSMeans for geometry Wall Wood frame, R13 stud insulation $0 IECC 2009 code for baseline, ZERH minimum requirements for proposed Window 15% window-to-wall ratio U-0.65, SHGC-0.3 15% window-to-wall ratio, U-0.4, SHGC-0.25 $362 Unfinished Attic R30 fiberglass, vented R38 fiberglass, vented $287 Slab Uninsulated $0 Air Leakage 7 ACH50 2 ACH50 $469 Mechanical Ventilation Exhaust Exhaust $0 Space Conditioning System ASHP, SEER 14, 8 HSPF, 3.75 ton Two mini splits, SEER 25.3, 13.4 HSPF, 1.25 ton $1,589 ASHP is the most typical HVAC system for new construction homes in this climate zoneDistributionDucts in unconditioned space Five high-flow grilles (no ducts)($2,656) DHW Heater Electric Heat pump water heater, 3.5 EF $727 Used electric as baselines to avoid fuel switching from baselines to proposed; 42% of homes use electric Misc. Plug Loads 2,261 kWh/yr $0 Used BEopt assumption Hot Water Fixture Types Standard flows Low-flow fixtures $42 IECC 2009 code Appliances Conventional appliances ENERGY STAR refrigerator, clothes washer, and dishwasher $158 Lighting 50% CFL, 50% incandescent 100% LED $15 Thermostat Type Standard Smart thermostat $173 DOE ZERH Certification N/A Cost included, except EPA Indoor airPLUS $900 Taken from ZERH cost analysis Solar PV (With ITC)N/A 6.5 kW $13,423 N/A Summary of Baseline and Proposed Models: Tables A1–A6 summarize the baseline and proposed cost-optimized building models in the four analyzed locations. A location-specific incremental cost is noted for all recommended energy upgrades. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 210 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 53 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EAPPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS TABLE A2: SUMMARY OF ATLANTA (CZ3) ANALYSIS Baseline Proposed Incremental Cost Baseline Source Geometry Two-story, 2,200-square-foot home with 400-square-foot garage, three bedrooms, two bathrooms $0 ZERH for size, RSMeans for geometry Wall Wood frame, R13 stud insulation Wood frame, R13 stud insulation with R5 continuous insulation $2,007 IECC 2009 code for baseline, ZERH minimum requirements for proposed Window 15% window-to-wall ratio U-0.5, SHGC-0.3 15% window-to-wall ratio, U-0.3, SHGC-0.25 $2,977 Unfinished Attic R30 fiberglass, vented R38 fiberglass, vented $304 Slab Uninsulated $0 Air Leakage 7 ACH50 3 ACH50 $336 Mechanical Ventilation Exhaust Exhaust $0 Space Conditioning System ASHP, SEER 14, 8 HSPF, 3.75 ton Two mini splits, SEER 25.3, 13.4 HSPF, 1.25 ton $1,388 ASHP is the most typical HVAC system for new construction homes in this climate zoneDistributionDucts in unconditioned space Five high-flow grilles (no ducts)($2,816) DHW Heater Electric Heat pump water heater, 3.5 EF $771 Used electric as baselines to avoid fuel switching from baselines to proposed; 42% of homes use electric Misc. Plug Loads 2,261 kWh/yr Used BEopt assumption Hot Water Fixture Types Standard flows Low-flow fixtures $44 IECC 2009 code Appliances Conventional appliances ENERGY STAR refrigerator, clothes washer, and dishwasher $167 Lighting 50% CFL, 50% incandescent 100% LED $15 Thermostat Type Standard Standard $0 DOE ZERH Certification N/A Cost included, except EPA Indoor airPLUS $900 Taken from ZERH cost analysis Solar PV (With ITC)N/A 6.5 kW $13,454 N/A ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 211 of 389 54 APPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS TABLE A3: SUMMARY OF BALTIMORE (CZ4) ANALYSIS Baseline Proposed Incremental Cost Baseline Source Geometry Two-story, 2,200-square-foot home with 400-square-foot garage, three bedrooms, two bathrooms $0 ZERH for size, RSMeans for geometry Wall Wood frame, R13 stud insulation Wood frame, R13 stud insulation with R5 continuous insulation $2,099 IECC 2009 code for baseline, ZERH minimum requirements for proposed Window 15% window-to-wall ratio U-0.35, SHGC-0.44 15% window-to-wall ratio, U-0.29, SHGC-0.56 $2,331 Unfinished Attic R38 fiberglass, vented R49 fiberglass $903 Slab 2 feet R10 exterior insulation $0 Air Leakage 7 ACH50 2 ACH50 $520 Mechanical Ventilation Exhaust Exhaust $0 Space Conditioning System ASHP, SEER 14, 8 HSPF, 3.75 ton Two mini splits, SEER 25.3, 13.4 HSPF, 1.25 ton $949 ASHP is the most typical HVAC system for new construction homes in this climate zoneDistributionDucts in unconditioned space Five high-flow grilles (no ducts)($2,944) DHW Heater Electric Heat pump water heater, 3.5 EF $806 Used electric as baselines to avoid fuel switching from baselines to proposed; 42% of homes use electric Misc. Plug Loads 2,261 kWh/yr $0 Used BEopt assumption Hot Water Fixture Types Standard flows Low-flow fixtures $46 IECC 2009 code Appliances Conventional appliances ENERGY STAR refrigerator, clothes washer, and dishwasher $176 Lighting 50% CFL, 50% incandescent 100% LED $16 Thermostat Type Standard Smart thermostat $191 DOE ZERH Certification N/A Cost included, except EPA Indoor airPLUS $900 Taken from ZERH cost analysis Solar PV (With ITC)N/A 6.8 kW $13,090 N/A ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 212 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 55 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EAPPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS TABLE A4: SUMMARY OF CHICAGO (CZ5) ANALYSIS Baseline Proposed Incremental Cost Baseline Source Geometry Two-story, 2,200-square-foot home with 400-square-foot garage, three bedrooms, two bathrooms $0 ZERH for size, RSMeans for geometry Wall Wood frame, R13 stud insulation with R5 continuous insulation $0 IECC 2009 code for baseline, ZERH minimum requirements for proposed Window 15% window-to-wall ratio U-0.35, SHGC-0.44 15% window-to-wall ratio, U-0.29, SHGC-0.56 $2,843 Unfinished Attic R38 fiberglass, vented R49 fiberglass, vented $1,236 Slab Uninsulated $0 Air Leakage 7 ACH50 3 ACH50 $482 Mechanical Ventilation Exhaust Exhaust $0 Space Conditioning System Gas furnace, SEER 13 split AC, 3 ton OR Two mini splits, SEER 25.3, 13.4 HSPF, 1.25 ton $531 Gas furnace with split AC is most common in this climate zone; for consistency across climate zones, we modeled two baselines ASHP, SEER 14, 8 HSPF, 3.25 ton $2,246 Distribution Ducts in unconditioned space Five high-flow grilles (no ducts)($4,032) DHW Heater Electric Heat pump water heater, 3.5 EF $1,104 Used electric as baselines to avoid fuel switching from baselines to proposed; 42% of homes use electric Misc. Plug Loads 2,261 kWh/yr $0 Used BEopt assumption Hot Water Fixture Types Standard flows Low-flow fixtures $63 IECC 2009 code Appliances Conventional appliances ENERGY STAR refrigerator, clothes washer, and dishwasher $240 Lighting 50% CFL, 50% incandescent 100% LED $22 Thermostat Type Standard Smart thermostat $262 DOE ZERH Certification N/A Cost included, except EPA Indoor airPLUS $900 Taken from ZERH cost analysis Solar PV (With ITC)N/A 8.4 kW $17,758 N/A ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 213 of 389 56 APPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS TABLE A5: SUMMARY OF BOZEMAN (CZ6) ANALYSIS Baseline Proposed Incremental Cost Baseline Source Geometry Two-story, 2,200-square-foot home with 400-square-foot garage, three bedrooms, two bathrooms $0 ZERH for size, RSMeans for geometry Wall Wood frame, R13 stud insulation with R5 continuous insulation Wood frame, R13 stud insulation with R10 continuous insulation $1,088 IECC 2009 code for baseline, ZERH minimum requirements for proposed Window 15% window-to-wall ratio U-0.35, SHGC-0.44 15% window-to-wall ratio, U-0.3, SHGC-0.4 $ 2,071 Unfinished Attic R49 fiberglass $0 Slab 4 feet R10 exterior insulation $0 Air Leakage 7 ACH50 3 ACH50 $344 Mechanical Ventilation Exhaust Exhaust $0 Space Conditioning System Gas furnace, SEER 13 split AC Mini splits, SEER 25.3, 13.4 HSPF, electric resistance baseboards $2,254 Gas furnace with split AC is most common in this climate zoneDistributionDucts in unconditioned space Mini split minimal ducting ($2,507) DHW Heater Electric Heat pump hot water heater, 3.5 EF $788 Used electric asbaselines to avoid fuel switching from baselinesto proposed; 42% of homes use electric Misc. Plug Loads 2,261 kWh/yr $0 Used BEopt assumption Hot Water Fixture Types Standard flows Low-flow fixtures $45 IECC 2009 code Appliances Conventional appliances ENERGY STAR refrigerator, clothes washer, and dishwasher $172 Lighting 50% CFL, 50% incandescent 100% LED $16 Thermostat Type Standard Smart thermostat $187 DOE ZERH Certification N/A Cost included, except EPA Indoor airPLUS $900 Taken from ZERH cost analysis Solar PV (With ITC)N/A 8.6 kW $16,374 N/A ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 214 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 57 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EAPPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS TABLE A6: SUMMARY OF DULUTH (CZ7) ANALYSIS Baseline Proposed Incremental Cost Baseline Source Geometry Two-story, 2,200-square-foot home with 400-square-foot garage, three bedrooms, two bathrooms $0 ZERH for size, RSMeans for geometry Wall Wood frame, R13 stud insulation with R5 continuous insulation Wood frame, R13 stud insulation with R10 continuous insulation $1,202 IECC 2009 code for baseline, ZERH minimum requirements for proposed Window 15% window-to-wall ratio U-0.35, SHGC-0.44 15% window-to-wall ratio, U-0.29, SHGC-0.56 $2,566 Unfinished Attic R49 fiberglass $0 Slab 4 feet R10 exterior insulation $0 Air Leakage 7 ACH50 0.6 ACH50 $1,102 Mechanical Ventilation Exhaust ERV 70%$919 Space Conditioning System Gas furnace, SEER 13 split AC Mini splits, SEER 25.3, 13.4 HSPF, electric resistance baseboards $1,467 Gas furnace with split AC is most common in this climate zoneDuctsDucts in unconditioned space Mini split minimal ducting ($2,772) DHW Heater Electric Heat pump hot water heater, 3.5 EF $872 Used electric asbaselines to avoid fuel switching from baselinesto proposed; 42% of homes use electric Misc. Plug Loads 2,261 kWh/yr $0 Used BEopt assumption Hot Water Fixture Types Standard flows Low-flow fixtures $50 IECC 2009 code Appliances Conventional appliances ENERGY STAR refrigerator, clothes washer, and dishwasher $190 Lighting 50% CFL, 50% incandescent 100% LED $17 Thermostat Type Standard Smart thermostat $207 DOE ZERH Certification N/A Cost included, except EPA Indoor airPLUS $900 Taken from ZERH cost analysis Solar PV (With ITC)N/A 10.9 kW $20,850 N/A ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 215 of 389 58 APPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS Table A7 and the following resource descriptions provide a summary of the sources and methods used to define the cost of each energy measure considered in this report. TABLE A7: SUMMARY OF COST SOURCE USED FOR EACH ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURE Energy Efficiency Measure Cost Source Wall Stud Insulation Baseline cost came from RSMeans: Residential Costs 37th Annual Edition Wall Sheathing Averaged RSMeans: Residential Costs 37th Annual Edition and National Residential Efficiency Measure Database Window Properties Averaged RSMeans: Residential Costs 37th Annual Edition and National Residential Efficiency Measure Database Unfinished Attic Insulation National Residential Efficiency Measure Database Slab Insulation Averaged RSMeans: Residential Costs 37th Annual Edition and National Residential Efficiency Measure Database Air Sealing Averaged RSMeans: Residential Costs 37th Annual Edition and National Residential Efficiency Measure Database Mechanical Ventilation System National Residential Efficiency Measure Database Space Conditioning System National Residential Efficiency Measure Database Ducts National Residential Efficiency Measure Database DHW Heater National Residential Efficiency Measure Database; efficiency factor updated based on models on the market Hot Water Fixture Types Based on market research and interviews with builders Appliances National Residential Efficiency Measure Database for labor cost and market research for equipment cost Lighting Based on market research and interviews with builders Thermostat Type Based on market research and interviews with builders High Transfer Grills RSMeans: Residential Costs 37th Annual Edition DOE’s ZERH Certification Based on DOE’s cost estimate ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 216 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 59 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EAPPENDIX A: MODELING ASSUMPTIONS Cost Sources:• National Residential Efficiency Measures Database: NREMD is the backbone of measure cost estimates provided within the BEopt modeling software. It relies on a plethora of available cost studies and statistical analyses. This was the most commonly used cost resource in this analysis. • RSMeans: RSMeans provides cost models and unit cost data for a variety of residential (and commercial) building types and is a well-known and trusted cost resource in the construction community. We used RSMeans’ 2018 Residential Cost Data predominantly for estimating the cost of envelope and appliance measures. • National Institute of Standards and Technology: NIST’s 2016 report Net-Zero Energy Residential Building Component Cost Estimates and Comparisons uses seven data sources to estimate the incremental cost of a ZE test facility in Maryland. We used the report to inform the cost of envelope, HVAC, and water heater measures. • Electric Power Research Institute: EPRI has recently published a number of reports analyzing the cost and performance of ZE homes in partnership with Meritage Homes Corporation. We used their 2016 report Establishing Feasibility of Residential Zero Net Energy Community Development - Learnings from California’s First ZNE Neighborhood for estimating the costs of ductless mini split units. • American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers: ASHRAE’s 2009 report Economic Database in Support of ASHRAE 90.2 provides cost information specific to both single-family and multifamily constructions. Although this data is now a decade old, we used it as a rough validation measure for costs defined by other sources. • Expert Contractors: We consulted with eight residential builders with ZE and ZER home building experience to validate modeled cost estimates: Anthony Aebei of Greenhill Contracting, Bill Decker of Decker Homes, Geoff Ferrell of Mandalay Homes, C.R. Herro of Meritage Homes Corporation, Parlin Meyer of BrightBuilt Home, Gene Myers of Thrive Home Builders, Ted Clifton of Clifton View Homes, and Tom Wade of Palo Duro Homes, Inc. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 217 of 389 APPENDIX B: HOW TO SCALE ZE COST RESULTS 10 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 218 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 61 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EAPPENDIX B: HOW TO SCALE ZE COST RESULTS General Approach: RMI modeled ZE homes in four climates (see Table B1). To scale the results to other cities, we identified a list of factors that influence cost and created a method to update the results for other cities. This approach provides a very rough approximation that can give city policymakers a sense for where costs currently stand in their cities. TABLE B1: NATIONAL AVERAGE COSTS BY IECC CLIMATE ZONE COMPARED AGAINST IECC 2009 Factors that influence cost:• Climate zone• Utility rate• Labor and material cost• Baseline code• Incentives• Solar resource• Solar cost Climate Zone: We modeled homes using IECC climate zones 2, 3, 4, and 5 because they account for 90.6% of single- family homes in the United States.73 We did not model cities in climate zones 1, 6, 7, and 8; extrapolating costs from this report to these extreme climates is not recommended. Utility Rate: The DOE State and Local Energy Data can be used to find electric utility rates by city,74 so policymakers will be able to look up what utility (or utilities) serve their cities to determine how their utility rates vary from the national average. The national average price of electricity was $0.1299 per kWh when this report was written.75 Labor and Material Cost: RSMeans has labor and material cost factors compared with the national average for many cities.76 Baseline Code: The baseline code will affect the incremental cost to build ZE as well as the estimated energy savings. This analysis used IECC 2009 as the baseline code (see Table B2), so cities with different baseline codes will need to adjust the results accordingly. Construction cost and energy bill estimates come from PNNL’s cost- effectiveness analysis for IECC 2012 and IECC 2015.77 Climate Zone Incremental Efficiency Cost PV Cost Energy Savings for ZE Energy Savings for ZER CZ2 $2,488 $14,887 $1,842 $757 CZ3 $6,925 $14,180 $1,968 $852 CZ4 $6,514 $16,049 $2,210 $1,049 CZ5 $4,260 $20,726 $2,459 $1,116 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 219 of 389 62 TABLE B2: INCREMENTAL CONSTRUCTION COST AND ANNUAL ENERGY BILL COST COMPARED WITH IECC 2009 Incentives: This analysis does not include local incentives, but cities could use the Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency,78 or work with their local utility to determine how incentives will affect up-front cost. Solar Resource: Solar PV electricity production is dependent on solar resources in the city, so cities with better solar resources won’t need to install as much solar to achieve ZE. The average solar production of the 50 cities included in this scaling exercise was 1,481 kWh/ kW, but it ranged widely from 1,103 kWh/kW to 1,790 kWh/kW. A city’s solar resource can be determined using PVWatts, a free resource developed by NREL.79 Solar Cost: Solar costs follow different material and location factors than energy efficiency measures. The national average solar PV cost for residential applications as of 2018 was $3.14/W. EnergySage is a good resource to determine how solar costs vary by state.80 Example Calculation: This example uses New York City to demonstrate how someone can scale modeled results to a city not included in Figure B1. To apply these results to New York City, we used the following information:• Climate Zone: 4• Utility Rate: $0.1588/kWh • Labor and Material Cost Multiplier: 1.4• Residential Energy Code: IECC 2015 • Solar Resource: 1,325 kWh/kW• Solar Cost: $3.36/W APPENDIX B: HOW TO SCALE ZE COST RESULTS Climate Zone 2 3 4 5 IECC 2006 Construction Cost ($164)($197)($1,362)($161) Energy Bill Cost $186 $164 $143 $167 IECC 2009 Construction Cost $0 $0 $0 $0 Energy Bill Cost $0 $0 $0 $0 IECC 2012 Construction Cost $934 $4,899 $3,538 $2,717 Energy Bill Cost ($213)($248)($346)($348) IECC 2015 Construction Cost $934 $4,899 $3,538 $2,717 Energy Bill Cost ($220)($256)($353)($353) ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 220 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 63 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EAPPENDIX B: HOW TO SCALE ZE COST RESULTS The calculations use the following equations:• To calculate incremental cost of ZER: [Incremental efficiency cost for the climate zone in Table B1] – [Additional construction cost for the climate zone and code in Table B2] * [Labor and material cost multiplier]• To calculate cost of solar PV: [Solar PV cost taken from correct climate zone in Table B1] * [Ratio of solar resource compared with average] * [Ratio of solar cost compared with national average]• To calculate energy savings from ZE: [Energy savings taken from climate zone in Table B1] – [Additional energy bill cost for the climate zone and code in Table B2] * [Ratio of utility cost compared with national average]• To calculate energy savings from ZER: [Energy savings taken from climate zone in Table B1] – [Additional energy bill cost for the climate zone and code in Table B2] * [Ratio of utility cost compared with national average] ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 221 of 389 64 City ZER incremental Cost Energy Savings for ZER Mortgage Threshold?Resale Threshold?Consumer WTP Threshold?First Cost Threshold New York City, NY Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Houston, TX Phoenix, AZ Philadelphia, PA San Antonio, TX San Diego, CA Dallas, TX San Jose, CA Austin, TX Jacksonville, FL San Francisco, CA Columbus, OH Fort Worth, TX Indianapolis, IN Charlotte, NC Washington, D.C. Seattle, WA Atlanta, GA Denver, CO Boston, MA El Paso, TX Detroit, MI Nashville, TN Memphis, TN Portland, OR Oklahoma City, OK Las Vegas, NV Louisville, KY Baltimore, MD Albuquerque, NM Tucson, AZ Fresno, CA Sacramento, CA Mesa, AZ Kansas City, MO Long Beach, CA Omaha, NE Raleigh, NC Colorado Springs, CO Virginia Beach, VA Oakland, CA Tulsa, OK Arlington, TX New Orleans, LA Wichita, KS $4,166 $2,330 $1,945 $1,290 $1,769 $7,621 $1,243 $2,228 $1,681 $2,634 $1,228 $1,243 $2,694 $3,877 $1,661 $3,919 $6,509 $2,738 $3,125 $6,094 $1,358 $1,837 $1,600 $1,574 $5,406 $5,817 $2,976 $1,641 $2,066 $5,667 $2,738 $5,406 $1,321 $2,390 $2,411 $2,140 $3,035 $2,269 $3,834 $6,440 $3,578 $2,827 $2,613 $1,661 $1,702 $1,337 $2,440 $850 $701 $746 $431 $602 $608 $444 $393 $513 $607 $441 $464 $909 $1,094 $513 $889 $722 $699 $505 $794 $674 $658 $571 $909 $860 $699 $573 $479 $558 $840 $749 $998 $466 $607 $639 $616 $711 $478 $986 $707 $1,034 $566 $607 $396 $513 $418 $703 APPENDIX B: HOW TO SCALE ZE COST RESULTS FIGURE B1: ZER RESULTS SCALED TO THE 50 MOST POPULOUS CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES (NOTE: MILWAUKEE, MINNEAPOLIS, AND MIAMI WERE AMONG THE TOP 50 MOST POPULOUS CITIES BUT WERE EXCLUDED BECAUSE THEY ARE OUTSIDE OF IECC CLIMATE ZONES 2–5) ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 222 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 65 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T ECity ZE incremental Cost Energy Savings for ZE Mortgage Threshold?Resale Threshold?Consumer WTP Threshold?First Cost Threshold New York City, NY Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Houston, TX Phoenix, AZ Philadelphia, PA San Antonio, TX San Diego, CA Dallas, TX San Jose, CA Austin, TX Jacksonville, FL San Francisco, CA Columbus, OH Fort Worth, TX Indianapolis, IN Charlotte, NC Washington, D.C. Seattle, WA Atlanta, GA Denver, CO Boston, MA El Paso, TX Detroit, MI Nashville, TN Memphis, TN Portland, OR Oklahoma City, OK Las Vegas, NV Louisville, KY Baltimore, MD Albuquerque, NM Tucson, AZ Fresno, CA Sacramento, CA Mesa, AZ Kansas City, MO Long Beach, CA Omaha, NE Raleigh, NC Colorado Springs, CO Virginia Beach, VA Oakland, CA Tulsa, OK Arlington, TX New Orleans, LA Wichita, KS $19,534 $18,661 $19,702 $14,713 $15,619 $22,103 $15,298 $17,733 $15,195 $18,581 $15,066 $12,806 $17,953 $20,095 $15,291 $19,903 $18,857 $17,121 $13,815 $19,548 $24,248 $21,050 $17,694 $19,753 $19,355 $18,864 $15,551 $16,153 $17,793 $19,647 $15,828 $26,654 $16,306 $18,013 $17,915 $16,586 $19,806 $18,305 $24,060 $18,805 $26,694 $16,773 $17,911 $16,887 $15,296 $16,859 $19,162 $2,270 $2,011 $2,059 $1,365 $1,728 $1,281 $1,340 $1,128 $1,473 $1,743 $1,331 $1,390 $2,608 $2,410 $1,473 $1,957 $1,668 $1,855 $1,349 $1,833 $1,860 $1,816 $1,639 $2,508 $1,812 $1,613 $1,531 $1,374 $1,589 $1,771 $2,000 $2,103 $1,396 $1,743 $1,834 $1,499 $1,897 $1,372 $2,171 $1,633 $2,277 $1,502 $1,743 $1,136 $1,473 $1,261 $1,865 APPENDIX B: HOW TO SCALE ZE COST RESULTS FIGURE B2: ZE RESULTS SCALED TO THE 50 MOST POPULOUS CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES (NOTE: MILWAUKEE, MINNEAPOLIS, AND MIAMI WERE AMONG THE TOP 50 MOST POPULOUS CITIES BUT WERE EXCLUDED BECAUSE THEY ARE OUTSIDE OF IECC CLIMATE ZONES 2–5) ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 223 of 389 ENDNOTES 11 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 224 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 67 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EENDNOTES 1 The US Department of Energy (DOE) “Tour of Zero” online project database includes extensive case studies in all major US climate zones showing evidence of these benefits. 2 Stephen A Jones and Donna Laquidara-Carr, SmartMarket Brief: Green Multifamily and Single Family Homes 2017 (National Association of Home Builders, 2017). 3 Ann Edminster and Shilpa Sankaran, To Zero and Beyond: Zero Energy Residential Buildings Study (Net-Zero Energy Coalition, June 2017); “2015 RECS Survey Data,” United States Energy Information Administration, accessed September 2018, https://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/data/2015/ 4 Ann Edminster, To Zero and Beyond: Zero Energy Residential Buildings Study (Net-Zero Energy Coalition, April 2018). 5 Data provided by DOE. 6 Mausami Desai and Vincent Camobreco, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, 1990-2016 (United States Environmental Protection Agency, April 12 2018). 7 Sherri Billimoria, Mike Henchen, Leia Guccione, and Leah Louis-Prescott, The Economics of Electrifying Buildings: How Electric Space and Water Heating Supports Decarbonization of Residential Buildings (Rocky Mountain Institute, 2018). 8 VV Mendon, A Selvacanabady, M Zhao, and ZT Taylor, National Cost-Effectiveness of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, June 2015); “2015 RECS Survey Data”, accessed September 2018, https:// www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/data/2015/ 9 Sean Becketti, “Why America’s Homebuyers and Communities Rely on the 30-Year Fixed-Rate Mortgage,” Freddie Mac, last modified April 10 2017, http://www. freddiemac.com/perspectives/sean_becketti/20170410_ homebuyers_communities_fixed_mortgage.html 10 The incremental resale value of the ZE home was conservatively not factored into the Mortgage Threshold or Resale Threshold because current appraisal processes do not consistently improve resale values for more energy-efficient homes. 11 Jessica Lautz, Meredith Dunn, Brandi Snowden, Amanda Riggs, and Brian Horowitz, Home Buyer and Seller Generational Trends Report 2017 (National Association of Realtors, 2017). 12 Stephen A Jones and Donna Laquidara-Carr, SmartMarket Brief: Green Multifamily and Single Family Homes 2017 (National Association of Home Builders, 2017); Ellen Steiner, “Driving NZE to Scale: A Review of Two Recent Studies Illuminating Drivers, Barriers, and Trends in the NZE Market,” Opinion Dynamics, last modified November 30 2017, https://www.swenergy.org/Data/Sites/1/media/documents/ workshop-2017/05-steiner.pdf 13 “New Homes Attract Consumers Looking to Save on Energy Costs,” National Association of Home Builders, last modified April 6 2016, https://www.nahb.org/en/news-and- publications/press-releases/2016/04/new-homes-attract- consumers-looking-to-save-on-energy-costs.aspx; Source for baseline home cost: Residential Cost Data, RSMeans, 2018. 14 VV Mendon, A Selvacanabady, M Zhao, and ZT Taylor, National Cost-Effectiveness of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, June 2015. 15 Cost analysis for this report did not consider life-cycle factors including equipment maintenance, replacement, or depreciation over time. 16 “Status of State Energy Code Adoption,” United States Department of Energy, last modified June 2018, https://www. energycodes.gov/status-state-energy-code-adoption 17 Stephen A Jones and Donna Laquidara-Carr, SmartMarket Brief: Green Multifamily and Single Family Homes 2017 (National Association of Home Builders, 2017). 18 Bethany Speer, Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, October 2012). 19 Notably, Lennar (the second largest home builder in the United States) recently created a PPA program that sets the solar price 20% below utility rates for 20 years. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 225 of 389 68 20 Step Up to Indoor airPLUS (United States Environmental Protection Agency, August 2017). 21 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Savings & Cost Estimate Summary (United States Department of Energy, October 2015). 22 Justin Dyke, “How to Explain Secure Power Supply to Homeowners,” SMA Inverted, last modified May 24 2016, http://www.smainverted.com/how-to-explain-secure- power-supply-to-homeowners/ 23 “Tesla Powerwall: The Complete Battery Review,” EnergySage, last modified June 21 2018, https://www. energysage.com/solar/solar-energy-storage/tesla- powerwall-home-battery/ 24 “Mandalay to Build 3,000 Arizona Homes with Solar and Sonnen Batteries,” Arizona Solar Center, last modified September 2018, https://azsolarcenter.org/mandalay- to-build-3-000-arizona-homes-with-solar-and-sonnen- batteries 25 Sherri Billimoria, Mike Henchen, Leia Guccione, and Leah Louis-Prescott, The Economics of Electrifying Buildings: How Electric Space and Water Heating Supports Decarbonization of Residential Buildings (Rocky Mountain Institute, 2018). 26 Temperature readings reported at Chicago Midway Airport have not dropped below -10oF since January 2014. 27 Statement derived by comparing the Lennox XC25’s published seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 26 rating to the Carrier 38MPRA’s 42 SEER rating. 28 Defined here as filters achieving a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) rating of 13 or greater. 29 Modeled performance characteristics: SEER 22, 10 heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) air source heat pump; SEER 25, 12.5 HSPF mini split. 30 ENERGY STAR certification ensures long-term performance for selected LED products through rigorous performance standards, including lumen maintenance over time and minimum color rendering index (CRI) requirements. 31 Owen Comstock and Kevin Jarzomski, “LED Bulb Efficiency Expected to Continue Improving as Cost Declines,” United States Energy Information Administration, last modified March 19 2014, https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail. php?id=15471 32 As defined by rated energy factor. 33 In cooler climates, HPWHs are typically installed in a garage or other unconditioned space to avoid increasing heating loads. 34 The specification can be found at https://neea.org/our- work/advanced-water-heater-specification 35 Anthony Aebei interview by Michael Gartman and Alisa Petersen, February 13 2018. 36 Detailed recommendations can be found in NREL’s 2009 report Solar Ready Buildings Planning Guide (2009). The costs of these measures were not explicitly modeled in our analysis. 37 These measures can reduce the cost of constructing a 2,200-square foot home by over $6,000, assuming change from hip roof framing and two avoided dormers (Source: Residential Costs, RSMeans, 2018). This value is not considered in this report. 38 Kristen Ardani, Jeffrey Cook, Ran Fu, and Robert Margolis, Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017–2030 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, January 2018). Chart utilizes the average of conservative and aggressive solar PV price models. 39 Kristen Ardani, Jeffrey Cook, Ran Fu, and Robert Margolis, Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017–2030 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, January 2018). ENDNOTES ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 226 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 69 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EENDNOTES 40 Sherri Billimoria, Mike Henchen, Leia Guccione, and Leah Louis-Prescott, The Economics of Electrifying Buildings: How Electric Space and Water Heating Supports Decarbonization of Residential Buildings (Rocky Mountain Institute, 2018). 41 “The Global Cooling Prize,” Rocky Mountain Institute, accessed September 2018, https://www.rmi.org/our-work/ global-energy-transitions/the-global-cooling-prize/ 42 Owen Comstock and Kevin Jarzomski, “LED Bulb Efficiency Expected to Continue Improving as Cost Declines,” United States Energy Information Administration, last modified March 19 2014, https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail. php?id=15471 43 Owen Comstock and Kevin Jarzomski, “LED Bulb Efficiency Expected to Continue Improving as Cost Declines,” United States Energy Information Administration, last modified March 19 2014, https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail. php?id=15471 44 Marianne DiMascio, “How Your Refrigerator Has Kept Its Cool Over 40 Years of Efficiency Improvements,” American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, last modified September 11 2014, http://aceee.org/blog/2014/09/how-your-refrigerator- has-kept-its-co 45 Alex Wilson, “A Look at Heat Pump Water Heaters,” Building Green, last modified September 19 2012, https://www. buildinggreen.com/news-article/look-heat-pump-water- heaters 46 “Heat Pump Water Heaters,” ENERGY STAR, accessed September 2018, https://www.energystar.gov/products/ water_heaters/heat_pump_water_heaters 47 Stephen Selkowitz, “Bringing Window Innovation to Market: Doubling the Insulating Value of US Windows,” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2017. 48 Stephen Selkowitz, “Bringing Window Innovation to Market: Doubling the Insulating Value of US Windows,” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2017. 49 Kristen Ardani, Jeffrey Cook, Ran Fu, and Robert Margolis, Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017–2030 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, January 2018). Statement assumes a 2030 cost of $1.36/W installed for solar PV. 50 The right-most column in this graphic incorporates a 10% cost savings for installing mini split ACs and HPWHs, and LED lighting reaches cost parity with current standard technology. 51 Housing Market Index: Special Questions on Labor and Subcontractors’ Availability (National Association of Home Builders, July 2017). 52 https://basc.pnnl.gov/optimized-climate-solutions 53 Incentives were not considered in this report and stand to drive incremental costs lower in many locations, as shown in the report section “Could Local Incentives Help Achieve Cost Parity?” 54 https://www.energy.gov/eere/buildings/building-america- bringing-building-innovations-market 55 Stephen A Jones and Donna Laquidara-Carr, SmartMarket Brief: Green Multifamily and Single Family Homes 2017 (National Association of Home Builders, 2017). 56 https://www.energy.gov/eere/buildings/doe-tour-zero 57 https://www.nahb.org/en/nahb-priorities/green-building- remodeling-and-development/green-smartmarket-reports. aspx 58 https://www.energy.gov/eere/buildings/downloads/ building-america-building-science-translator 59 https://basc.pnnl.gov/sales-tool 60 https://rmi.org/our-work/buildings/residential-energy- performance/city-support/ 61 Assuming a cost of $900 for certification, considered across four modeled locations. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 227 of 389 70 62 “The City of Portland Home Energy Score,” City of Portland Oregon, accessed September 2018, https://www. portlandoregon.gov/bps/71421; “Energy Conservation Audit and Disclosure Ordinance,” Austin Energy, accessed September 2018; “Building Energy Saving Ordinance,” City of Berkeley, accessed September 2018. 63 https://www.appraisalinstitute.org/education/education- resources/green-building-resources/ 64 “DOE Tour of Zero,” United States Department of Energy, accessed September 2018, https://www.energy.gov/eere/ buildings/doe-tour-zero 65 RECS; US Census Data for the Midwest Region, https:// www.census.gov/construction/chars/pdf/heatingfuel.pdf 66 http://www.cchrc.org/air-source-heat-pumps-southeast- alaska; http://analysisnorth.com/pages/projects.html 67 https://neep.org/air-source-heat-pump-installer- resources 68 https://neea.org/our-work/advanced-water-heater- specification 69 http://www.cchrc.org/air-source-heat-pumps-southeast- alaska 70 VV Mendon, A Selvacanabady, M Zhao, and ZT Taylor, National Cost-Effectiveness of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, June 2015). 71 “Status of State Energy Code Adoption,” United States Department of Energy, last modified June 2018, https://www. energycodes.gov/status-state-energy-code-adoption 72 VV Mendon, A Selvacanabady, M Zhao, and ZT Taylor, National Cost-Effectiveness of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, June 2015). 73 VV Mendon, A Selvacanabady, M Zhao, and ZT Taylor, National Cost-Effectiveness of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, June 2015). 74 https://apps1.eere.energy.gov/sled/#/ 75 “Electric Power Monthly,” United States Energy Information Administration, accessed August 12 2018, https://www. eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher. php?t=epmt_5_06_a 76 https://www.rsmeansonline.com/ 77 VV Mendon, R Lucas, and S Goel, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the 2009 and 2012 IECC Residential Energy Provisions – Technical Support Document (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, April 2013); VV Mendon, M Zhao, ZT Taylor, and E Poehlman, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, February 2016). 78 http://www.dsireusa.org/ 79 https://pvwatts.nrel.gov/ 80 https://news.energysage.com/how-much-does-the- average-solar-panel-installation-cost-in-the-u-s/ ENDNOTES ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 228 of 389 THE ECONOMICS OF ZERO-ENERGY HOMES: SINGLE-FAMILY INSIGHTS | 71 ROCK Y MOUN T AI N INSTIT U T EATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 229 of 389 ROCK Y M OUN T AI N INSTI T U T E2490 Junction Place | Suite 200 Boulder, CO | 80301 USA http://www.rmi.org © October 2018 RMI. All rights reserved. Rocky Mountain Institute® and RMI® are registered trademarks. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 230 of 389 ATTACHMENT G – EXCERPT FROM DECEMBER 4, 2018 COUNCIL MEMO HOME SIZE AND ENERGY One factor to consider as average home size increases each year is the correlation between home size and energy consumption. As square footage increases, the burden on heating and cooling equipment rises, lighting requirements increase, and the likelihood that the household uses more than one refrigerator increases, as does the presence of home theaters, outdoor pools, spas, and similar high-energy-consuming features. Home energy usage is well regulated by Boulder’s energy code and homes are increasingly being required to be Net Zero Energy, however, there is room for increasing these requirements as a tool to incentivize smaller homes, or to at least further mitigate the impact of larger homes. Below staff have proposed an acceleration of existing energy code requirements as well as other strategies that might be considered. Operational Energy Bolder has approximately 44,000 residential dwelling units that consume 15% of the city’s energy annually. A key strategy in the city’s roadmap for meeting our climate commitment goals is developing an increasingly stringent energy code to curb this consumption. The city currently has a robust energy code that is one of the strictest in the nation. New homes and major renovations must achieve an Energy Rating Index (ERI) score no greater than 60. An ERI score is a common energy efficiency metric defined as a numerical score from 0-100, where 100 is equivalent to the 2006 code compliant home and zero is equivalent to a Net Zero Energy (NZE) home. To mitigate the environmental impact of larger homes, a sliding scale was incorporated into the code that increased the stringency of the code for homes with larger floor area. As Figure 1 illustrates, under the current code, all homes greater than 5,000 square feet are required to be NZE. The current long-term code strategy is to incrementally work towards NZE codes by 2031 with increasing stringency every three years, which is also illustrated in Figure 1. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 231 of 389 Figure 1: Residential Energy Code ERI Requirements for New Construction. As originally planned, the 2019 update was to reduce the maximum ERI to 50 and require NZE for all new homes over 4,000 square feet. Since the implementation of the 2017 COBECC [fill in number] new homes have been built to NZE. This represents [X] percent of all new residential construction demonstrating the feasibility of achieving NZE in Boulder’s market. Additionally, with the growing market and advancement in technology, achieving NZE is becoming increasingly cost effective. For this reason, staff proposes an acceleration of the ERI requirements , moving straight to the originally- planned 2022 ERI requirements (see Figure 1). This would require all new homes to have an ERI score of 40 or less and all new homes greater than 3,000 square feet to be NZE. These increased efficiency requirements are well supported by new cost effectiveness studies suggesting the economics for building NZE homes are improving. Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) recently released Economics of Zero-Energy Homes: Single Family Insights, which shows NZE homes are reaching cost parity with conventional construction and that, as the underlying technologies and design elements continue to improve and scale, these costs will continue to decline. In Boulder, a reduction in the price of solar, as well as technical advancement in heat pump technology and adoption is paving the way for all new homes to cost-effectively achieve NZE. Solar and Net Zero In the September 25, 2018 Study Session with City Council, there was discussion of requiring large homes to go beyond net zero energy and to be net positive, energy producing. Over producing electricity in Colorado has a regulated limit. The size of the solar panel system allowed on a customer's residence is determined by the customer’s ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 232 of 389 total electricity usage. The total output of the system must not be greater than 120% of the energy used by the customer. Therefore, grid connectivity becomes a barrier to requiring homes to be net positive. In the future net positive metering may be possible; either through a municipal electric utility or through legislative or regulatory change. Staff will continue to monitor this topic and look for ways to increase distributed solar generation through building codes. This same 120% limit also impacts the selection of technologies for new homes subject to the NZE requirements. The 120% sizing allowance is determined explicitly by the electricity demand. While the additional 20% allowed does provide some offset for natural gas uses in the home, like cooking, it does not provide sufficient offset to cover non-electric space heating. Thus, the NZE requirement, in combination with state-level limits on solar system sizing, results in all electric new homes. Embodied Energy As home size increases, the energy used to build and maintain the home increases, as well. Home construction contributes significantly to resource consumption and GHG emissions. Larger homes consume more energy to construct. Electricity and fuels are consumed during the extraction, manufacture, delivery and maintenance of a home’s constituent materials. Energy that is embedded in all products and processes used in constructing a building is known as embodied energy. Boulder’s energy codes currently only address operational energy. Most homes are being built tighter, with better insulation, high performance heating and ventilation systems, and high efficiency lighting and water heating equipment. As the operational energy requirements of high-performance homes drop, the embodied energy due to home construction becomes a more significant part of the life cycle building energy. Refer to Figure 2 Figure 2: Building Life-cycle Energy 1 1 Reducing the Environmental Impacts of Building Materials: Embodied Energy Analysis of a High- Performance Building, May 2017 ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 233 of 389 Tracking, understanding, and curbing this consumption is challenging due to the various calculation methodologies, source data, and calculation boundaries. Nevertheless, staff is beginning to engage local design professionals to understand how the city could best encourage reduction in embodied energy. This city is also partnering with other communities to develop best practices and develop a framework for future regulation. ATTACHMENT B Agenda Item 5C Page 234 of 389 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code First Printing: October 2019 ISBN: ? COPYRIGHT  2019 by INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code contains substantial material from the 2018 International Energy Conservation Code, Third Printing, which is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or trans- mitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, and not limitation, photocopying or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on use rights and permissions, please contact: ICC Publications, 4051 Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC- SAFE (422-7233). Trademarks: “International Code Council,” the “International Code Council” logo, “ICC,” the “ICC” logo, “International Energy Conservation Code,” “IECC” and other names and trademarks appearing in this book are registered trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc., and/or its licensors (as applicable), and may not be used without permission. PRINTED IN THE USA T02 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 235 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE iii PREFACE Introduction The 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (COBECC) prescribes minimum energy efficiency and conservation standards for new buildings and for additions and alterations to existing buildings. The requirements of the COBECC are intended to promote public health, safety and welfare by requiring the design and construction of buildings in the City of Boulder consistent with the city’s energy, climate and sustainability goals; national safety standards; and best practices for engineer- ing and construction technology. The COBECC introduces new energy efficiency measures and improves the energy performance requirements for residential buildings and prescriptive requirements for commercial buildings. The COBECC is based on the 2018 edition of the International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC®), published by the International Code Council® (ICC®), and incorporates local amendments to the model code. The COBECC eliminates portions of the model code that do not apply to Boulder and incorporates Boulder’s local energy conservation requirements in one document. Since 1996, the city has adopted local amendments to the IECC to impose more stringent energy efficiency requirements than the model code. Like previous local amendments, the COBECC imposes more stringent energy efficiency requirements than the model code. The COBECC require- ments support the climate commitment goals adopted by City Council on December 6, 2016: • 80 percent reduction of the community’s greenhouse gas emissions below 2005 levels by 2050. • 100 percent renewable electricity by 2030. • 80 percent reduction in organizational greenhouse gas emissions below 2008 levels by 2030. In support of these goals, Boulder has set a target of reaching net zero energy construction by 2031 for new buildings and major alterations through building and energy code requirements. Boul- der has developed a strategy to achieve that target; adopting increasingly aggressive energy codes is a key part of the strategy. Adoption The 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code was adopted at second reading by the City Council of the City of Boulder on December 17, 2019, with the passage of City of Boulder Ordinance No. XXXX. Information regarding the adoption of Ordinance No. XXXX can be reviewed at the City of Boul- der Central Records Office as part of the City Council agenda materials for December 17, 2019. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 236 of 389 iv 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE Marginal Markings =Indicates a City of Boulder amendment has been made to the 2018 International Energy Conservation Code. >= Indicates model code language deleted by the City of Boulder. Italicized Terms  Selected words and terms defined in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text and the Chapter 2 definition applies. Where such words and terms are not italicized, common- use definitions apply. The words and terms selected have code-specific definitions that the user should read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 237 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE v EFFECTIVE USE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE The 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code (COBECC) is a model code that regulates mini- mum energy conservation requirements for new buildings. This code addresses energy conserva- tion requirements for all aspects of energy uses in both commercial and residential construction, including heating and ventilating, lighting, water heating, and power usage for appliances and build- ing systems. This code is a design document. For example, before one constructs a building, the designer must determine the minimum insulation R-values and fenestration U-factors for the building exterior envelope. Depending on whether the building is for residential use or for commercial use, the COBECC sets forth minimum requirements for exterior envelope insulation, window and door U-fac- tors and SHGC ratings, duct insulation, lighting and power efficiency, and water distribution insula- tion. Arrangement and Format of the 2020 COBECC The COBECC contains two separate sets of provisions—one for commercial buildings and one for residential buildings. Each set of provisions is applied separately to buildings within their scope. The Commercial Provisions apply to all buildings except for residential buildings three stories or less in height. The Residential Provisions apply to detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings as well as Group R-2, R-3 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height. These scopes are based on the definitions of “Commercial building” and “Residential building,” respectively, in Chapter 2 of each set of provisions. Note that the Commercial Provisions therefore contain provisions for residential buildings four stories or greater in height. Each set of provisions is divided into five different parts: The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the City of Boulder International Energy Conservation Code and applies to both the commercial and res- idential energy provisions: Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establish- ing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its pur- view. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining “due process of law” in enforcing the energy conservation criteria contained in the body of this code. Only through careful observation of the administrative provisions can the code official reasonably expect to demonstrate that “equal pro- tection under the law” has been provided. Chapters Subjects  1–2 Administration and definitions 3 Climate zones and general materials requirements 4 Energy efficiency requirements 5 Existing buildings 6 Referenced standards ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 238 of 389 vi 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE Chapter 2 Definitions. Chapter 2 is the repository of the definitions of terms used in the body of the code. Codes are technical documents and every word, term and punctuation mark can impact the meaning of the code text and the intended results. The code often uses terms that have a unique meaning in the code and the code meaning can differ substantially from the ordinarily understood meaning of the term as used outside of the code. The terms defined in Chapter 2 are deemed to be of prime importance in establishing the mean- ing and intent of the code text. The user of the code should be familiar with and consult this chapter because the definitions are essential to the correct interpretation of the code and the user may not be aware that a term is defined. Where understanding of a term’s definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of a particular code provision, the term is shown in italics. This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding terms not defined in this code is provided. Chapter 3 General Requirements. Chapter 3 provides interior design conditions that are used as a basis for assumptions in heating and cooling load calculations, and provides basic material requirements for insulation materials and fenestration materials. Chapter 4 Energy Efficiency. Chapter 4 of each set of provisions contains the technical require- ments for energy efficiency. Commercial Energy Efficiency. Chapter 4 of the Commercial Provisions contains the energy- efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of most types of commercial buildings and residential buildings greater than three stories in height above grade. This chapter defines requirements for the portions of the building and building systems that impact energy use in new commercial construction and new residential construction greater than three stories in height, and promotes the effective use of energy. In addition to energy conservation require- ments for the building envelope, this chapter contains requirements that impact energy effi- ciency for the HVAC systems, the electrical systems and the plumbing systems. It should be noted, however, that requirements are contained in other codes that have an impact on energy conservation. For instance, requirements for water flow rates are regulated by the International Plumbing Code. Residential Energy Efficiency. Chapter 4 of the Residential Provisions contains the energy- efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of residential buildings regulated under this code. It should be noted that the definition of a residential building in this code is unique for this code. In this code, a residential building is a detached one- and two-family dwell- ing and multiple single-family dwellings as well as R-2, R-3 or R-4 buildings three stories or less in height. All other buildings, including residential buildings greater than three stories in height, are regulated by the energy conservation requirements in the Commercial Provisions. The applicable portions of a residential building must comply with the provisions within this chapter for energy efficiency. This chapter defines requirements for the portions of the building and building sys- tems that impact energy use in new residential construction and promotes the effective use of energy. The provisions within the chapter promote energy efficiency in the building envelope, the heating and cooling system and the service water heating system of the building. Chapter 5 Existing Buildings. Chapter 5 of each set of provisions contains the technical energy efficiency requirements for existing buildings. Chapter 5 provisions address the maintenance of buildings in compliance with the code as well as how additions, alterations, repairs and changes of occupancy need to be addressed from the standpoint of energy efficiency. Specific provisions are provided for historic buildings. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 239 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE vii Chapter 6 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 6 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compli- ance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, designer and owner. Chapter 6 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency’s standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based on the stan- dard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this code that reference the standard. Abbreviations and Notations The following is a list of common abbreviations and units of measurement used in this code. Some of the abbreviations are for terms defined in Chapter 2. Others are terms used in various tables and text of the code. AFUE Annual fuel utilization efficiency bhp Brake horsepower (fans) Btu British thermal unit Btu/h-ft2 Btu per hour per square foot C-factor See Chapter 2—Definitions CDD Cooling degree days cfm Cubic feet per minute cfm/ft2 Cubic feet per minute per square foot ci Continuous insulation COP Coefficient of performance DCV Demand control ventilation °C Degrees Celsius °F Degrees Fahrenheit DWHR Drain water heat recovery DX Direct expansion Ec Combustion efficiency Ev Ventilation efficiency Et Thermal efficiency EER Energy efficiency ratio EF Energy factor ERI Energy rating index F-factor See Chapter 2—Definitions FDD Fault detection and diagnostics FEG Fan efficiency grade FL Full load ft2 Square foot ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 240 of 389 viii 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE gpm Gallons per minute HDD Heating degree days hp Horsepower HSPF Heating seasonal performance factor HVAC Heating, ventilating and air conditioning IEER Integrated energy efficiency ratio IPLV Integrated Part Load Value Kg/m2 Kilograms per square meter kW Kilowatt LPD Light power density (lighting power allowance) L/s Liters per second Ls Liner system m2 Square meters MERV Minimum efficiency reporting value NAECA National Appliance Energy Conservation Act NPLV Nonstandard Part Load Value Pa Pascal PF Projection factor pcf Pounds per cubic foot psf Pounds per square foot PTAC Packaged terminal air conditioner PTHP Packaged terminal heat pump R-value See Chapter 2—Definitions SCOP Sensible coefficient of performance SEER Seasonal energy efficiency ratio SHGC Solar Heat Gain Coefficient SPVAC Single packaged vertical air conditioner SPVHP Single packaged vertical heat pump SRI Solar reflectance index SWHF Service water heat recovery factor U-factor See Chapter 2—Definitions VAV Variable air volume VRF Variable refrigerant flow VT Visible transmittance WWatts w.c.Water column w.g.Water gauge ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 241 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ix TABLE OF CONTENTS COMMERCIAL PROVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . .C-1 CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-3 CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-7 CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS . . . .C-15 CHAPTER 4 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-17 CHAPTER 5 EXISTING BUILDINGS. . . . . . . . . .C-83 CHAPTER 6 REFERENCED STANDARDS. . . . .C-87 APPENDIX CA SOLAR-READY ZONE—COMMERCIAL (See Section C406) . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-95 INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-97 RESIDENTIAL PROVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . R-1 CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-3 CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-7 CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . R-11 CHAPTER 4 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-15 CHAPTER 5 EXISTING BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . R-27 CHAPTER 6 REFERENCED STANDARDS. . . . . R-31 APPENDIX RA SOLAR-READY PROVISIONS—DETACHED ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS AND TOWNHOUSES (See Section R407) . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-35 INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-37 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 242 of 389 x 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 243 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-1 COMMERCIAL PROVISIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-3 PART 1—SCOPE AND APPLICATION. . . . . . . . . . .C-3 Section C101 Scope and General Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3 C102 Alternative Materials, Design and Methods of Construction and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3 PART 2—ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-3 Section C103 Construction Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-3 C104 Fees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-5 C105 Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-5 C106 Validity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-5 C107 Referenced Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6 C108 Stop Work Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6 C109 Board of Appeals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-6 CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-7 Section C201 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7 C202 General Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-7 CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. . . . .C-15 Section C301 Climate Zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 C302 Design Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 C303 Materials, Systems and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . C-15 CHAPTER 4 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-17 Section C401 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-17 C402 Building Envelope Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . C-17 C403 Building Mechanical Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-25 C404 Service Water Heating (Mandatory) . . . . . . . . . . C-54 C405 Electrical Power and Lighting Systems. . . . . . . . C-58 C406 Solar Readiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-73 C407 Total Building Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-74 C408 Maintenance Information and System Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-77 CHAPTER 5 EXISTING BUILDINGS. . . . . . . . . . C-83 Section C501 General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-83 C502 Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-83 C503 Alterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-84 C504 Repairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-85 C505 Change of Occupancy or Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-86 CHAPTER 6 REFERENCED STANDARDS. . . . . C-87 APPENDIX CA SOLAR-READY ZONE—COMMERCIAL (See Section C406) . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-95 INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-97 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 244 of 389 C-2 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 245 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-3 CHAPTER 1 [CE] SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION User note: About this chapter: Chapter 1 establishes the limits of applicability of the code and describes how the code is to be applied and enforced. Chapter 1 is in two parts: Part 1—Scope and Application and Part 2—Administration and Enforcement. Section 101 identifies what buildings, systems, appliances and equipment fall under its purview and references other I-Codes as applicable. Standards and codes are scoped to the extent referenced. The code is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document and it cannot be effective without adequate provisions for its adminis- tration and enforcement. The provisions of Chapter 1 establish the authority and duties of the code official appointed by the authority having jurisdiction and also establish the rights and privileges of the design professional, contractor and property owner. PART 1—SCOPE AND APPLICATION SECTION C101 SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS C101.1 Title. This code shall be known as the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code and shall be cited as such. It is referred to herein as “this code.” C101.2 Scope. This code applies to commercial buildings and the buildings’ sites and associated systems and equip- ment. C101.3 Intent. This code shall regulate the design and con- struction of buildings for the effective use and conservation of energy over the useful life of each building. This code is intended to provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve this objective. This code is not intended to abridge safety, health or environmen- tal requirements contained in other applicable codes or ordi- nances. C101.4 Applicability. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general require- ment and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall govern. C101.4.1 Mixed residential and commercial buildings. Where a building includes both residential building and commercial building portions, each portion shall be sepa- rately considered and meet the applicable provisions of IECC—Commercial Provisions or IECC—Residential Provisions. C101.5 Compliance. Residential buildings shall meet the provisions of IECC—Residential Provisions. Commercial buildings shall meet the provisions of IECC—Commercial Provisions. C101.5.1 Compliance materials. The code official shall be permitted to approve specific computer software, work- sheets, compliance manuals and other similar materials that meet the intent of this code. SECTION C102 ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS, DESIGN AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT C102.1 General. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of con- struction shall be approved where the code official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, not less than the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Where the alternative material, design or method of construc- tion is not approved, the code official shall respond in writ- ing, stating the reasons why the alternative was not approved. C102.1.1 Above code programs. The code official or other authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to deem a national, state or local energy efficiency program to exceed the energy efficiency required by this code. Buildings approved in writing by such an energy effi- ciency program shall be considered to be in compliance with this code. The requirements identified as “manda- tory” in Chapter 4 shall be met. PART 2—ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT SECTION C103 CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS C103.1 General. Construction documents and other support- ing data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each application for a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the code official is authorized to require necessary construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional. Exception: The code official is authorized to waive the requirements for construction documents or other support- ing data if the code official determines they are not neces- sary to confirm compliance with this code. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 246 of 389 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION C-4 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C103.2 Information on construction documents. Construc- tion documents shall be drawn to scale on suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted where approved by the code official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed, and show in sufficient detail pertinent data and features of the building, systems and equipment as herein governed. Details shall include, but are not limited to, the following as applicable: 1. Insulation materials and their R-values. 2. Fenestration U-factors and solar heat gain coefficients (SHGCs). 3. Area-weighted U-factor and solar heat gain coeffi- cient (SHGC) calculations. 4. Mechanical system design criteria. 5. Mechanical and service water heating systems and equipment types, sizes and efficiencies. 6. Economizer description. 7. Equipment and system controls. 8. Fan motor horsepower (hp) and controls. 9. Duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location. 10. Lighting fixture schedule with wattage and control narrative. 11. Location of daylight zones on floor plans. 12. Air sealing details. C103.2.1 Building thermal envelope depiction. The building thermal envelope shall be represented on the con- struction drawings. C103.3 Examination of documents. The code official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying con- struction documents and shall ascertain whether the construc- tion indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordi- nances. The code official is authorized to utilize a registered design professional, or other approved entity not affiliated with the building design or construction, in conducting the review of the plans and specifications for compliance with the code. C103.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the code official issues a permit where construction docu- ments are required, the construction documents shall be endorsed in writing and stamped “Reviewed for Code Compliance.” Such approved construction documents shall not be changed, modified or altered without authori- zation from the code official. Work shall be done in accor- dance with the approved construction documents. One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the code official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the code official or a duly autho- rized representative. C103.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pur- sued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned. C103.3.3 Phased approval. The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit for the construction of part of an energy conservation system before the construction documents for the entire system have been submitted or approved, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assurance that the permit for the entire energy conservation system will be granted. C103.4 Amended construction documents. Changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents. C103.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws. C103.6 Building documentation and closeout submittal requirements. The construction documents shall specify that the documents described in this section be provided to the building owner or owner’s authorized agent within 90 days of the date of receipt of the certificate of occupancy. C103.6.1 Record documents. Construction documents shall be updated to convey a record of the completed work. Such updates shall include mechanical, electrical and control drawings that indicate all changes to size, type and location of components, equipment and assemblies. C103.6.2 Compliance documentation. Energy code compliance documentation and supporting calculations shall be delivered in one document to the building owner as part of the project record documents or manuals, or as a standalone document. This document shall include the specific energy code edition utilized for compliance deter- mination for each system, documentation demonstrating compliance with Section C303.1.3 for each fenestration product installed, and the interior lighting power compli- ance path, building area or space-by-space, used to calcu- late the lighting power allowance. For projects complying with Item 2 of Section C401.2, the documentation shall include: 1. The envelope insulation compliance path. 2. All compliance calculations including those required by Sections C402.1.5, C403.8.1, C405.3 and C405.4. For projects complying with Section C407, the docu- mentation shall include that required by Sections C407.4.1 and C407.4.2. C103.6.3 Systems operation control. Training shall be provided to those responsible for maintaining and operat- ing equipment included in the manuals required by Section C103.6.2. The training shall include: 1. Review of manuals and permanent certificate. 2. Hands-on demonstration of all normal maintenance procedures, normal operating modes, and all emer- gency shutdown and startup procedures. 3. Training completion report. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 247 of 389 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-5 SECTION C104 FEES C104.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees pre- scribed in Section C104.2 have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid. C104.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as estab- lished by the applicable governing authority. C104.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences any work before obtaining the neces- sary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the code official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees. C104.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the con- struction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity autho- rized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law. C104.5 Refunds. The code official is authorized to establish a refund policy. SECTION C105 INSPECTIONS C105.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the code official, his or her designated agent or an approved agency, and such con- struction or work shall remain visible and able to be accessed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordi- nances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain visi- ble and able to be accessed for inspection purposes. Neither the code official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any mate- rial, product, system or building component required to allow inspection to validate compliance with this code. C105.2 Required inspections. The code official, his or her designated agent or an approved agency, upon notification, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections C105.2.1 through C105.2.6. C105.2.1 Footing and foundation insulation. Inspec- tions shall verify the footing and foundation insulation R- value, location, thickness, depth of burial and protection of insulation as required by the code, approved plans and specifications. C105.2.2 Thermal envelope. Inspections shall verify the correct type of insulation, R-values, location of insulation, fenestration, U-factor, SHGC and VT, and that air leakage controls are properly installed, as required by the code, approved plans and specifications. C105.2.3 Plumbing system. Inspections shall verify the type of insulation, R-values, protection required, controls and heat traps as required by the code, approved plans and specifications. C105.2.4 Mechanical system. Inspections shall verify the installed HVAC equipment for the correct type and size, controls, insulation, R-values, system and damper air leak- age, minimum fan efficiency, energy recovery and econo- mizer as required by the code, approved plans and specifications. C105.2.5 Electrical system. Inspections shall verify light- ing system controls, components, and meters as required by the code, approved plans and specifications. C105.2.6 Final inspection. The final inspection shall include verification of the installation and proper operation of all required building controls, and documentation veri- fying activities associated with required building commis- sioning have been conducted in accordance with Section C408. C105.3 Reinspection. A building shall be reinspected where determined necessary by the code official. C105.4 Approved inspection agencies. The code official is authorized to accept reports of third-party inspection agencies not affiliated with the building design or construction, pro- vided that such agencies are approved as to qualifications and reliability relevant to the building components and systems that they are inspecting. C105.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code. C105.6 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or instal- lation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made to achieve compliance with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the code official for inspection and testing. C105.7 Approval. After the prescribed tests and inspections indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a notice of approval shall be issued by the code official. C105.7.1 Revocation. The code official is authorized to suspend or revoke, in writing, a notice of approval issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure, premise, or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code. SECTION C106 VALIDITY C106.1 General. If a portion of this code is held to be illegal or void, such a decision shall not affect the validity of the remainder of this code. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 248 of 389 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION C-6 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE SECTION C107 REFERENCED STANDARDS C107.1 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those listed in Chapter 6, and such codes and standards shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sec- tions C107.1.1 and C107.1.2. C107.1.1 Conflicts. Where conflicts occur between provi- sions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply. C107.1.2 Provisions in referenced codes and standards. Where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable, shall take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code or standard. C107.2 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code. C107.3 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. SECTION C108 STOP WORK ORDER C108.1 Authority. Where the code official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, the code official is authorized to issue a stop work order. C108.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, the owner’s authorized agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume. C108.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work. C108.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine as set by the applicable governing authority. SECTION C109 BOARD OF APPEALS C109.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the code official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The code official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall not have a vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall ren- der all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the code official. C109.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall not have authority to waive requirements of this code. C109.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training and are not employees of the jurisdiction. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 249 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-7 CHAPTER 2 [CE] DEFINITIONS User note: About this chapter: Codes, by their very nature, are technical documents. Every word, term and punctuation mark can add to or change the meaning of a technical requirement. It is necessary to maintain a consensus on the specific meaning of each term contained in the code. Chapter 2 performs this function by stating clearly what specific terms mean for the purposes of the code. SECTION C201 GENERAL C201.1 Scope. Unless stated otherwise, the following words and terms in this code shall have the meanings indicated in this chapter. C201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural includes the singular. C201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Terms that are not defined in this code but are defined in the International Build- ing Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, International Plumb- ing Code or the International Residential Code shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those codes. C201.4 Terms not defined. Terms not defined by this chapter shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. SECTION C202 GENERAL DEFINITIONS ABOVE-GRADE WALL. See “Wall, above-grade.” ACCESS (TO). That which enables a device, appliance or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, or similar obstruction. ADDITION. An extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area, number of stories or height of a building or structure. AIR BARRIER. One or more materials joined together in a continuous manner to restrict or prevent the passage of air through the building thermal envelope and its assemblies. AIR CURTAIN. A device, installed at the building entrance, that generates and discharges a laminar air stream intended to prevent the infiltration of external, unconditioned air into the conditioned spaces, or the loss of interior, conditioned air to the outside. ALTERATION. Any construction, retrofit or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition. Also, a change in a building, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation. ALTERATION, LEVEL 1. An alteration that includes the removal and replacement or the covering of existing materi- als, elements, equipment or fixtures using new materials, ele- ments, equipment or fixtures that serve the same purpose. ALTERATION, LEVEL 2. An alteration that includes the reconfiguration of space, the addition or elimination of any door or window, the reconfiguration or extension of any sys- tem, or the installation of any additional equipment. ALTERATION, LEVEL 3. An alteration where the work area exceeds 50 percent of the building area. ALTERATION, LEVEL 4. An alteration where the work area exceeds 50 percent of the building area, mechanical and lighting systems are substantially replaced, and where the alteration meets the criteria of substantial structural alter- ation, including fenestration replacement. APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official. APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency that is regularly engaged in conducting tests or fur- nishing inspection services, or furnishing product certifica- tion, where such agency has been approved by the code official. AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for exam- ple, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see “Manual”). BELOW-GRADE WALL. See “Wall, below-grade.” BOILER, MODULATING. A boiler that is capable of more than a single firing rate in response to a varying temperature or heating load. BOILER SYSTEM. One or more boilers, their piping and controls that work together to supply steam or hot water to heat output devices remote from the boiler. BUBBLE POINT. The refrigerant liquid saturation tempera- ture at a specified pressure. BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy, including any mechanical systems, service water heating systems and electric power and lighting systems located on the building site and support- ing the building. BUILDING COMMISSIONING. A process that verifies and documents that the selected building systems have been designed, installed, and function according to the owner’s project requirements and construction documents, and to minimum code requirements. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 250 of 389 DEFINITIONS C-8 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE BUILDING ENTRANCE. Any door, set of doors, door- way, or other form of portal that is used to gain access to the building from the outside by the public. BUILDING SITE. A contiguous area of land that is under the ownership or control of one entity. BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floors, ceilings, roofs and any other building ele- ment assemblies that enclose conditioned space or provide a boundary between conditioned space and exempt or uncon- ditioned space. CAPTIVE KEY OVERRIDE. A lighting control that will not release the key that activates the override when the light- ing is on. CAVITY INSULATION. Insulating material located between framing members. C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coeffi- cient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a build- ing component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)]. CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the use of a building or a portion of a building that results in any of the following: 1. A change of occupancy classification. 2. A change from one group to another group within an occupancy classification. 3. Any change in use within a group for which there is a change in the application of the requirements of this code. CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to the fixture supply and back to the water-heating equipment. CLIMATE ZONE. A geographical region based on climatic criteria as specified in this code. CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative. COEFFICENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) – COOL- ING. The ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete refrigerating system or some specific portion of that system under desig- nated operating conditions. COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) – HEAT- ING. The ratio of the rate of heat delivered to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete heat pump system, including the compressor and, if applicable, auxiliary heat, under designated operating conditions. COMMERCIAL BUILDING. For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of “Residential build- ing.” COMPUTER ROOM. A room whose primary function is to house equipment for the processing and storage of electronic data and that has a design electronic data equipment power density of less than 20 watts per square foot (20 watts per 0.092 m2) of conditioned floor area or a connected design electronic data equipment load of less than 10 kW. CONDENSING UNIT. A factory-made assembly of refrig- eration components designed to compress and liquefy a spe- cific refrigerant. The unit consists of one or more refrigerant compressors, refrigerant condensers (air-cooled, evapora- tively cooled, or water-cooled), condenser fans and motors (where used) and factory-supplied accessories. CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the conditioned space. CONDITIONED SPACE. An area, room or space that is enclosed within the building thermal envelope and is directly or indirectly heated or cooled. Spaces are indirectly heated or cooled where they communicate through openings with con- ditioned spaces, where they are separated from conditioned spaces by uninsulated walls, floors or ceilings, or where they contain uninsulated ducts, piping or other sources of heating or cooling. CONSTRUCTION VALUATION. The total value of work requiring building, mechanical, plumbing and electrical per- mits; to be determined consistent with the standards of Sub- section 4-20-4(d), B.R.C. 1981. The higher of the two valuations considered under Subsection 4-20-4(d), B.R.C. 1981, shall be the total value of work. CONTINUOUS INSULATION (ci). Insulating material that is continuous across all structural members without ther- mal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior or is integral to any opaque surface of the building envelope. CRAWL SPACE WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses a crawl space and is partially or totally below grade. CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments. DAYLIGHT RESPONSIVE CONTROL. A device or sys- tem that provides automatic control of electric light levels based on the amount of daylight in a space. DAYLIGHT ZONE. That portion of a building’s interior floor area that is illuminated by natural light. DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventila- tion system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occu- pancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occu- pancy. DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. A water distribution system having one or more recirculation pumps that pump water from a heated water supply pipe back to the heated water source through a cold water supply pipe. DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air. The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts. DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmis- sion of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances. DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete inde- pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 251 of 389 DEFINITIONS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-9 DYNAMIC GLAZING. Any fenestration product that has the fully reversible ability to change its performance proper- ties, including U-factor, solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), or visible transmittance (VT). ECONOMIZER, AIR. A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to sup- ply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather. ECONOMIZER, WATER. A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling. ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV). A motorized vehicle regis- tered for on-road use, powered by an electric motor that draws current from rechargeable storage that is charged by being plugged into an electrical source. ELECTRIC VEHICLE CAPABLE SPACE. A designated parking space that is provided with conduit sized for a 40- amp, 208/240-volt dedicated branch circuit from a building electrical service panel to the parking space and sufficient physical space in the same building electrical service panel to accommodate a 40-amp dual-pole circuit breaker. ELECTRIC VEHICLE READY SPACE. A parking space that is provided with one 40-amp, 208/240-volt dedicated branch circuit for electric vehicle supply equipment that is terminated at a receptacle, a junction box or electric vehicle supply equipment within the parking space. ELECTRIC VEHICLE SUPPLY EQUIPMENT (EVSE). The electrical conductors and equipment external to the elec- tric vehicle that provide a connection between an electric vehicle and a power source to provide electric vehicle charging. ELECTRIC VEHICLE SUPPLY EQUIPMENT (EVSE) INSTALLED SPACE. A parking space with electric vehicle supply equipment capable of supplying current at 40 amps at 208/240 volt. ENCLOSED SPACE. A volume surrounded by solid sur- faces such as walls, floors, roofs, and openable devices such as doors and operable windows. ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and standard reference design based on estimates of energy use. ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for pur- chased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges. ENERGY IMPACT OFFSET FUND. A city-approved and city-managed offset fund providing a payment option in lieu of complying with city program renewable energy and/or off- set requirements. The fund was approved by City Council on March 7, 2018. ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEM. Sys- tems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system. ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building. ENERGY USE INTENSITY (EUI). The annual building site energy use per square foot of gross floor area in units of kBTU/sq ft. ENTRANCE DOOR. A vertical fenestration product used for occupant ingress, egress and access in nonresidential build- ings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances utilizing latching hardware and automatic closers and containing over 50 percent glazing specifically designed to withstand heavy-duty usage. EQUIPMENT POWER DENSITY (EPD). The power per unit area of equipment serving plug and process loads of the building or space, expressed in W/ft2 of building gross floor area. EQUIPMENT ROOM. A space that contains either electrical equipment, mechanical equipment, machinery, water pumps or hydraulic pumps that are a function of the building’s services. EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both above-grade walls and basement walls. FAN BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP). The horsepower delivered to the fan’s shaft. Brake horsepower does not include the mechanical drive losses such as that from belts and gears. FAN EFFICIENCY GRADE (FEG). A numerical rating identifying the fan’s aerodynamic ability to convert shaft power, or impeller power in the case of a direct-driven fan, to air power. FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design condi- tions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spaces and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors. FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS. Operating condi- tions that can be expected to occur during normal system oper- ation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system, other than during air economizer operation. FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spaces and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors. FENESTRATION. Products classified as either skylights or vertical fenestration. Skylights. Glass or other transparent or translucent glaz- ing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal, including unit skylights, tubu- lar daylighting devices and glazing materials in solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls. Vertical fenestration. Windows that are fixed or opera- ble, opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combi- nation opaque and glazed doors composed of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing materials and installed at a slope of not less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal. FENESTRATION PRODUCT, FIELD-FABRICATED. A fenestration product whose frame is made at the construc- tion site of standard dimensional lumber or other materials that were not previously cut, or otherwise formed with the ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 252 of 389 DEFINITIONS C-10 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE specific intention of being used to fabricate a fenestration product or exterior door. Field fabricated does not include site-built fenestration. FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT. A fenestra- tion designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assem- bled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory- formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls, and atrium roof systems. F-FACTOR. The perimeter heat loss factor for slab-on-grade floors (Btu/h • ft • °F) [W/(m • K)]. FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not includ- ing unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. GENERAL LIGHTING. Lighting that provides a substan- tially uniform level of illumination throughout an area. Gen- eral lighting shall not include decorative lighting or lighting that provides a dissimilar level of illumination to serve a spe- cialized application or feature within such area. GREENHOUSE. A structure or a thermally isolated area of a building that maintains a specialized sunlit environment exclusively used for, and essential to, the cultivation, protec- tion or maintenance of plants. GROUP R. Buildings or portions of buildings that contain any of the following occupancies as established in the Inter- national Building Code: 1.Group R-1. 2.Group R-2 where located more than three stories in height above grade plane. 3.Group R-4 where located more than three stories in height above grade plane. HEAT TRAP. An arrangement of piping and fittings, such as elbows, or a commercially available heat trap that prevents thermosyphoning of hot water during standby periods. HEATED SLAB. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution sys- tem is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab. HIGH SPEED DOOR. A nonswinging door used primarily to facilitate vehicular access or material transportation, with a minimum opening rate of 32 inches (813 mm) per second, a minimum closing rate of 24 inches (610 mm) per second and that includes an automatic-closing device. HISTORIC BUILDING. Any building or structure that is one or more of the following: 1. Listed, or certified as eligible for listing by the State Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, in the National Register of Historic Places. 2. Designated as historic under an applicable state or local law. 3. Certified as a contributing resource within a National Register-listed, state-designated or locally designated historic district. HUMIDISTAT. A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity. IEC DESIGN H MOTOR. An electric motor that meets all of the following: 1. It is an induction motor designed for use with three- phase power. 2. It contains a cage rotor. 3. It is capable of direct-on-line starting. 4. It has four, six or eight poles. 5. It is rated from 0.4 kW to 1600 kW at a frequency of 60 hertz. IEC DESIGN N MOTOR. An electric motor that meets all of the following: 1. It is an induction motor designed for use with three- phase power. 2. It contains a cage rotor. 3. It is capable of direct-on-line starting. 4. It has two, four, six or eight poles. 5. It is rated from 0.4 kW to 1600 kW at a frequency of 60 hertz. INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both. INTEGRATED PART LOAD VALUE (IPLV). A single- number figure of merit based on part-load EER, COP or kW/ton expressing part-load efficiency for air-conditioning and heat pump equipment on the basis of weighted operation at various load capacities for equipment. ISOLATION DEVICES. Devices that isolate HVAC zones so that they can be operated independently of one another. Isolation devices include separate systems, isolation dampers, and controls providing shutoff at terminal boxes. LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, approved agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. LINER SYSTEM (Ls). A system that includes the follow- ing: 1. A continuous vapor barrier liner membrane that is installed below the purlins and that is uninterrupted by framing members. 2. An uncompressed, unfaced insulation resting on top of the liner membrane and located between the purlins. For multilayer installations, the last rated R-value of insu- lation is for unfaced insulation draped over purlins and then compressed when the metal roof panels are attached. LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 253 of 389 DEFINITIONS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-11 or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. LOW-SLOPED ROOF. A roof having a slope less than 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal. LOW-VOLTAGE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER. A transformer that is air-cooled, does not use oil as a coolant, has an input voltage less than or equal to 600 volts and is rated for operation at a frequency of 60 hertz. LUMINAIRE-LEVEL LIGHTING CONTROLS. A light- ing system consisting of one or more luminaires with em- bedded lighting control logic, occupancy and ambient light sensors, wireless networking capabilities and local override switching capability, where required. MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal interven- tion (see “Automatic”). NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER. The nominal motor output power rating stamped on the motor nameplate. NEMA DESIGN A MOTOR. A squirrel-cage motor that meets all of the following: 1. It is designed to withstand full-voltage starting and develop locked-rotor torque as shown in paragraph 12.38.1 of NEMA MG 1. 2. It has pull-up torque not less than the values shown in paragraph 12.40.1 of NEMA MG 1. 3. It has breakdown torque not less than the values shown in paragraph 12.39.1 of NEMA MG 1. 4. It has a locked-rotor current higher than the values shown in paragraph 12.35.1 of NEMA MG 1 for 60 hertz and paragraph 12.35.2 of NEMA MG 1 for 50 hertz. 5. It has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent for motors with fewer than 10 poles. NEMA DESIGN B MOTOR. A squirrel-cage motor that meets all of the following: 1. It is designed to withstand full-voltage starting. 2. It develops locked-rotor, breakdown, and pull-up torques adequate for general application as specified in Sections 12.38, 12.39 and 12.40 of NEMA MG1. 3. It draws locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in Section 12.35.1 for 60 hertz and Section 12.35.2 for 50 hertz of NEMA MG1. 4. It has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent for motors with fewer than 10 poles. NEMA DESIGN C MOTOR. A squirrel-cage motor that meets all of the following: 1. Designed to withstand full-voltage starting and develop locked-rotor torque for high-torque applications up to the values shown in paragraph 12.38.2 of NEMA MG1 (incorporated by reference, see A§431.15). 2. It has pull-up torque not less than the values shown in paragraph 12.40.2 of NEMA MG1. 3. It has breakdown torque not less than the values shown in paragraph 12.39.2 of NEMA MG1. 4. It has a locked-rotor current not to exceed the values shown in paragraph 12.35.1 of NEMA MG1 for 60 hertz and paragraph 12.35.2 for 50 hertz. 5. It has a slip at rated load of less than 5 percent. NETWORKED GUESTROOM CONTROL SYSTEM. A control system, accessible from the front desk or other central location associated with a Group R-1 building, that is capable of identifying the occupancy status of each guestroom according to a timed schedule, and is capable of controlling HVAC in each hotel and motel guestroom separately. NONSTANDARD PART LOAD VALUE (NPLV). A sin- gle-number part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated and referenced to conditions other than IPLV conditions, for units that are not designed to operate at AHRI standard rating con- ditions. OCCUPANT SENSOR CONTROL. An automatic control device or system that detects the presence or absence of peo- ple within an area and causes lighting, equipment or appli- ances to be regulated accordingly. ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY. Energy derived from solar radiation, wind, waves, tides, landfill gas, biogas, bio- mass or the internal heat of the earth. The energy system pro- viding on-site renewable energy shall be located on the project site. OPAQUE DOOR. A door that is not less than 50-percent opaque in surface area. POWERED ROOF/WALL VENTILATORS. A fan con- sisting of a centrifugal or axial impeller with an integral driver in a weather-resistant housing and with a base designed to fit, usually by means of a curb, over a wall or roof opening. PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed build- ing used to estimate annual energy use for determining compli- ance based on total building performance. RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM. A heating system that transfers heat to objects and surfaces within a conditioned space, primarily by infrared radiation. READY ACCESS (TO). That which enables a device, appli- ance or equipment to be directly reached, without requiring the removal or movement of any panel or similar obstruction. REFRIGERANT DEW POINT. The refrigerant vapor satu- ration temperature at a specified pressure. REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to tem- peratures above 32°F (0°C), that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2). REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to tem- peratures at or below 32°F (0°C), that can be walked into and has a total chilled storage area of not less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2). REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, LOW TEMPERATURE. Systems for maintaining food product in a frozen state in refrigeration applications. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 254 of 389 DEFINITIONS C-12 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, MEDIUM TEMPERA- TURE. Systems for maintaining food product above freezing in refrigeration applications. REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance or to cor- rect damage. REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an existing roof covering. See “Roof recover” and “Roof replacement.” RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For this code, includes detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single- family dwellings (townhouses) and Group R-2, R-3 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade plane. ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insula- tion, vapor retarder and interior finish. ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over an existing roof covering without remov- ing the existing roof covering. ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purpose of its maintenance. ROOF REPLACMENT. The process of removing the exist- ing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and installing a new roof covering. ROOFTOP MONITOR. A raised section of a roof contain- ing vertical fenestration along one or more sides. R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h • ft2 • °F/Btu) [(m2 • K)/W]. SATURATED CONDENSING TEMPERATURE. The saturation temperature corresponding to the measured refrig- erant pressure at the condenser inlet for single component and azeotropic refrigerants, and the arithmetic average of the dew point and bubble point temperatures corresponding to the refrigerant pressure at the condenser entrance for zeotropic refrigerants. SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for pur- poses other than comfort heating. SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, that can include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units. SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR. A general purpose, alter- nating current, single speed induction motor. SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation, that is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space. STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the pro- posed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building perfor- mance. STOREFRONT. A system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefront systems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings, with or without mulled windows and doors. SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL ALTERATION. An alteration in which the gravity load-carrying structural ele- ments altered within a 5-year period support more than 30 percent of the total floor area and roof area of the building or structure. The areas to be counted toward the 30 percent shall include mezzanines, penthouses, and in-filled courts and shafts tributary to the altered structural elements. THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to main- tain temperature at a fixed or adjustable setpoint. TIME SWITCH CONTROL. An automatic control device or system that controls lighting or other loads, including switching off, based on time schedules. U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coeffi- cient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building compo- nent or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)]. VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW SYSTEM. An engi- neered direct-expansion (DX) refrigerant system that incor- porates a common condensing unit, at least one variable- capacity compressor, a distributed refrigerant piping network to multiple indoor fan heating and cooling units each capable of individual zone temperature control, through integral zone temperature control devices and a common communications network. Variable refrigerant flow utilizes three or more steps of control on common interconnecting piping. VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space. VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space. VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE [VT]. The ratio of visible light entering the space through the fenestration product assembly to the incident visible light. Visible transmittance includes the effects of glazing material and frame and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 255 of 389 DEFINITIONS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-13 VOLTAGE DROP. A decrease in voltage caused by losses in the wiring systems that connect the power source to the load. WALK-IN COOLER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures above 32°F (0°C) and less than 55°F (12.8°C) that can be walked into, has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2). WALK-IN FREEZER. An enclosed storage space capable of being refrigerated to temperatures at or below 32°F (0°C) that can be walked into, has a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) and has a total chilled storage area of less than 3,000 square feet (279 m2). WALL, ABOVE-GRADE. A wall associated with the build- ing thermal envelope that is more than 15 percent above grade and is on the exterior of the building or any wall that is associated with the building thermal envelope that is not on the exterior of the building. WALL, BELOW-GRADE. A wall associated with the base- ment or first story of the building that is part of the building thermal envelope, is not less than 85 percent below grade and is on the exterior of the building. WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that heats potable water and supplies such water to the pota- ble hot water distribution system. ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heat- ing or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 256 of 389 C-14 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 257 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-15 CHAPTER 3 [CE] GENERAL REQUIREMENTS User note: About this chapter: Chapter 3 addresses broadly applicable requirements that would not be at home in other chapters having more specific coverage of subject matter. This chapter establishes climate zone by U.S. counties and also contains product rating, marking and installation requirements for materials such as insulation, windows, doors and siding. SECTION C301 CLIMATE ZONES C301.1 General. This code shall apply only to projects located in Climate Zone 5B. SECTION C302 DESIGN CONDITIONS C302.1 Interior design conditions. The interior design tem- peratures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72°F (22°C) for heating and minimum of 75°F (24°C) for cooling. SECTION C303 MATERIALS, SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT C303.1 Identification. Materials, systems and equipment shall be identified in a manner that will allow a determination of compliance with the applicable provisions of this code. C303.1.1 Building thermal envelope insulation. An R- value identification mark shall be applied by the manufac- turer to each piece of building thermal envelope insulation 12 inches (305 mm) or greater in width. Alternatively, the insulation installers shall provide a certification listing the type, manufacturer and R-value of insulation installed in each element of the building thermal envelope. For blown- in or sprayed fiberglass and cellulose insulation, the initial installed thickness, settled thickness, settled R-value, installed density, coverage area and number of bags installed shall be listed on the certification. For sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation, the installed thick- ness of the areas covered and R-value of installed thick- ness shall be listed on the certification. For insulated siding, the R-value shall be labeled on the product’s pack- age and shall be listed on the certification. The insulation installer shall sign, date and post the certification in a con- spicuous location on the job site. Exception: For roof insulation installed above the deck, the R-value shall be labeled as required by the material standards specified in Table 1508.2 of the International Building Code. C303.1.1.1 Blown-in or sprayed roof/ceiling insula- tion. The thickness of blown-in or sprayed fiberglass and cellulose roof/ceiling insulation shall be written in inches (mm) on markers and one or more of such mark- ers shall be installed for every 300 square feet (28 m2) of attic area throughout the attic space. The markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness with numbers not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access opening. Spray polyurethane foam thickness and installed R-value shall be listed on certification provided by the insulation installer. C303.1.2 Insulation mark installation. Insulating materi- als shall be installed such that the manufacturer’s R-value mark is readily observable upon inspection. C303.1.3 Fenestration product rating. U-factors of fen- estration products shall be determined as follows: 1. For windows, doors and skylights, U-factor ratings shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100. 2. Where required for garage doors and rolling doors, U-factor ratings shall be determined in accordance with either NFRC 100 or ANSI/DASMA 105. U-factors shall be determined by an accredited, inde- pendent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manu- facturer. Products lacking such a labeled U-factor shall be assigned a default U-factor from Table C303.1.3(1) or C303.1.3(2). The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and visible transmittance (VT) of glazed fenestration products (windows, glazed doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200 by an accredited, indepen- dent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufac- turer. Products lacking such a labeled SHGC or VT shall be assigned a default SHGC or VT from Table C303.1.3(3). > TABLE C303.1.3(1) DEFAULT GLAZED WINDOW, GLASS DOOR AND SKYLIGHT U-FACTORS FRAME TYPE WINDOW AND GLASS DOOR SKYLIGHT Single Double Single Double Metal 1.20 0.80 2.00 1.30 Metal with Thermal Break 1.10 0.65 1.90 1.10 Nonmetal or Metal Clad 0.95 0.55 1.75 1.05 Glazed Block 0.60 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 258 of 389 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS C-16 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C303.1.4 Insulation product rating. The thermal resis- tance (R-value) of insulation shall be determined in accor- dance with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission R-value rule (CFR Title 16, Part 460) in units of h • ft2 • °F/Btu at a mean temperature of 75°F (24°C). C303.1.4.1 Insulated siding. The thermal resistance (R-value) of insulated siding shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C1363. Installation for testing shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruc- tions. C303.2 Installation. Materials, systems and equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruc- tions and the International Building Code. C303.2.1 Protection of exposed foundation insulation. Insulation applied to the exterior of basement walls, crawl space walls and the perimeter of slab-on-grade floors shall have a rigid, opaque and weather-resistant protective cov- ering to prevent the degradation of the insulation’s thermal performance. The protective covering shall cover the exposed exterior insulation and extend not less than 6 inches (153 mm) below grade. C303.2.2 Multiple layers of continuous insulation board. Where two or more layers of continuous insulation board are used in a construction assembly, the continuous insulation boards shall be installed in accordance with Section C303.2. Where the continuous insulation board manufacturer’s instructions do not address installation of two or more layers, the edge joints between each layer of continuous insulation boards shall be staggered. TABLE C303.1.3(2) DEFAULT OPAQUE DOOR U-FACTORS TABLE C303.1.3(3) DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGC AND VT DOOR TYPE OPAQUE U-FACTOR Uninsulated Metal 1.20 Insulated Metal (Rolling)0.90 Insulated Metal (Other)0.60 Wood 0.50 Insulated, nonmetal edge, max 45% glazing, any glazing double pane 0.35 SINGLE GLAZED DOUBLE GLAZED GLAZED BLOCKClear Tinted Clear Tinted SHGC 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 VT 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.6 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 259 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-17 CHAPTER 4 [CE] COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY User note: About this chapter: Chapter 4 presents the paths and options for compliance with the energy efficiency provisions. Chapter 4 contains energy efficiency provisions for the building envelope, fenestration, mechanical systems, appliances, freezers and coolers, kitchen exhaust, interior and exterior lighting, water-heating systems, transformers and motors. SECTION C401 GENERAL C401.1 Scope. The provisions in this chapter are applicable to commercial buildings and their building sites. C401.2 Application. Commercial buildings shall comply with one of the following: 1. New buildings with a construction valuation less than $500,000 shall comply with Sections C402, C403, C404, C405 and C406. 2. New buildings with a construction valuation of $500,000 or more shall demonstrate that the building is designed to achieve an annual energy performance that is less than or equal to the value identified through Sec- tion C401.2.1. Compliance shall be demonstrated through performance modeling that complies with all requirements of ASHRAE 90.1-2016 Appendix G, as modified in Section C407 of this code, performed by a registered design professional. In addition, new build- ings and additions shall comply with mandatory requirements of this chapter. C401.2.1 Energy use targets. Energy use targets, in units of site EUI (kBtu/sf-yr), will be determined using one of the following: C401.2.1.1 Modeled baseline. A reduction in annual energy cost of 25 percent compared to the standard ref- erence design of Appendix G of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2016 Energy Standard for Buildings Except for Low-rise Residential Buildings, as modified in Section C407 of this code. Projects using this path- way will also be required to report the predicted energy use intensity (EUI) of the proposed design, in kBTU/sf- yr, to the building official. C401.2.1.2 Fixed performance target. Projects of the types listed in Table C407.3.2 may use the energy use intensity (EUI) targets identified in the table in lieu of baseline modeling. The proposed building model pre- dicted performance will be demonstrated using the energy modeling procedures in Appendix G of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2016 Energy Stan- dard for Buildings Except for Low-rise Residential Buildings, as modified in Section C407 of this code. C401.2.2 Measured performance outcome. With approval of the code official, projects of the types listed in Table C407.3.2 may demonstrate compliance with this code by proving that the proposed building has achieved the EUI performance listed based on metered energy use after occupancy, as described in Section C407.3.3. C401.2.3 Core and shell buildings. Commercial core and shell buildings may take credit for energy efficiency that is part of the future interior tenant finish design, provided that the efficiency measures are shown on the final tenant build-out drawings. The code official shall issue a tempo- rary certificate of occupancy until the final tenant draw- ings are submitted showing the efficiency measures. If all efficiency measures are shown on the final tenant draw- ings, a permanent certificate of occupancy shall be issued. C401.3 Existing buildings. Alterations, repairs, additions and change of use to existing buildings shall comply with the requirements of Chapter 5 of this code. SECTION C402 BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS C402.1 General (Prescriptive). Building thermal envelope assemblies for buildings that are intended to comply with the code on a prescriptive basis in accordance with the compliance path described in Item 1 of Section C401.2, shall comply with the following: 1. The opaque portions of the building thermal envelope shall comply with the specific insulation requirements of Section C402.2 and the thermal requirements of either the R-value-based method of Section C402.1.3; the U-, C- and F-factor-based method of Section C402.1.4; or the component performance alternative of Section C402.1.5. 2. Roof solar reflectance and thermal emittance shall comply with Section C402.3. 3. Fenestration in building envelope assemblies shall comply with Section C402.4. 4. Air leakage of building envelope assemblies shall com- ply with Section C402.5. Alternatively, where buildings have a vertical fenestration area or skylight area exceeding that allowed in Section C402.4, the building and building thermal envelope shall com- ply with Section C401.2, Item 1 or Section C401.2, Item 3. Where the total area of penetrations from mechanical equip- ment listed in Table C403.3.2(3) exceeds 1 percent of the opaque above-grade wall area, the mechanical equipment pen- etration area shall be calculated as a separate assembly with a default U-factor of 0.5 Btu/h • ft2 • °F (3 W/m2 • K) for the pur- poses of complying with Section C402.1 or C407. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 260 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-18 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE Walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with Section C403.10.1 or C403.10.2. C402.1.1 Low-energy buildings. The following low- energy buildings, or portions thereof separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal envelope assemblies complying with this section, shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of Section C402. 1. Those with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h • ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or 1.0 watt per square foot (10.7 W/m2) of floor area for space conditioning purposes. 2. Those that do not contain conditioned space. 3. Greenhouses. C402.1.2 Equipment buildings. Buildings that comply with the following shall be exempt from the building ther- mal envelope provisions of this code: 1. Are separate buildings with floor area not more than 500 square feet (50 m2). 2. Are intended to house electronic equipment with installed equipment power totaling not less than 7 watts per square foot (75 W/m2) and not intended for human occupancy. 3. Have a heating system capacity not greater than (17,000 Btu/h) (5 kW) and a heating thermostat set- point that is restricted to not more than 50°F (10°C). 4. Have an average wall and roof U-factor less than 0.120. C402.1.3 Insulation component R-value-based method. Building thermal envelope opaque assemblies shall comply with the requirements of Sections C402.2 and C402.4. For opaque portions of the building thermal envelope intended to comply on an insulation component R-value basis, the R- values for insulation shall be not less than that specified in Table C402.1.3. Commercial buildings or portions of com- mercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the R-values from the “Group R” column of Table C402.1.3. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the R-values from the “All other” column of Table C402.1.3. C402.1.4 Assembly U-factor, C-factor or F-factor- based method. Building thermal envelope opaque assem- blies shall meet the requirements of Sections C402.2 and C402.4. Building thermal envelope opaque assemblies intended to comply on an assembly U-, C- or F-factor basis shall have a U-, C- or F-factor not greater than that specified in Table C402.1.4. Commercial buildings or por- tions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occu- pancies shall use the U-, C- or F-factor from the “Group R” column of Table C402.1.4. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the U-, C- or F-factor from the “All other” column of Table C402.1.4 C402.1.4.1 Thermal resistance of cold-formed steel walls. U-factors of walls with cold-formed steel studs shall be permitted to be determined in accordance with Equation 4-1: U = 1/[Rs + (ER)] (Equation 4-1) where: Rs = The cumulative R-value of the wall components along the path of heat transfer, excluding the cavity insulation and steel studs. ER = The effective R-value of the cavity insulation with steel studs as specified in Table C402.1.4.1. C402.1.5 Component performance alternative. Build- ing envelope values and fenestration areas determined in accordance with Equation 4-2 shall be an alternative to compliance with the U-, F- and C-factors in Tables C402.1.4 and C402.4 and the maximum allowable fenes- tration areas in Section C402.4.1. Fenestration shall meet the applicable SHGC requirements of Section C402.4.3. A + B + C + D + E ≤ Zero (Equation 4-2) where: A = Sum of the (UA Dif) values for each distinct assembly type of the building thermal envelope, other than slabs on grade and below-grade walls. UA Dif = UA Proposed - UA Table. UA Proposed = Proposed U-value × Area. UA Table = (U-factor from Table C402.1.3, C402.1.4 or C402.4 × Area. > TABLE C402.1.4.1 EFFECTIVE R-VALUES FOR STEEL STUD WALL ASSEMBLIES NOMINAL STUD DEPTH (inches) SPACING OF FRAMING (inches) CAVITY R-VALUE (insulation) CORRECTION FACTOR (Fc) EFFECTIVE R-VALUE (ER) (Cavity R-Value × Fc) 31/2 16 13 0.46 5.98 15 0.43 6.45 31/2 24 13 0.55 7.15 15 0.52 7.80 616 19 0.37 7.03 21 0.35 7.35 624 19 0.45 8.55 21 0.43 9.03 8 16 25 0.31 7.75 24 25 0.38 9.50 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 261 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-19 B = Sum of the (FL Dif) values for each distinct slab- on-grade perimeter condition of the building thermal envelope. FL Dif = FL Proposed - FL Table. FL Proposed = Proposed F-value × Perimeter length. FL Table = (F-factor specified in Table C402.1.4) × Perimeter length. C = Sum of the (CA Dif) values for each distinct below-grade wall assembly type of the building thermal envelope. CA Dif = CA Proposed - CA Table. CA Proposed = Proposed C-value × Area. CA Table = (Maximum allowable C-factor specified in Table C402.1.4) × Area. Where the proposed vertical glazing area is less than or equal to the maximum vertical glazing area allowed by Section C402.4.1, the value of D (Excess Vertical Glazing Value) shall be zero. Otherwise: D = (DA × UV) - (DA × U Wall), but not less than zero. DA = (Proposed Vertical Glazing Area) - (Vertical Glazing Area allowed by Section C402.4.1). UA Wall = Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each opaque assembly of the exterior wall. U Wall = Area-weighted average U-value of all above-grade wall assemblies. UAV = Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each vertical glazing assembly. UV = UAV/total vertical glazing area. Where the proposed skylight area is less than or equal to the skylight area allowed by Section C402.4.1, the value of E (Excess Skylight Value) shall be zero. Otherwise: E = (EA × US) - (EA × U Roof), but not less than zero. EA = (Proposed Skylight Area) - (Allowable Skylight Area as specified in Section C402.4.1). U Roof = Area-weighted average U-value of all roof assemblies. UAS = Sum of the (UA Proposed) values for each skylight assembly. US = UAS/total skylight area. C402.2 Specific building thermal envelope insulation requirements (Prescriptive). Insulation in building thermal envelope opaque assemblies shall comply with Sections C402.2.1 through C402.2.8 and Table C402.1.3. C402.2.1 Roof assembly. The minimum thermal resis- tance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the roof framing or continuously on the roof assembly shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3, based on construction materials used in the roof assembly. Insula- tion installed on a suspended ceiling having removable ceiling tiles shall not be considered as part of the mini- mum thermal resistance of the roof insulation. Continuous insulation board shall be installed in not less than 2 layers and the edge joints between each layer of insulation shall be staggered. Exceptions: 1. Continuously insulated roof assemblies where the thickness of insulation varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less and where the area-weighted U-factor is equivalent to the same assembly with the R-value specified in Table C402.1.3. 2. Where tapered insulation is used with insulation entirely above deck, the R-value where the insu- lation thickness varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less from the minimum thickness of tapered insula- tion shall comply with the R-value specified in Table C402.1.3. 3. Two layers of insulation are not required where insulation tapers to the roof deck, such as at roof drains. C402.2.1.1 Skylight curbs. Skylight curbs shall be insulated to the level of roofs with insulation entirely above the deck or R-5, whichever is less. Exception: Unit skylight curbs included as a com- ponent of a skylight listed and labeled in accordance with NFRC 100 shall not be required to be insulated. C402.2.2 Above-grade walls. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of materials installed in the wall cav- ity between framing members and continuously on the walls shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3, based on framing type and construction materials used in the wall assembly. The R-value of integral insulation installed in concrete masonry units shall not be used in determining compliance with Table C402.1.3 except as otherwise noted in the table. In determining compliance with Table C402.1.4, the use of the U-factor of concrete masonry units with integral insulation shall be permitted. “Mass walls” where used as a component in the ther- mal envelope of a building shall comply with one of the following: 1. Weigh not less than 35 pounds per square foot (171 kg/m2) of wall surface area. 2. Weigh not less than 25 pounds per square foot (122 kg/m2) of wall surface area where the material weight is not more than 120 pcf (1900 kg/m3). 3. Have a heat capacity exceeding 7 Btu/ft 2 • °F (144 kJ/m2 • K). 4. Have a heat capacity exceeding 5 Btu/ft 2 • °F (103 kJ/m2 • K), where the material weight is not more than 120 pcf (1900 kg/m3). ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 262 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-20 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C402.1.3 OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE INSULATION COMPONENT MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS, R-VALUE METHODa, i For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kg/m 2, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/m3. ci = Continuous insulation, NR = No Requirement, LS = Liner System. a. Assembly descriptions can be found in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Appendix A. b. Where using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block shall be provided, otherwise use the U-factor compliance method in Table C402.1.4. c. R-5.7ci is allowed to be substituted with concrete block walls complying with ASTM C90, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 inches or less on center vertically and 48 inches or less on center horizontally, with ungrouted cores filled with materials having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu-in/h-f2 °F. d. Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the exterior insulation requirements for heated slabs. e. “Mass floors” shall be in accordance with Section C402.2.3. f. Steel floor joist systems shall be insulated to R-38. g. “Mass walls” shall be in accordance with Section C402.2.2. h. The first value is for perimeter insulation and the second value is for slab insulation. Perimeter insulation is not required to extend below the bottom of the slab. i. Not applicable to garage doors. See Table C402.1.4. ALL OTHER GROUP R Roofs Insulation entirely above roof deck R-33ci R-33ci Metal buildingsb R-19 + R-11 LS R-19 + R-11 LS Attic and other R-53 R-53 Walls, above grade Massg R-13.3ci R-13.3ci Metal building R-13 + R-19.5ci R-13 + R-13ci Metal framed R-13 + R-11ci R-13 + R-11ci Wood framed and other R-13 + R-9ci or R-19 + R-5ci R-13 + R-9ci or R-19 + + R-5ci Walls, below grade Below-grade walld R-7.5ci R-10ci Floors Masse R-15ci R-16.7ci Joist/framing R-30 R-30 Slab-on-grade floors Unheated slabs R-15 for 24″ below R-15 for 24″ below Heated slabsh R-20 for 48″ below + R-5 full slab R-20 for 48″ below + R-5 full slab Opaque doors Nonswinging R-4.75 R-4.75 TABLE C402.1.4 OPAQUE THERMAL ENVELOPE ASSEMBLY MAXIMUM REQUIREMENTS, U-FACTOR METHODa, b For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kg/m 2, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16 kg/ m3. ci = Continuous insulation, NR = No Requirement, LS = Liner System. a. Where assembly U-factors, C-factors, and F-factors are established in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 Appendix A, such opaque assemblies shall be a compliance alternative where those values meet the criteria of this table, and provided that the construction, excluding the cladding system on walls, complies with the appropriate construction details from ANSI/ ASHRAE/ISNEA 90.1 Appendix A. b. Where U-factors have been established by testing in accordance with ASTM C1363, such opaque assemblies shall be a compliance alternative where those values meet the criteria of this table. The R-value of continuous insulation shall be permitted to be added to or subtracted from the original tested design. c. Where heated slabs are below grade, below-grade walls shall comply with the U-factor requirements for above-grade mass walls. d. “Mass floors” shall be in accordance with Section C402.2.3. e. These C-, F- and U-factors are based on assemblies that are not required to contain insulation. f. The first value is for perimeter insulation and the second value is for full slab insulation. g. “Mass walls” shall be in accordance with Section C402.2.2. ALL OTHER GROUP R Roofs Insulation entirely above roof deck U-0.030 U-0.030 Metal buildings U-0.035 U-0.035 Attic and other U-0.020 U-0.020 Walls, above grade Massg U-0.086 U-0.076 Metal building U-0.048 U-0.048 Metal framed U-0.052 U-0.052 Wood framed and otherc U-0.048 U-0.048 Walls, below grade Below-grade wallc C-0.119 C-0.092 Floors Massd U-0.057 U-0.051 Joist/framing U-0.033 U-0.033 Slab-on-grade floors Unheated slabs F-0.52 F-0.51 Heated slabsf F-0.79 0.64 F-0.79 0.64 Opaque doors Swinging door U-0.37 U-0.37 Garage door <14% glazing U-0.31 U-0.31 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 263 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-21 C402.2.3 Floors. The thermal properties (component R- values or assembly U-, C- or F-factors) of floor assemblies over outdoor air or unconditioned space shall be as speci- fied in Table C402.1.3 or C402.1.4 based on the construc- tion materials used in the floor assembly. Floor framing cavity insulation or structural slab insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking or structural slabs. “Mass floors” where used as a component of the ther- mal envelope of a building shall provide one of the follow- ing weights: 1. 35 pounds per square foot (171 kg/m 2) of floor sur- face area. 2. 25 pounds per square foot (122 kg/m 2) of floor sur- face area where the material weight is not more than 120 pounds per cubic foot (1923 kg/m3). Exceptions: 1. The floor framing cavity insulation or structural slab insulation shall be permitted to be in contact with the top side of sheathing or continuous insu- lation installed on the bottom side of floor assem- blies where combined with insulation that meets or exceeds the minimum R-value in Table C402.1.3 for “Metal framed” or “Wood framed and other” values for “Walls, Above Grade” and extends from the bottom to the top of all perime- ter floor framing or floor assembly members. 2. Insulation applied to the underside of concrete floor slabs shall be permitted an airspace of not more than 1 inch (25 mm) where it turns up and is in contact with the underside of the floor under walls associated with the building thermal enve- lope. C402.2.4 Slabs-on-grade perimeter insulation. Where the slab on grade is in contact with the ground, the mini- mum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulation around the perimeter of unheated or heated slab-on-grade floors designed in accordance with the R-value method of Sec- tion C402.1.3 shall be as specified in Table C402.1.3. The perimeter insulation shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of the foundation wall. The perimeter insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for the minimum distance shown in the table or to the top of the footing, whichever is less, or downward to not less than the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to the interior or exterior for the total distance shown in the table. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by not less than of 10 inches (254 mm) of soil. Exception: Where the slab-on-grade floor is greater than 24 inches (61 mm) below the finished exterior grade, perimeter insulation is not required. C402.2.5 Below-grade walls. The C-factor for the below- grade exterior walls shall be in accordance with Table C402.1.4. The R-value of the insulating material installed continuously within or on the below-grade exterior walls of the building envelope shall be in accordance with Table C402.1.3. The C-factor or R-value required shall extend to a depth of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the out- side finished ground level, or to the level of the lowest floor of the conditioned space enclosed by the below- grade wall, whichever is less. C402.2.6 Insulation of radiant heating systems. Radi- ant heating system panels, and their associated compo- nents that are installed in interior or exterior assemblies shall be insulated to an R-value of not less than R-3.5 on all surfaces not facing the space being heated. Radiant heating system panels that are installed in the building thermal envelope shall be separated from the exterior of the building or unconditioned or exempt spaces by not less than the R-value of insulation installed in the opaque assembly in which they are installed or the assembly shall comply with Section C402.1.4. Exception: Heated slabs on grade insulated in accor- dance with Section C402.2.4. C402.2.7 Airspaces. Where the thermal properties of air- spaces are used to comply with this code in accordance with Section C401.2, such airspaces shall be enclosed in an unventilated cavity constructed to minimize airflow into and out of the enclosed airspace. Airflow shall be deemed minimized where the enclosed airspace is located on the interior side of the continuous air barrier and is bounded on all sides by building components. Exception: The thermal resistance of airspaces located on the exterior side of the continuous air barrier and adja- cent to and behind the exterior wall-covering material shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C1363 modified with an airflow entering the bottom and exit- ing the top of the airspace at an air movement rate of not less than 70 mm/second. C402.2.8 Concrete floor slabs. Where concrete floor slabs penetrate the building thermal envelope, the rated U- factors of the components of the thermal envelope located between the floor slab and the finish ceiling shall be increased by 10 percent for the purposes of complying with Section C402.1. C402.3 Roof solar reflectance and thermal emittance. Deleted. C402.3.1 Aged roof solar reflectance. Deleted. C402.4 Fenestration (Prescriptive). Fenestration shall com- ply with Sections C402.4.1 through C402.4.5 and Table C402.4. Daylight responsive controls shall comply with this section and Section C405.2.3.1. C402.4.1 Maximum area. The vertical fenestration area, not including opaque doors and opaque spandrel panels, shall be not greater than 30 percent of the gross above-grade wall area. The skylight area shall be not greater than 3 percent of the gross roof area. C402.4.1.1 Increased vertical fenestration area with daylight responsive controls. Not more than 40 per- cent of the gross above-grade wall area shall be vertical fenestration, provided that all of the following require- ments are met: 1. In buildings not greater than two stories above grade, not less than 50 percent of the net floor area is within a daylight zone.>ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 264 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-22 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 2. In buildings three or more stories above grade, not less than 25 percent of the net floor area is within a daylight zone. 3.Daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 are installed in daylight zones. 4. Visible transmittance (VT) of vertical fenestra- tion is not less than 1.1 times solar heat gain coef- ficient (SHGC). Exception: Fenestration that is outside the scope of NFRC 200 is not required to comply with Item 4. C402.4.1.2 Increased skylight area with daylight responsive controls. The skylight area shall be not more than 6 percent of the roof area provided that daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 are installed in toplit zones. C402.4.2 Minimum skylight fenestration area. In an enclosed space greater than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) in floor area, directly under a roof with not less than 75 per- cent of the ceiling area with a ceiling height greater than 15 feet (4572 mm), and used as an office, lobby, atrium, concourse, corridor, storage space, gymnasium/exercise center, convention center, automotive service area, space where manufacturing occurs, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store, distribution/sorting area, transportation depot or workshop, the total toplit daylight zone shall be not less than half the floor area and shall provide one of the fol- lowing: 1. A minimum skylight area to toplit daylight zone of not less than 3 percent where all skylights have a VT of not less than 0.40 as determined in accordance with Section C303.1.3. 2. A minimum skylight effective aperture of not less than 1 percent, determined in accordance with Equa- tion 4-3. (Equation 4-3) where: Skylight area = Total fenestration area of skylights. Skylight VT = Area weighted average visible transmittance of skylights. WF = Area weighted average well factor, where well factor is 0.9 if light well depth is less than 2 feet (610 mm), or 0.7 if light well depth is 2 feet (610 mm) or greater. Light well depth = Measure vertically from the underside of the lowest point of the skylight glazing to the ceiling plane under the skylight. Exception: Skylights above daylight zones of enclosed spaces are not required in: 1. Spaces where the designed general lighting power densities are less than 0.5 W/ft2 (5.4 W/m2). 2. Areas where it is documented that existing struc- tures or natural objects block direct beam sun- light on not less than half of the roof over the enclosed area for more than 1,500 daytime hours per year between 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. 3. Spaces where the daylight zone under rooftop monitors is greater than 50 percent of the enclosed space floor area. 4. Spaces where the total area minus the area of sidelight daylight zones is less than 2,500 square feet (232 m2), and where the lighting is controlled in accordance with Section C405.2.3. C402.4.2.1 Lighting controls in toplit daylight zones. Daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 shall be provided to control all electric lights within toplit zones. C402.4.2.2 Haze factor. Skylights in office, storage, automotive service, manufacturing, nonrefrigerated warehouse, retail store and distribution/sorting area spaces shall have a glazing material or diffuser with a haze factor greater than 90 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D1003. Exception: Skylights designed and installed to exclude direct sunlight entering the occupied space by the use of fixed or automated baffles or the geometry of skylight and light well. Skylight Effective Aperture = 0.85 Skylight Area Skylight VT WF××× Toplit Zone--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------->TABLE C402.4 BUILDING ENVELOPE FENESTRATION MAXIMUM U-FACTOR AND SHGC REQUIREMENTS NR = No Requirement, PF = Projection Factor. a. “N” indicates vertical fenestration oriented within 45 degrees of true north. “SEW” indicates orientations other than “N.” For buildings in the southern hemisphere, reverse south and north. Buildings located at less than 23.5 degrees latitude shall use SEW for all orientations. VERTICAL FENESTRATION U-factor for vertical curtain walls, storefronts and site-built fenestration products Fixed fenestration 0.36 Operable fenestration 0.45 U-factor for entrance doors 0.63 U-factor for all other vertical fenestration 0.30 SHGC Orientationa SEW N PF < 0.2 0.38 0.51 0.2 ≤ PF < 0.5 0.46 0.56 PF ≥ 0.5 0.61 0.61 Skylights U-factor 0.50 SHGC 0.40 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 265 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-23 C402.4.3 Maximum U-factor and SHGC. The maxi- mum U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration shall be as specified in Table C402.4. The window projection factor shall be determined in accordance with Equation 4-4. PF = A/B (Equation 4-4) where: PF = Projection factor (decimal). A = Distance measured horizontally from the farthest continuous extremity of any overhang, eave or permanently attached shading device to the vertical surface of the glazing. B = Distance measured vertically from the bottom of the glazing to the underside of the overhang, eave or permanently attached shading device. Where different windows or glass doors have different PF values, they shall each be evaluated separately. C402.4.3.1 Increased skylight SHGC. Skylights shall be permitted a maximum SHGC of 0.60 where located above daylight zones provided with daylight responsive controls. C402.4.3.2 Increased skylight U-factor. Where sky- lights are installed above daylight zones provided with daylight responsive controls, a maximum U-factor of 0.75 shall be permitted. C402.4.3.3 Dynamic glazing. Where dynamic glazing is intended to satisfy the SHGC and VT requirements of Table C402.4, the ratio of the higher to lower labeled SHGC shall be greater than or equal to 2.4, and the dynamic glazing shall be automatically controlled to modulate the amount of solar gain into the space in multiple steps. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall not be permitted. Exception: Dynamic glazing is not required to com- ply with this section where both the lower and higher labeled SHGC already comply with the requirements of Table C402.4. C402.4.3.4 Area-weighted U-factor. An area- weighted average shall be permitted to satisfy the U- factor requirements for each fenestration product cate- gory listed in Table C402.4. Individual fenestration products from different fenestration product categories listed in Table C402.4 shall not be combined in calcu- lating area-weighted average U-factor. C402.4.4 Daylight zones. Daylight zones referenced in Sections C402.4.1.1 through C402.4.3.2 shall comply with Sections C405.2.3.2 and C405.2.3.3, as applicable. Day- light zones shall include toplit zones and sidelit zones. C402.4.5 Doors. Opaque swinging doors shall comply with Table C402.1.4. Opaque nonswinging doors shall comply with Table C402.1.3. Opaque doors shall be con- sidered as part of the gross area of above-grade walls that are part of the building thermal envelope. Other doors shall comply with the provisions of Section C402.4.3 for vertical fenestration. C402.5 Air leakage—thermal envelope (Mandatory). The building thermal envelope shall comply with Sections C402.5.1 through C402.5.8. C402.5.1 Air barriers. A continuous air barrier shall be provided throughout the building thermal envelope. The air barrier shall be located on the inside or outside of the building thermal envelope, located within the assemblies composing the building thermal envelope, or any combi- nation thereof. The air barrier shall comply with Sections C402.5.1.1, C402.5.1.2 and C402.5.1.3. C402.5.1.1 Air barrier construction. The continuous air barrier shall be constructed to comply with the fol- lowing: 1. The air barrier shall be continuous for all assem- blies that are the thermal envelope of the building and across the joints and assemblies. 2. Air barrier joints and seams shall be sealed, includ- ing sealing transitions in places and changes in materials. The joints and seals shall be securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its abil- ity to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation. 3. Penetrations of the air barrier shall be caulked, gas- keted or otherwise sealed in a manner compatible with the construction materials and location. Seal- ing shall allow for expansion, contraction and mechanical vibration. Joints and seams associated with penetrations shall be sealed in the same man- ner or taped. Sealing materials shall be securely installed around the penetration so as not to dis- lodge, loosen or otherwise impair the penetrations’ ability to resist positive and negative pressure from wind, stack effect and mechanical ventilation. Seal- ing of concealed fire sprinklers, where required, shall be in a manner that is recommended by the manufacturer. Caulking or other adhesive sealants shall not be used to fill voids between fire sprinkler cover plates and walls or ceilings. 4. Recessed lighting fixtures shall comply with Sec- tion C402.5.8. Where similar objects are installed that penetrate the air barrier, provisions shall be made to maintain the integrity of the air barrier. C402.5.1.2 Building thermal envelope testing. The building thermal envelope shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E779 or an equivalent method approved by the code official. The measured air leakage shall not exceed 0.40 cfm/ft2 (2.0 L/s • m2) of the building ther- mal envelope area at a pressure differential of 0.3 inch water gauge (75 Pa). Alternatively, portions of the building shall be tested and the measured air leakages shall be area weighted by the surface areas of the build- ing thermal envelope in each portion. The weighted- average test results shall not exceed the whole building leakage limit. In the alternative approach, the following portions of the building shall be tested: 1. The entire envelope area of all stories that have any spaces directly under a roof. > >>>>ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 266 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-24 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 2. The entire envelope area of all stories that have a building entrance, exposed floor or loading dock, or are below grade. 3. Representative above-grade sections of the build- ing totaling at least 25 percent of the wall area enclosing the remaining conditioned space. 4. For R-2 occupancies, dwelling units when tested in accordance with Section C402.5.1.3. Testing and inspection shall be conducted by a third- party registered design professional. A written report of the test results shall be signed by the party conduct- ing the test and provided to the code official. Testing shall be performed at any time after completion of all penetrations of the building thermal envelope. C402.5.1.2.1 Dwelling unit air infiltration. A sam- pling of dwelling units shall be tested and the air leakage rate of each tested dwelling unit’s enclosure surface area shall not exceed 0.25 cfm/ft2 of surface area. For purposes of this section, enclosure surface area of a unit means the total surface area of all walls, floors and ceilings. Testing shall be con- ducted with a blower door at a pressure of 0.2 inch water gauge (50 Pa). The sampling of dwelling units tested shall include at least 20 percent of the dwelling units in each build- ing, including at least one of each unit type (a unit type is distinct if it has a different floor plan or a different exterior exposure) and approximately an equal num- ber of units on each floor level. Each of these units must be tested and pass without a failure. If a failure occurs, items causing the failure must be diagnosed and corrected, and the unit retested until it passes. A minimum of at least two additional units of this type in the same building must also be tested and pass. During testing: 1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace doors and stove doors shall be closed but not sealed beyond the intended weather strip- ping or other infiltration control measures. 2. Dampers, including exhaust, intake, makeup air, backdraft and flue dampers, shall be closed but not sealed beyond intended infiltration control measures. 3. Interior doors, if installed at the time of the test, shall be open. 4. Exterior doors for continuous ventilation systems and heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed. 5. Heating and cooling systems, if installed at the time of the test, shall be turned off. 6. Supply and return registers, if installed at the time of the test, shall be fully open. C402.5.2 Air leakage of fenestration. The air leakage of fenestration assemblies shall meet the provisions of Table C402.5.2. Testing shall be in accordance with the applica- ble reference test standard in Table C402.5.2 by an accred- ited, independent testing laboratory and labeled by the manufacturer. Exceptions: 1. Field-fabricated fenestration assemblies that are sealed in accordance with Section C402.5.1. 2. Fenestration in buildings that comply with the testing alternative of Section C402.5 are not required to meet the air leakage requirements in Table C402.5.2. C402.5.3 Rooms containing fuel-burning appliances. Where combustion air is supplied through openings in an exterior wall to a room or space containing a space-condi- tioning fuel-burning appliance, one of the following shall apply: 1. The room or space containing the appliance shall be located outside of the building thermal envelope. 2. The room or space containing the appliance shall be enclosed and isolated from conditioned spaces in- side the building thermal envelope. Such rooms shall comply with all of the following: 2.1. The walls, floors and ceilings that separate the enclosed room or space from conditioned spaces shall be insulated to be not less than equivalent to the insulation requirement of >TABLE C402.5.2 MAXIMUM AIR LEAKAGE RATE FOR FENESTRATION ASSEMBLIES For SI: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 L/s, 1 square foot = 0.093 m 2. a. The maximum rate for windows, sliding and swinging doors, and skylights is permitted to be 0.3 cfm per square foot of fenestration or door area when tested in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA101/I.S.2/A440 at 6.24 psf (300 Pa). FENESTRATION ASSEMBLY MAXIMUM RATE (CFM/FT2) TEST PROCEDURE Windows 0.20 a AAMA/WDMA/ CSA101/I.S.2/A440 or NFRC 400 Sliding doors 0.20 a Swinging doors 0.20 a Skylights – with condensation weepage openings 0.30 Skylights – all other 0.20 a Curtain walls 0.06 NFRC 400 or ASTM E283 at 1.57 psf (75 Pa) Storefront glazing 0.06 Commercial glazed swinging entrance doors 1.00 Power-operated sliding doors and power- operated folding doors 1.00 Revolving doors 1.00 Garage doors 0.40 ANSI/DASMA 105, NFRC 400, or ASTM E283 at 1.57 psf (75 Pa) Rolling doors 1.00 High-speed doors 1.30 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 267 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-25 below-grade walls as specified in Table C402.1.3 or C402.1.4. 2.2. The walls, floors and ceilings that separate the enclosed room or space from conditioned spaces shall be sealed in accordance with Section C402.5.1.1. 2.3. The doors into the enclosed room or space shall be shall be fully gasketed. 2.4. Water lines and ducts in the enclosed room or space shall be insulated in accordance with Section C403. 2.5. Where an air duct supplying combustion air to the enclosed room or space passes through conditioned space, the duct shall be insu- lated to an R-value of not less than R-8. Exception: Fireplaces and stoves complying with Sec- tions 901 through 905 of the International Mechanical Code, and Section 2111.14 of the International Build- ing Code. C402.5.4 Doors and access openings to shafts, chutes, stairways and elevator lobbies. Doors and access open- ings from conditioned space to shafts, chutes stairways and elevator lobbies not within the scope of the fenestra- tion assemblies covered by Section C402.5.2 shall be gas- keted, weatherstripped or sealed. Exceptions: 1. Door openings required to comply with Section 716 of the International Building Code. 2. Doors and door openings required to comply with UL 1784 by the International Building Code. C402.5.5 Air intakes, exhaust openings, stairways and shafts. Stairway enclosures, elevator shaft vents and other outdoor air intakes and exhaust openings integral to the building envelope shall be provided with dampers in accordance with Section C403.7.7. C402.5.6 Loading dock weatherseals. Cargo door open- ings and loading door openings shall be equipped with weatherseals that restrict infiltration and provide direct contact along the top and sides of vehicles that are parked in the doorway. C402.5.7 Vestibules. Building entrances shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vesti- bules shall be designed so that in passing through the vesti- bule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time. The installation of one or more revolving doors in the building entrance shall not eliminate the requirement that a vestibule be provided on any doors adjacent to revolving doors. Exceptions: Vestibules are not required for the follow- ing: 1.Doors not intended to be used by the public, such as doors to mechanical or electrical equip- ment rooms, or intended solely for employee use. 2.Doors opening directly from a sleeping unit or dwelling unit. 3.Doors that open directly from a space less than 3,000 square feet (298 m2) in area. 4.Revolving doors. 5.Doors used primarily to facilitate vehicular movement or material handling and adjacent per- sonnel doors. 6.Doors that have an air curtain with a velocity of not less than 6.56 feet per second (2 m/s) at the floor that have been tested in accordance with ANSI/AMCA 220 and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Manual or automatic controls shall be provided that will operate the air curtain with the opening and clos- ing of the door. Air curtains and their controls shall comply with Section C408.2.3. C402.5.8 Recessed lighting. Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be all of the following: 1. IC-rated. 2. Labeled as having an air leakage rate of not more 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E283 at a 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential. 3. Sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering. SECTION C403 BUILDING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS C403.1 General. Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling, ventilating or refrigerating needs shall comply with this section. C403.1.1 Calculation of heating and cooling loads. Design loads associated with heating, ventilating and air conditioning of the building shall be determined in accor- dance with ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183 or by an approved equivalent computational procedure using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3. Heating and cooling loads shall be adjusted to account for load reduc- tions that are achieved where energy recovery systems are utilized in the HVAC system in accordance with the ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook by an approved equivalent computational procedure. C403.2 System design (Mandatory). Mechanical systems shall be designed to comply with Sections C403.2.1 and C403.2.2. Where elements of a building’s mechanical systems are addressed in Sections C403.3 through C403.12, such elements shall comply with the applicable provisions of those sections. C403.2.1 Zone isolation required (Mandatory). HVAC systems serving zones that are over 25,000 square feet (2323 m2) in floor area or that span more than one floor and are designed to operate or be occupied nonsimultaneously shall be divided into isolation areas. Each isolation area shall be equipped with isolation devices and controls con- figured to automatically shut off the supply of conditioned air and outdoor air to and exhaust air from the isolation area. Each isolation area shall be controlled independently by a device meeting the requirements of Section C403.4.2.2. Central systems and plants shall be provided with controls and devices that will allow system and equip- > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 268 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-26 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ment operation for any length of time while serving only the smallest isolation area served by the system or plant. Exceptions: 1. Exhaust air and outdoor air connections to isola- tion areas where the fan system to which they connect is not greater than 5,000 cfm (2360 L/s). 2. Exhaust airflow from a single isolation area of less than 10 percent of the design airflow of the exhaust system to which it connects. 3. Isolation areas intended to operate continuously or intended to be inoperative only when all other isolation areas in a zone are inoperative. C403.2.2 Ventilation (Mandatory). Ventilation, either natural or mechanical, shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, the system shall provide the capability to reduce the outdoor air sup- ply to the minimum required by Chapter 4 of the Interna- tional Mechanical Code. C403.3 Heating and cooling equipment efficiencies (Man- datory). Heating and cooling equipment installed in mechan- ical systems shall be sized in accordance with Section C403.3.1 and shall be not less efficient in the use of energy than as specified in Section C403.3.2. C403.3.1 Equipment sizing (Mandatory). The output capacity of heating and cooling equipment shall be not greater than that of the smallest available equipment size that exceeds the loads calculated in accordance with Sec- tion C403.1.1. A single piece of equipment providing both heating and cooling shall satisfy this provision for one function with the capacity for the other function as small as possible, within available equipment options. Exceptions: 1. Required standby equipment and systems pro- vided with controls and devices that allow such systems or equipment to operate automatically only when the primary equipment is not operating. 2. Multiple units of the same equipment type with combined capacities exceeding the design load and provided with controls that are configured to sequence the operation of each unit based on load. C403.3.2 HVAC equipment performance requirements (Mandatory). Equipment shall meet the minimum effi- ciency requirements of Tables C403.3.2(1) through C403.3.2(9) when tested and rated in accordance with the applicable test procedure. Plate-type liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers shall meet the minimum requirements of Table C403.3.2(10). The efficiency shall be verified through cer- tification under an approved certification program or, where a certification program does not exist, the equip- ment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data fur- nished by the manufacturer. Where multiple rating conditions or performance requirements are provided, the equipment shall satisfy all stated requirements. Where components, such as indoor or outdoor coils, from differ- ent manufacturers are used, calculations and supporting data shall be furnished by the designer that demonstrates that the combined efficiency of the specified components meets the requirements herein. C403.3.2.1 Water-cooled centrifugal chilling pack- ages (Mandatory). Equipment not designed for opera- tion at AHRI Standard 550/590 test conditions of 44°F (7°C) leaving chilled-water temperature and 2.4 gpm/ ton evaporator fluid flow and 85°F (29°C) entering condenser water temperature with 3 gpm/ton (0.054 I/s • kW) condenser water flow shall have maximum full- load kW/ton (FL) and part-load ratings requirements adjusted using Equations 4-5 and 4-6. FLadj = FL/Kadj (Equation 4-5) PLVadj = IPLV/Kadj (Equation 4-6) where: Kadj =A × B FL = Full-load kW/ton value as specified in Table C403.3.2(7). FLadj = Maximum full-load kW/ton rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions. IPLV = Value as specified in Table C403.3.2(7). PLVadj =Maximum NPLV rating, adjusted for nonstandard conditions. A = 0.00000014592 × (LIFT)4 – 0.0000346496 × (LIFT)3 + 0.00314196 × (LIFT)2 – 0.147199 × (LIFT) + 3.9302 B = 0.0015 × LvgEvap + 0.934 LIFT =LvgCond – LvgEvap LvgCond = Full-load condenser leaving fluid temperature (°F). LvgEvap = Full-load evaporator leaving temperature (°F). The FLadj and PLVadj values are only applicable for centrifugal chillers meeting all of the following full- load design ranges: 1. Minimum evaporator leaving temperature: 36°F. 2. Maximum condenser leaving temperature: 115°F. 3. 20°F ≤ LIFT ≤ 80°F. C403.3.2.2 Positive displacement (air- and water- cooled) chilling packages (Mandatory). Equipment with a leaving fluid temperature higher than 32°F (0°C) and water-cooled positive displacement chilling pack- ages with a condenser leaving fluid temperature below 115°F (46°C) shall meet the requirements of Table C403.3.2(7) when tested or certified with water at stan- dard rating conditions, in accordance with the referenced test procedure. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 269 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-27 TABLE C403.3.2(1) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS (continued) EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY HEATING SECTION TYPE SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa Air conditioners, air cooled < 65,000 Btu/h b All Split System 13.0 SEER AHRI 210/240 Single Package 14.0 SEER Through-the-wall (air cooled)≤ 30,000 Btu/hb All Split system 12.0 SEER Single Package 12.0 SEER Small-duct high-velocity (air cooled)< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 11.0 SEER Air conditioners, air cooled ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.2 EER 12.8 IEER AHRI 340/360 All other Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER 12.6 IEER ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER 12.4 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER 12.2 IEER ≥ 240,000 Btu/h and < 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 10.0 EER 11.6 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 9.8 EER 11.4 IEER ≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 9.7 EER 11.2 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 9.5 EER 11.0 IEER Air conditioners, water cooled < 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System and Single Package 12.1 EER 12.3 IEER AHRI 210/240 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 12.1 EER 13.9 IEER AHRI 340/360 All other Split System and Single Package 11.9 EER 13.7 IEER ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 12.5 EER 13.9 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 12.3 EER 13.7 IEER ≥ 240,000 Btu/h and < 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 12.4 EER 13.6 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 12.2 EER 13.4 IEER ≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 12.2 EER 13.5 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 12.0 EER 13.3 IEER ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 270 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-28 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C403.3.2(1)—continued MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure. b. Single-phase, air-cooled air conditioners less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER values are those set by NAECA. EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY HEATING SECTION TYPE SUB-CATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa Air conditioners, evaporatively cooled < 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System and Single Package 12.1 EER 12.3 IEER AHRI 210/240 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 12.1 EER 12.3 IEER AHRI 340/360 All other Split System and Single Package 11.9 EER 12.1 IEER ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 12.0 EER 12.2 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 11.8 EER 12.0 IEER ≥ 240,000 Btu/h and < 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.9 EER 12.1 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 11.7 EER 11.9 IEER ≥ 760,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.7 EER 11.9 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 11.5 EER 11.7 IEER Condensing units, air cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h — — 10.5 EER 11.8 IEER AHRI 365 Condensing units, water cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h — — 13.5 EER 14.0 IEER Condensing units, evaporatively cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h — — 13.5 EER 14.0 IEER ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 271 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-29 TABLE C403.3.2(2) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AND APPLIED HEAT PUMPS (continued) EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY HEATING SECTION TYPE SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa Air cooled (cooling mode)< 65,000 Btu/hb All Split System 14.0 SEER AHRI 210/240 Single Package 14.0 SEER Through-the-wall, air cooled ≤ 30,000 Btu/hb All Split System 12.0 SEER Single Package 12.0 SEER Single-duct high-velocity air cooled < 65,000 Btu/h b All Split System 11.0 SEER Air cooled (cooling mode) ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 11.0 EER 12.0 IEER AHRI 340/360 All other Split System and Single Package 10.8 EER 11.8 IEER ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 10.6 EER 11.6 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 10.4 EER 11.4 IEER ≥ 240,000 Btu/h Electric Resistance (or None) Split System and Single Package 9.5 EER 10.6 IEER All other Split System and Single Package 9.3 EER 9.4 IEER Water to Air: Water Loop (cooling mode) < 17,000 Btu/h All 86 oF entering water 12.2 EER ISO 13256-1≥ 17,000 Btu/h and < 65,000 Btu/h All 86 oF entering water 13.0 EER ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h All 86 oF entering water 13.0 EER Water to Air: Ground Water (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/h All 59 oF entering water 18.0 EER ISO 13256-1 Brine to Air: Ground Loop (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/h All 77 oF entering water 14.1 EER ISO 13256-1 Water to Water: Water Loop (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/h All 86 oF entering water 10.6 EER ISO 13256-2Water to Water: Ground Water (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/h All 59oF entering water 16.3 EER Brine to Water: Ground Loop (cooling mode)< 135,000 Btu/h All 77 oF entering fluid 12.1 EER ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 272 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-30 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C403.3.2(2)—continued MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED UNITARY AND APPLIED HEAT PUMPS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the reference year version of the test procedure. b. Single-phase, air-cooled heat pumps less than 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by NAECA. SEER and HSPF values are those set by NAECA. EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY HEATING SECTION TYPE SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa Air cooled (heating mode)< 65,000 Btu/hb —Split System 8.2 HSPF AHRI 210/240 —Single Package 8.0 HSPF Through-the-wall, (air cooled, heating mode) ≤ 30,000 Btu/hb (cooling capacity) —Split System 7.4 HSPF —Single Package 7.4 HSPF Small-duct high velocity (air cooled, heating mode)< 65,000 Btu/hb —Split System 6.8 HSPF Air cooled (heating mode) ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity) — 47ºF db/43ºF wb outdoor air 3.3 COP AHRI 340/360 17ºF db/15ºF wb outdoor air 2.25 COP ≥ 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)— 47ºF db/43ºF wb outdoor air 3.2 COP 17ºF db/15ºF wb outdoor air 2.05 COP Water to Air: Water Loop (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)—68°F entering water 4.3 COP ISO 13256-1Water to Air: Ground Water (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)—50°F entering water 3.7 COP Brine to Air: Ground Loop (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)—32°F entering fluid 3.2 COP Water to Water: Water Loop (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)—68°F entering water 3.7 COP ISO 13256-2Water to Water: Ground Water (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)—50°F entering water 3.1 COP Brine to Water: Ground Loop (heating mode) < 135,000 Btu/h (cooling capacity)—32°F entering fluid 2.5 COP ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 273 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-31 TABLE C403.3.2(3) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS, PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMPS, SINGLE-PACKAGE VERTICAL AIR CONDITIONERS, SINGLE VERTICAL HEAT PUMPS, ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS AND ROOM AIR-CONDITIONER HEAT PUMPS (continued) EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT) SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa PTAC (cooling mode) new construction All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 14.0 – (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER AHRI 310/380 PTAC (cooling mode) replacementsb All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 10.9 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER PTHP (cooling mode) new construction All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 14.0 - (0.300 × Cap/1000) EER PTHP (cooling mode) replacementsb All Capacities 95°F db outdoor air 10.8 - (0.213 × Cap/1000) EER PTHP (heating mode) new construction All Capacities —3.2 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP PTHP (heating mode) replacementsb All Capacities —2.9 - (0.026 × Cap/1000) COP SPVAC (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 9.0 EER AHRI 390 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 8.9 EER ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 8.6 EER SPVHP (cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 9.0 EER ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 8.9 EER ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 95°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 8.6 EER SPVHP (heating mode) < 65,000 Btu/h 47°F db/ 43°F wb outdoor air 3.0 COP AHRI 390 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 135,000 Btu/h 47°F db/ 43°F wb outdoor air 3.0 COP ≥ 135,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 47°F db/ 75°F wb outdoor air 2.9 COP Room air conditioners, with louvered sides < 6,000 Btu/h —11.0 CEER ANSI/ AHAM RAC-1 ≥ 6,000 Btu/h and < 8,000 Btu/h —11.0 CEER ≥ 8,000 Btu/h and < 14,000 Btu/h —10.9 CEER ≥ 14,000 Btu/h and < 20,000 Btu/h —10.7 CEER ≥ 20,000 Btu/h and ≤ 25,000 Btu/h — 9.4 CEER > 25,000 Btu/h —9.0 CEER Room air conditioners, without louvered sides < 6,000 Btu/h —10.0 CEER ≥ 6,000 Btu/h and < 8,000 Btu/h —10.0 CEER ≥ 8,000 Btu/h and < 11,000 Btu/h —9.6 CEER ≥ 11,000 Btu/h and < 14,000 Btu/h —9.5 CEER ≥ 14,000 Btu/h and < 20,000 Btu/h —9.3 CEER ≥ 20,000 Btu/h —9.4 CEER Room air-conditioner heat pumps with louvered sides < 20,000 Btu/h —9.8 CEER ≥ 20,000 Btu/h —9.3 CEER Room air-conditioner heat pumps without louvered sides < 14,000 Btu/h —9.3 CEER ≥ 14,000 Btu/h —8.7 CEER ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 274 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-32 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C403.3.2(3)—continued MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: ELECTRICALLY OPERATED PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS, PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMPS, SINGLE-PACKAGE VERTICAL AIR CONDITIONERS, SINGLE VERTICAL HEAT PUMPS, ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS AND ROOM AIR-CONDITIONER HEAT PUMPS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, wb = wet bulb, db = dry bulb. “Cap” = The rated cooling capacity of the project in Btu/h. Where the unit’s capacity is less than 7000 Btu/h, use 7000 Btu/h in the calculation. Where the unit’s capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculations. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. Replacement unit shall be factory labeled as follows: “MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY: NOT TO BE INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS.” Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16 inches (406 mm) in height and less than 42 inches (1067 mm) in width. EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT)SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa Room air conditioner casement only All capacities —9.5 CEER ANSI/ AHAM RAC-1Room air conditioner casement-slider All capacities —10.4 CEER TABLE C403.3.2(4) WARM-AIR FURNACES AND COMBINATION WARM-AIR FURNACES/AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS, WARM-AIR DUCT FURNACES AND UNIT HEATERS, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. Minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit’s controls. c. Combination units not covered by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kW]) shall comply with either rating. d.Et = Thermal efficiency. See test procedure for detailed discussion. e.Ec = Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion. f.Ec = Combustion efficiency. Units shall also include an IID, have jackets not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space. g.Et = Thermal efficiency. Units shall also include an IID, have jacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space. EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT) SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCYd, e TEST PROCEDUREa Warm-air furnaces, gas fired < 225,000 Btu/h —80% AFUE or 80%Et c DOE 10 CFR Part 430 or ANSI Z21.47 ≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityc 80%Et f ANSI Z21.47 Warm-air furnaces, oil fired < 225,000 Btu/h —83% AFUE or 80%Et c DOE 10 CFR Part 430 or UL 727 ≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityb 81%Et g UL 727 Warm-air duct furnaces, gas fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec ANSI Z83.8 Warm-air unit heaters, gas fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec ANSI Z83.8 Warm-air unit heaters, oil fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec UL 731 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 275 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-33 TABLE C403.3.2(5) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: GAS- AND OIL-FIRED BOILERS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. These requirements apply to boilers with rated input of 8,000,000 Btu/h or less that are not packaged boilers and to all packaged boilers. Minimum efficiency requirements for boilers cover all capacities of packaged boilers. b. Maximum capacity – minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit’s controls. c. Includes oil-fired (residual). d.Ec = Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses). e.Et = Thermal efficiency. See referenced standard for detailed information. f. Boilers shall not be equipped with a constant-burning ignition pilot. g. A boiler not equipped with a tankless domestic water heating coil shall be equipped with an automatic means for adjusting the temperature of the water such that an incremental change in inferred heat load produces a corresponding incremental change in the temperature of the water supplied. EQUIPMENT TYPEa SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY d, e TEST PROCEDURE Boilers, hot water Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/hf, g 82% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430 ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb 80% Et 10 CFR Part 431 > 2,500,000 Btu/ha 82% Ec Oil-firedc < 300,000 Btu/hg 84% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430 ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb 82% Et 10 CFR Part 431 > 2,500,000 Btu/ha 84% Ec Boilers, steam Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/hf 80% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430 Gas-fired- all, except natural draft ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb 79% Et 10 CFR Part 431 > 2,500,000 Btu/ha 79% Et Gas-fired-natural draft ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb 77% Et > 2,500,000 Btu/ha 77% Et Oil-firedc < 300,000 Btu/h 82% AFUE 10 CFR Part 430 ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and ≤ 2,500,000 Btu/hb 81% Et 10 CFR Part 431 > 2,500,000 Btu/ha 81% Et TABLE C403.3.2(6) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. b. IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation. EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY MINIMUM EFFICIENCYb TEST PROCEDUREa Condensing units, air cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 10.1 EER 11.2 IPLV AHRI 365 Condensing units, water or evaporatively cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER 13.1 IPLV ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 276 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-34 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C403.3.2(7) WATER CHILLING PACKAGES – EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTSa, b, d a. The requirements for centrifugal chiller shall be adjusted for nonstandard rating conditions in accordance with Section C403.3.2.1 and are only applicable for the range of conditions listed in Section C403.3.2.1. The requirements for air-cooled, water-cooled positive displacement and absorption chillers are at standard rating conditions defined in the reference test procedure. b. Both the full-load and IPLV requirements shall be met or exceeded to comply with this standard. Where there is a Path B, compliance can be with either Path A or Path B for any application. c. NA means the requirements are not applicable for Path B and only Path A can be used for compliance. d. FL represents the full-load performance requirements and IPLV the part-load performance requirements. EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY UNITS BEFORE 1/1/2015 AS OF 1/1/2015 TEST PROCEDUREcPath A Path B Path A Path B Air-cooled chillers < 150 Tons EER (Btu/W) ≥ 9.562 FL NAc ≥ 10.100 FL ≥ 9.700 FL AHRI 550/ 590 ≥ 12.500 IPLV ≥ 13.700 IPLV ≥ 15,800 IPLV ≥ 150 Tons ≥ 9.562 FL NAc ≥ 10.100 FL ≥ 9.700 FL ≥ 12.500 IPLV ≥ 14.000 IPLV ≥ 16.100 IPLV Air cooled without condenser, electrically operated All capacities EER (Btu/W) Air-cooled chillers without condenser shall be rated with matching condensers and complying with air-cooled chiller efficiency requirements. Water cooled, electrically operated positive displacement < 75 Tons kW/ton ≤ 0.780 FL ≤ 0.800 FL ≤ 0.750 FL ≤ 0.780 FL ≤ 0.630 IPLV ≤ 0.600 IPLV ≤ 0.600 IPLV ≤ 0.500 IPLV ≥ 75 tons and < 150 tons ≤ 0.775 FL ≤ 0.790 FL ≤ 0.720 FL ≤ 0.750 FL ≤ 0.615 IPLV ≤ 0.586 IPLV ≤ 0.560 IPLV ≤ 0.490 IPLV ≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons ≤ 0.680 FL ≤ 0.718 FL ≤ 0.660 FL ≤ 0.680 FL ≤ 0.580 IPLV ≤ 0.540 IPLV ≤ 0.540 IPLV ≤ 0.440 IPLV ≥ 300 tons and < 600 tons ≤ 0.620 FL ≤ 0.639 FL ≤ 0.610 FL ≤ 0.625 FL ≤ 0.540 IPLV ≤ 0.490 IPLV ≤ 0.520 IPLV ≤ 0.410 IPLV ≥ 600 tons ≤ 0.620 FL ≤ 0.639 FL ≤ 0.560 FL ≤ 0.585 FL ≤ 0.540 IPLV ≤ 0.490 IPLV ≤ 0.500 IPLV ≤ 0.380 IPLV Water cooled, electrically operated centrifugal < 150 Tons kW/ton ≤ 0.634 FL ≤ 0.639 FL ≤ 0.610 FL ≤ 0.695 FL ≤ 0.596 IPLV ≤ 0.450 IPLV ≤ 0.550 IPLV ≤ 0.440 IPLV ≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons ≤ 0.634 FL ≤ 0.639 FL ≤ 0.610 FL ≤ 0.635 FL ≤ 0.596 IPLV ≤ 0.450 IPLV ≤ 0.550 IPLV ≤ 0.400 IPLV ≥ 300 tons and < 400 tons ≤ 0.576 FL ≤ 0.600 FL ≤ 0.560 FL ≤ 0.595 FL ≤ 0.549 IPLV ≤ 0.400 IPLV ≤ 0.520 IPLV ≤ 0.390 IPLV ≥ 400 tons and < 600 tons ≤ 0.576 FL ≤ 0.600 FL ≤ 0.560 FL ≤ 0.585 FL ≤ 0.549 IPLV ≤ 0.400 IPLV ≤ 0.500 IPLV ≤ 0.380 IPLV ≥ 600 Tons ≤ 0.570 FL ≤ 0.590 FL ≤ 0.560 FL ≤ 0.585 FL ≤ 0.539 IPLV ≤ 0.400 IPLV ≤ 0.500 IPLV ≤ 0.380 IPLV Air cooled, absorption, single effect All capacities COP ≥ 0.600 FL NA c ≥ 0.600 FL NA c AHRI 560 Water cooled absorption, single effect All capacities COP ≥ 0.700 FL NA c ≥ 0.700 FL NA c Absorption, double effect, indirect fired All capacities COP ≥ 1.000 FL NAc ≥ 1.000 FL NAc ≥ 1.050 IPLV ≥ 1.050 IPLV Absorption double effect direct fired All capacities COP ≥ 1.000 FL NAc ≥ 1.000 FL NAc ≥ 1.000 IPLV ≥ 1.050 IPLV ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 277 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-35 TABLE C403.3.2(8) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: HEAT REJECTION EQUIPMENT For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, L/s • kW = (gpm/hp)/(11.83), COP = (Btu/h • hp)/(2550.7), db = dry bulb temperature, °F, wb = wet bulb temperature, °F. a. The efficiencies and test procedures for both open- and closed-circuit cooling towers are not applicable to hybrid cooling towers that contain a combination of wet and dry heat exchange sections. b. For purposes of this table, open circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition, divided by the fan nameplate-rated motor power. c. For purposes of this table, closed-circuit cooling tower performance is defined as the water flow rating of the tower at the thermal rating condition, divided by the sum of the fan nameplate-rated motor power and the spray pump nameplate-rated motor power. d. For purposes of this table, air-cooled condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected from the refrigerant divided by the fan nameplate-rated motor power. e. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. The certification requirements do not apply to field-erected cooling towers. f. Where a certification program exists for a covered product and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, then the product shall be listed in the certification program; or, where a certification program exists for a covered product, and it includes provisions for verification and challenge of equipment efficiency ratings, but the product is not listed in the existing certification program, the ratings shall be verified by an independent laboratory test report. g. Cooling towers shall comply with the minimum efficiency listed in the table for that specific type of tower with the capacity effect of any project-specific accessories or options included in the capacity of the cooling tower h. For purposes of this table, evaporative condenser performance is defined as the heat rejected at the specified rating condition in the table divided by the sum of the fan motor nameplate power and the integral spray pump nameplate power i. Requirements for evaporative condensers are listed with ammonia (R-717) and R-507A as test fluids in the table. Evaporative condensers intended for use with halocarbon refrigerants other than R-507A shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements listed in this table with R-507A as the test fluid. EQUIPMENT TYPEa TOTAL SYSTEM HEAT REJECTION CAPACITY AT RATED CONDITIONS SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITIONi PERFORMANCE REQUIREDb, c, d, g, h TEST PROCEDURE e, f Propeller or axial fan open-circuit cooling towers All 95°F entering water 85°F leaving water 75°F entering wb ≥ 40.2 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105 and CTI STD-201 RS Centrifugal fan open-circuit cooling towers All 95°F entering water 85°F leaving water 75°F entering wb ≥ 20.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105 and CTI STD-201 RS Propeller or axial fan closed-circuit cooling towers All 102°F entering water 90°F leaving water 75°F entering wb ≥ 16.1 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105S and CTI STD-201 RS Centrifugal fan closed- circuit cooling towers All 102°F entering water 90°F leaving water 75°F entering wb ≥ 7.0 gpm/hp CTI ATC-105S and CTI STD-201 RS Propeller or axial fan evaporative condensers All Ammonia Test Fluid 140°F entering gas temperature 96.3°F condensing temperature 75°F entering wb ≥ 134,000 Btu/h × hp CTI ATC-106 Centrifugal fan evaporative condensers All Ammonia Test Fluid 140°F entering gas temperature 96.3°F condensing temperature 75°F entering wb ≥110,000 Btu/h × hp CTI ATC-106 Propeller or axial fan evaporative condensers All R-507A Test Fluid 165°F entering gas temperature 105°F condensing temperature 75°F entering wb ≥ 157,000 Btu/h × hp CTI ATC-106 Centrifugal fan evaporative condensers All R-507A Test Fluid 165°F entering gas temperature 105°F condensing temperature 75°F entering wb ≥ 135,000 Btu/h × hp CTI ATC-106 Air-cooled condensers All 125°F Condensing Temperature 190°F Entering Gas Temperature 15°F subcooling 95°F entering db ≥ 176,000 Btu/h × hp AHRI 460 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 278 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-36 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C403.3.3 Hot gas bypass limitation. Cooling systems shall not use hot gas bypass or other evaporator pressure control systems unless the system is designed with multi- ple steps of unloading or continuous capacity modulation. The capacity of the hot gas bypass shall be limited as indi- cated in Table C403.3.3, as limited by Section C403.5.1. TABLE C403.3.3 MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. C403.3.4 Boiler turndown. Boiler systems with design input of greater than 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW) shall com- ply with the turndown ratio specified in Table C403.3.4. The system turndown requirement shall be met through the use of multiple single-input boilers, one or more modu- lating boilers or a combination of single-input and modu- lating boilers. TABLE C403.3.4 BOILER TURNDOWN For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. C403.4 Heating and cooling system controls (Mandatory). Each heating and cooling system shall be provided with con- trols in accordance with Sections C403.4.1 through C403.4.5. C403.4.1 Thermostatic controls (Mandatory). The supply of heating and cooling energy to each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls capable of responding to temperature within the zone. Where humidification or dehu- midification or both is provided, not fewer than one humidity control device shall be provided for each humidity control system. Exception: Independent perimeter systems that are designed to offset only building envelope heat losses, RATED CAPACITY MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY (% of total capacity) ≤ 240,000 Btu/h 50 > 240,000 Btu/h 25 BOILER SYSTEM DESIGN INPUT (Btu/h) MINIMUM TURNDOWN RATIO ≥ 1,000,000 and less than or equal to 5,000,000 3 to 1 > 5,000,000 and less than or equal to 10,000,000 4 to 1 > 10,000,000 5 to 1 TABLE C403.3.2(9) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS SERVING COMPUTER ROOMS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. Net sensible cooling capacity: the total gross cooling capacity less the latent cooling less the energy to the air movement system. (Total Gross – latent – Fan Power). b. Sensible coefficient of performance (SCOP-127): a ratio calculated by dividing the net sensible cooling capacity in watts by the total power input in watts (excluding reheaters and humidifiers) at conditions defined in ASHRAE Standard 127. The net sensible cooling capacity is the gross sensible capacity minus the energy dissipated into the cooled space by the fan system. EQUIPMENT TYPE NET SENSIBLE COOLING CAPACITYa MINIMUM SCOP-127b EFFICIENCY DOWNFLOW UNITS / UPFLOW UNITS TEST PROCEDURE Air conditioners, air cooled < 65,000 Btu/h 2.20 / 2.09 ANSI/ASHRAE 127 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.10 / 1.99 ≥ 240,000 Btu/h 1.90 / 1.79 Air conditioners, water cooled < 65,000 Btu/h 2.60 / 2.49 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.50 / 2.39 ≥ 240,000 Btu/h 2.40 /2.29 Air conditioners, water cooled with fluid economizer < 65,000 Btu/h 2.55 /2.44 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.45 / 2.34 ≥ 240,000 Btu/h 2.35 / 2.24 Air conditioners, glycol cooled (rated at 40% propylene glycol) < 65,000 Btu/h 2.50 / 2.39 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.15 / 2.04 ≥ 240,000 Btu/h 2.10 / 1.99 Air conditioners, glycol cooled (rated at 40% propylene glycol) with fluid economizer < 65,000 Btu/h 2.45 / 2.34 ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 2.10 / 1.99 ≥ 240,000 Btu/h 2.05 / 1.94 TABLE C403.3.2(10) HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT NR = No Requirement. a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure. EQUIPMENT TYPE SUBCATEGORY MINIMUM EFFICIENCY TEST PROCEDUREa Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers Plate type NR AHRI 400 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 279 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-37 gains or both serving one or more perimeter zones also served by an interior system provided that both of the following conditions are met: 1. The perimeter system includes not fewer than one thermostatic control zone for each building expo- sure having exterior walls facing only one orien- tation (within ± 45 degrees) (0.8 rad) for more than 50 contiguous feet (15 240 mm). 2. The perimeter system heating and cooling supply is controlled by thermostats located within the zones served by the system. C403.4.1.1 Heat pump supplementary heat (Manda- tory). Heat pumps having supplementary electric resis- tance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplementary heat operation where the heat pump can provide the heating load. C403.4.1.2 Deadband (Mandatory). Where used to control both heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall be configured to provide a temperature range or deadband of not less than 5°F (2.8°C) within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is shut off or reduced to a minimum. Exceptions: 1. Thermostats requiring manual changeover between heating and cooling modes. 2. Occupancies or applications requiring preci- sion in indoor temperature control as approved by the code official. C403.4.1.3 Setpoint overlap restriction (Manda- tory). Where a zone has a separate heating and a sepa- rate cooling thermostatic control located within the zone, a limit switch, mechanical stop or direct digital control system with software programming shall be configured to prevent the heating setpoint from exceed- ing the cooling setpoint and to maintain a deadband in accordance with Section C403.4.1.2. C403.4.1.4 Heated or cooled vestibules (Mandatory). The heating system for heated vestibules and air curtains with integral heating shall be provided with controls configured to shut off the source of heating when the outdoor air temperature is greater than 45°F (7°C). Ves- tibule heating and cooling systems shall be controlled by a thermostat located in the vestibule configured to limit heating to a temperature not greater than 60°F (16°C) and cooling to a temperature not less than 85°F (29°C). Exception: Control of heating or cooling provided by site-recovered energy or transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted. C403.4.1.5 Hot water boiler outdoor temperature setback control (Mandatory). Hot water boilers that supply heat to the building through one- or two-pipe heating systems shall have an outdoor setback control that lowers the boiler water temperature based on the outdoor temperature. C403.4.1.6 Mechanical system shutoff (Mandatory). C403.4.1.6.1 Operable wall or roof openings. Any directly conditioned space with operable wall or roof openings to the outdoors shall be equipped with interlock controls that disable or reset the tempera- ture setpoint for mechanical heating and cooling. The reset setpoint for mechanical heating shall be 55°F and for mechanical cooling, 90°F. The system shutoff or setpoint temperature reset shall activate within 5 minutes of any such operable wall or roof opening being opened. Exception: Interlock controls are not required for systems and spaces as follows: 1. On doors with automatic closing devices. 2. For vestibules or revolving doors. 3. For any space without a thermostatic con- trol (a thermostat or space temperature sen- sor used to control heating or cooling to the space). C403.4.1.6.2 Overhead door HVAC shutoff devices. Overhead doors, cargo doors, sliding doors, folding and accordion-style wall systems, and other loading dock-style doors that open to the outdoors shall be equipped with interlock controls that disable the heating, cooling and humidity control equipment that serves the area or zone adjacent to the door. The shutoff shall activate prior to the door being 25 per- cent open. A shutoff override, designed to be used when vehicles are parked in the doorway, may be included on doors equipped with weatherseals. The override must automatically deactivate when the vehicle is removed. Exceptions: 1. Areas where HVAC equipment must remain on for safety, sanitation or other health-related reasons. 2. Areas heated by radiant heating systems. 3. The shutoff override shall activate within 5 minutes in groups U, SI, and B motor vehi- cle showroom occupancies. C403.4.2 Off-hour controls (Mandatory). Each zone shall be provided with thermostatic setback controls that are con- trolled by either an automatic time clock or programmable control system. Exceptions: 1.Zones that will be operated continuously. 2.Zones with a full HVAC load demand not exceeding 6,800 Btu/h (2 kW) and having a man- ual shutoff switch located with ready access. C403.4.2.1 Thermostatic setback (Mandatory). Thermostatic setback controls shall be configured to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C). C403.4.2.2 Automatic setback and shutdown (Man- datory). Automatic time clock or programmable con- trols shall be capable of starting and stopping the system for seven different daily schedules per week and retaining their programming and time setting during a ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 280 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-38 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE loss of power for not fewer than 10 hours. Additionally, the controls shall have a manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours; a manually operated timer configured to operate the sys- tem for up to 2 hours; or an occupancy sensor. C403.4.2.3 Automatic start (Mandatory). Automatic start controls shall be provided for each HVAC system. The controls shall be configured to automatically adjust the daily start time of the HVAC system in order to bring each space to the desired occupied temperature immediately prior to scheduled occupancy. C403.4.3 Hydronic systems controls. The heating of fluids that have been previously mechanically cooled and the cool- ing of fluids that have been previously mechanically heated shall be limited in accordance with Sections C403.4.3.1 through C403.4.3.3. Hydronic heating systems comprised of multiple-packaged boilers and designed to deliver condi- tioned water or steam into a common distribution system shall include automatic controls configured to sequence operation of the boilers. Hydronic heating systems composed of a sin- gle boiler and greater than 500,000 Btu/h (146.5 kW) input design capacity shall include either a multistaged or modulat- ing burner. C403.4.3.1 Three-pipe system. Hydronic systems that use a common return system for both hot water and chilled water are prohibited. C403.4.3.2 Two-pipe changeover system. Systems that use a common distribution system to supply both heated and chilled water shall be designed to allow a deadband between changeover from one mode to the other of not less than 15°F (8.3°C) outside air tempera- tures; be designed to and provided with controls that will allow operation in one mode for not less than 4 hours before changing over to the other mode; and be provided with controls that allow heating and cooling supply temperatures at the changeover point to be not more than 30°F (16.7°C) apart. C403.4.3.3 Hydronic (water loop) heat pump sys- tems. Hydronic heat pump systems shall comply with Sections C403.4.3.3.1 through C403.4.3.3.3. C403.4.3.3.1 Temperature deadband. Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are config- ured to provide a heat pump water supply tempera- ture deadband of not less than 20°F (11°C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices. Exception: Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can deter- mine the most efficient operating temperature based on real-time conditions of demand and capacity, deadbands of less than 20°F (11°C) shall be permitted. C403.4.3.3.2 Heat rejection. The following shall apply to hydronic water loop heat pump systems: 1. Where a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, either an auto- matic valve shall be installed to bypass the flow of water around the closed-circuit cool- ing tower, except for any flow necessary for freeze protection, or low-leakage positive-clo- sure dampers shall be provided. 2. Where an open-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the open-circuit cool- ing tower. 3. Where an open-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the open-circuit cooling tower from the heat pump loop, heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop. Exception: Where it can be demonstrated that a heat pump system will be required to reject heat throughout the year. C403.4.3.3.3 Two-position valve. Each hydronic heat pump on the hydronic system having a total pump system power exceeding 10 hp (7.5 kW) shall have a two-position valve. C403.4.4 Part-load controls. Hydronic systems greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h (87.9 kW) in design output capac- ity supplying heated or chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that are configured to do all of the following: 1. Automatically reset the supply-water temperatures in response to varying building heating and cooling demand using coil valve position, zone-return water temperature, building-return water temperature or outside air temperature. The temperature shall be reset by not less than 25 percent of the design sup- ply-to-return water temperature difference. 2. Automatically vary fluid flow for hydronic systems with a combined pump motor capacity of 2 hp (1.5 kW) or larger with three or more control valves or other devices by reducing the system design flow rate by not less than 50 percent or the maximum reduction allowed by the equipment manufacturer for proper operation of equipment by valves that modulate or step open and close, or pumps that mod- ulate or turn on and off as a function of load. 3. Automatically vary pump flow on heating-water systems, chilled-water systems and heat rejection loops serving water-cooled unitary air conditioners as follows: 3.1. Where pumps operate continuously or oper- ate based on a time schedule, pumps with nominal output motor power of 2 hp or more shall have a variable speed drive. 3.2. Where pumps have automatic direct digital control configured to operate pumps only when zone heating or cooling is required, a variable speed drive shall be provided for pumps with motors having the same or > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 281 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-39 greater nominal output power indicated in Table C403.4.4 based on the system served. 4. Where a variable speed drive is required by Item 3 of this Section, pump motor power input shall be not more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of the design water flow. Pump flow shall be con- trolled to maintain one control valve nearly wide open or to satisfy the minimum differential pressure. Exceptions: 1. Supply-water temperature reset is not required for chilled-water systems supplied by off-site dis- trict chilled water or chilled water from ice stor- age systems. 2. Variable pump flow is not required on dedicated coil circulation pumps where needed for freeze protection. 3. Variable pump flow is not required on dedicated equipment circulation pumps where configured in primary/secondary design to provide the mini- mum flow requirements of the equipment manu- facturer for proper operation of equipment. 4. Variable speed drives are not required on heating water pumps where more than 50 percent of annual heat is generated by an electric boiler. C403.4.5 Pump isolation. Chilled water plants including more than one chiller shall be capable of and configured to reduce flow automatically through the chiller plant when a chiller is shut down. Chillers piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential shall be considered as one chiller. Boiler systems including more than one boiler shall be capable of and configured to reduce flow automatically through the boiler system when a boiler is shut down. C403.5 Economizers (Prescriptive). Economizers shall comply with Sections C403.5.1 through C403.5.5. An air or water economizer shall be provided for the fol- lowing cooling systems: 1. Chilled water systems with a total cooling capacity, less cooling capacity provided with air economizers specified in Table C403.5. 2. Individual fan systems with cooling capacity greater than or equal to 54,000 Btu/h (15.8 kW) in buildings having other than a Group R occupancy, The total supply capacity of all fan cooling units not provided with economizers shall not exceed 20 percent of the total supply capacity of all fan cooling units in the building or 300,000 Btu/h (88 kW), whichever is greater. 3. Individual fan systems with cooling capacity greater than or equal to 270,000 Btu/h (79.1 kW) in buildings having a Group R occupancy. The total supply capacity of all fan cooling units not provided with economizers shall not exceed 20 percent of the total supply capacity of all fan cooling units in the building or 1,500,000 Btu/h (440 kW), whichever is greater. Exceptions: Economizers are not required for the follow- ing systems. 1.Where more than 25 percent of the air designed to be supplied by the system is to spaces that are designed to be humidified above 35°F (1.7°C) dew- point temperature to satisfy process needs. 2.Systems serving supermarket areas with open refrig- erated casework. 3.Systems that include a heat recovery system in accordance with Section C403.9.5. C403.5.1 Integrated economizer control. Economizer systems shall be integrated with the mechanical cooling system and be configured to provide partial cooling even where additional mechanical cooling is required to provide the remainder of the cooling load. Controls shall not be capable of creating a false load in the mechanical cooling systems by limiting or disabling the economizer or any other means, such as hot gas bypass, except at the lowest stage of mechanical cooling. Units that include an air economizer shall comply with the following: 1. Unit controls shall have the mechanical cooling capacity control interlocked with the air economizer controls such that the outdoor air damper is at the 100-percent open position when mechanical cooling is on and the outdoor air damper does not begin to close to prevent coil freezing due to minimum com- pressor run time until the leaving air temperature is less than 45°F (7°C). 2. Direct expansion (DX) units that control 75,000 Btu/ h (22 kW) or greater of rated capacity of the capac- ity of the mechanical cooling directly based on occupied space temperature shall have not fewer than two stages of mechanical cooling capacity. 3. Other DX units, including those that control space temperature by modulating the airflow to the space, shall be in accordance with Table C403.5.1. C403.5.2 Economizer heating system impact. HVAC system design and economizer controls shall be such that economizer operation does not increase building heating energy use during normal operation. Exception: Economizers on variable air volume (VAV) systems that cause zone level heating to increase because of a reduction in supply air temperature. >>>>TABLE C403.4.4 VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE (VSD) REQUIREMENTS FOR DEMAND-CONTROLLED PUMPS CHILLED WATER AND HEAT REJECTION LOOP PUMPS IN THESE CLIMATE ZONES HEATING WATER PUMPS IN THESE CLIMATE ZONES VSD REQUIRED FOR MOTORS WITH RATED OUTPUT OF: 5B —≥ 7.5 hp —5B≥ 10 hp ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 282 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-40 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C403.5.3 Air economizers. Where economizers are required by Section C403.5, air economizers shall comply with Sections C403.5.3.1 through C403.5.3.5. C403.5.3.1 Design capacity. Air economizer systems shall be configured to modulate outdoor air and return air dampers to provide up to 100 percent of the design supply air quantity as outdoor air for cooling. C403.5.3.2 Control signal. Economizer controls and dampers shall be configured to sequence the dampers with the mechanical cooling equipment and shall not be controlled by only mixed-air temperature. Exception: The use of mixed-air temperature limit control shall be permitted for systems controlled from space temperature (such as single-zone sys- tems). C403.5.3.3 High-limit shutoff. Air economizers shall be configured to automatically reduce outdoor air intake to the design minimum outdoor air quantity when outdoor air intake will not reduce cooling energy usage. High-limit shutoff control types for specific cli- mates shall be chosen from Table C403.5.3.3. High- limit shutoff control settings for these control types shall be those specified in Table C403.5.3.3. C403.5.3.4 Relief of excess outdoor air. Systems shall be capable of relieving excess outdoor air during air economizer operation to prevent overpressurizing the building. The relief air outlet shall be located to avoid recirculation into the building. C403.5.3.5 Economizer dampers. Return, exhaust/ relief and outdoor air dampers used in economizers shall comply with Section C403.7.7. C403.5.4 Water-side economizers. Where economizers are required by Section C403.5, water-side economizers shall comply with Sections C403.5.4.1 and C403.5.4.2. C403.5.4.1 Design capacity. Water economizer sys- tems shall be configured to cool supply air by indirect evaporation and providing up to 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at outdoor air tempera- tures of not greater than 50°F (10°C) dry bulb/45°F (7°C) wet bulb. Exceptions: 1. Systems primarily serving computer rooms in which 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at 40°F (4°C) dry bulb/35°F (1.7°C) wet bulb is met with evaporative water economizers. 2. Systems primarily serving computer rooms with dry cooler water economizers that satisfy 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at 35°F (1.7°C) dry bulb. 3. Systems where dehumidification requirements cannot be met using outdoor air temperatures of 50°F (10°C) dry bulb/45°F (7°C) wet bulb and where 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at 45°F (7°C) dry bulb/40°F (4°C) wet bulb is met with evaporative water economizers. C403.5.4.2 Maximum pressure drop. Precooling coils and water-to-water heat exchangers used as part of a water economizer system shall either have a water- side pressure drop of less than 15 feet (45 kPa) of water or a secondary loop shall be created so that the coil or heat exchanger pressure drop is not seen by the circu- lating pumps when the system is in the normal cooling (noneconomizer) mode. C403.5.5 Economizer fault detection and diagnostics (Mandatory). Air-cooled unitary direct-expansion units listed in Tables C403.3.2(1) through C403.3.2(3) and vari- able refrigerant flow (VRF) units that are equipped with an economizer in accordance with Sections C403.5 through C403.5.4 shall include a fault detection and diagnostics system complying with the following: 1. The following temperature sensors shall be perma- nently installed to monitor system operation: 1.1. Outside air. 1.2. Supply air. 1.3. Return air. TABLE C403.5 MINIMUM CHILLED-WATER SYSTEM COOLING CAPACITY FOR DETERMINING ECONOMIZER COOLING REQUIREMENTS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. CLIMATE ZONES (COOLING) TOTAL CHILLED-WATER SYSTEM CAPACITY LESS CAPACITY OF COOLING UNITS WITH AIR ECONOMIZERS Local Water-cooled Chilled-water Systems Air-cooled Chilled-water Systems or District Chilled-Water Systems 5B 1,320,000 Btu/h 1,720,000 Btu/h> TABLE C403.5.1 DX COOLING STAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR MODULATING AIRFLOW UNITS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W. a. For mechanical cooling stage control that does not use variable compressor displacement, the percent displacement shall be equivalent to the mechanical cooling capacity reduction evaluated at the full load rating conditions for the compressor. RATING CAPACITY MINIMUM NUMBER OF MECHANICAL COOLING STAGES MINIMUM COMPRESSOR DISPLACEMENTa ≥ 65,000 Btu/h and < 240,000 Btu/h 3 stages ≤ 35% of full load ≥ 240,000 Btu/h 4 stages ≤ 25% full load ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 283 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-41 2. Temperature sensors shall have an accuracy of ±2°F (1.1°C) over the range of 40°F to 80°F (4°C to 26.7°C). 3. Refrigerant pressure sensors, where used, shall have an accuracy of ±3 percent of full scale. 4. The unit controller shall be configured to provide system status by indicating the following: 4.1. Free cooling available. 4.2. Economizer enabled. 4.3. Compressor enabled. 4.4. Heating enabled. 4.5. Mixed air low limit cycle active. 4.6. The current value of each sensor. 5. The unit controller shall be capable of manually ini- tiating each operating mode so that the operation of compressors, economizers, fans and the heating sys- tem can be independently tested and verified. 6. The unit shall be configured to report faults to a fault management application available for access by day-to-day operating or service personnel, or annun- ciated locally on zone thermostats. 7. The fault detection and diagnostics system shall be configured to detect the following faults: 7.1. Air temperature sensor failure/fault. 7.2. Not economizing when the unit should be economizing. 7.3. Economizing when the unit should not be economizing. 7.4. Damper not modulating. 7.5. Excess outdoor air. C403.6 Requirements for mechanical systems serving multiple zones. Sections C403.6.1 through C403.6.9 shall apply to mechanical systems serving multiple zones. C403.6.1 Variable air volume and multiple-zone sys- tems. Supply air systems serving multiple zones shall be variable air volume (VAV) systems that have zone controls configured to reduce the volume of air that is reheated, recooled or mixed in each zone to one of the following: 1. Twenty percent of the zone design peak supply for systems with DDC and 30 percent for other systems. 2. Systems with DDC where all of the following apply: 2.1. The airflow rate in the deadband between heating and cooling does not exceed 20 per- cent of the zone design peak supply rate or higher allowed rates under Items 3, 4 and 5 of this section. 2.2. The first stage of heating modulates the zone supply air temperature setpoint up to a maxi- mum setpoint while the airflow is main- tained at the deadband flow rate. 2.3. The second stage of heating modulates the airflow rate from the deadband flow rate up to the heating maximum flow rate that is less than 50 percent of the zone design peak sup- ply rate. 3. The outdoor airflow rate required to meet the mini- mum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code. 4. Any higher rate that can be demonstrated to reduce overall system annual energy use by offsetting re- heat/recool energy losses through a reduction in out- door air intake for the system as approved by the code official. 5. The airflow rate required to comply with applicable codes or accreditation standards such as pressure relationships or minimum air change rates. Exception: The following individual zones or entire air distribution systems are exempted from the require- ment for VAV control: 1.Zones or supply air systems where not less than 75 percent of the energy for reheating or for pro- viding warm air in mixing systems is provided from a site-recovered, including condenser heat, or site-solar energy source. TABLE C403.5.3.3 HIGH-LIMIT SHUTOFF CONTROL SETTING FOR AIR ECONOMIZERSb For SI: 1 foot = 305 mm, °C = (°F - 32)/1.8, 1 Btu/lb = 2.33 kJ/kg. a. At altitudes substantially different than sea level, the fixed enthalpy limit shall be set to the enthalpy value at 75°F and 50-percent relative humidity. As an example, at approximately 6,000 feet elevation, the fixed enthalpy limit is approximately 30.7 Btu/lb. b. Devices with selectable setpoints shall be capable of being set to within 2°F and 2 Btu/lb of the setpoint listed. DEVICE TYPE CLIMATE ZONE REQUIRED HIGH LIMIT (ECONOMIZER OFF WHEN): Equation Description Fixed dry bulb 5B TOA > 75°F Outdoor air temperature exceeds 75°F Differential dry bulb 5B TOA > TRA Outdoor air temperature exceeds return air temperature Fixed enthalpy with fixed dry-bulb temperatures All hOA > 28 Btu/lba or TOA > 75°F Outdoor air enthalpy exceeds 28 Btu/lb of dry aira or Outdoor air temperature exceeds 75°F Differential enthalpy with fixed dry-bulb temperature All hOA > hRA or TOA > 75°F Outdoor air enthalpy exceeds return air enthalpy or Outdoor air temperature exceeds 75°F > > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 284 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-42 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 2. Systems that prevent reheating, recooling, mixing or simultaneous supply of air that has been previ- ously cooled, either mechanically or through the use of economizer systems, and air that has been previously mechanically heated. C403.6.2 Single-duct VAV systems, terminal devices. Single-duct VAV systems shall use terminal devices capa- ble of and configured to reduce the supply of primary sup- ply air before reheating or recooling takes place. C403.6.3 Dual-duct and mixing VAV systems, terminal devices. Systems that have one warm air duct and one cool air duct shall use terminal devices that are configured to reduce the flow from one duct to a minimum before mix- ing of air from the other duct takes place. C403.6.4 Single-fan dual-duct and mixing VAV sys- tems, economizers. Individual dual-duct or mixing heat- ing and cooling systems with a single fan and with total capacities greater than 90,000 Btu/h [(26.4 kW) 7.5 tons] shall not be equipped with air economizers. C403.6.5 Supply-air temperature reset controls. Multi- ple-zone HVAC systems shall include controls that auto- matically reset the supply-air temperature in response to representative building loads, or to outdoor air tempera- ture. The controls shall be configured to reset the supply air temperature not less than 25 percent of the difference between the design supply-air temperature and the design room air temperature. Exceptions: 1. Systems that prevent reheating, recooling or mix- ing of heated and cooled supply air. 2. Seventy-five percent of the energy for reheating is from site-recovered or site-solar energy sources. 3.Zones with peak supply air quantities of 300 cfm (142 L/s) or less. C403.6.6 Multiple-zone VAV system ventilation optimi- zation control. Multiple-zone VAV systems with direct digital control of individual zone boxes reporting to a cen- tral control panel shall have automatic controls configured to reduce outdoor air intake flow below design rates in response to changes in system ventilation efficiency (Ev) as defined by the International Mechanical Code. Exceptions: 1. VAV systems with zonal transfer fans that recir- culate air from other zones without directly mix- ing it with outdoor air, dual-duct dual-fan VAV systems, and VAV systems with fan-powered ter- minal units. 2. Systems where total design exhaust airflow is more than 70 percent of total design outdoor air intake flow requirements. C403.6.7 Parallel-flow fan-powered VAV air terminal control. Parallel-flow fan-powered VAV air terminals shall have automatic controls configured to: 1. Turn off the terminal fan except when space heating is required or where required for ventilation. 2. Turn on the terminal fan as the first stage of heating before the heating coil is activated. 3. During heating for warmup or setback temperature control, either: 3.1. Operate the terminal fan and heating coil without primary air. 3.2. Reverse the terminal damper logic and pro- vide heating from the central air handler by primary air. C403.6.8 Setpoints for direct digital control. For systems with direct digital control of individual zones reporting to the central control panel, the static pressure setpoint shall be reset based on the zone requiring the most pressure. In such case, the setpoint is reset lower until one zone damper is nearly wide open. The direct digital controls shall be capable of monitoring zone damper positions or shall have an alternative method of indicating the need for static pres- sure that is configured to provide all of the following: 1. Automatic detection of any zone that excessively drives the reset logic. 2. Generation of an alarm to the system operational location. 3. Allowance for an operator to readily remove one or more zones from the reset algorithm. C403.6.9 Static pressure sensor location. Static pressure sensors used to control VAV fans shall be located such that the controller setpoint is not greater than 1.2 inches w.c. (299 Pa). Where this results in one or more sensors being located downstream of major duct splits, not less than one sensor shall be located on each major branch to ensure that static pressure can be maintained in each branch. C403.7 Ventilation and exhaust systems (Mandatory). In addition to other requirements of Section C403 applicable to the provision of ventilation air or the exhaust of air, ventila- tion and exhaust systems shall be in accordance with Sections C403.7.1 through C403.7.7. C403.7.1 Demand control ventilation (Mandatory). Demand control ventilation (DCV) shall be provided for spaces larger than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) and with an average occupant load of 25 people or greater per 1,000 square feet (93 m2) of floor area, as established in Table 403.3.1.1 of the International Mechanical Code, and served by systems with one or more of the following: 1. An air-side economizer. 2. Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air damper. 3. A design outdoor airflow greater than 3,000 cfm (1416 L/s). Exceptions: 1. Systems with energy recovery complying with Section C403.7.4. 2. Multiple-zone systems without direct digital con- trol of individual zones communicating with a central control panel. 3. Systems with a design outdoor airflow less than 1,200 cfm (566 L/s). ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 285 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-43 4. Spaces where the supply airflow rate minus any makeup or outgoing transfer air requirement is less than 1,200 cfm (566 L/s). 5. Ventilation provided only for process loads. C403.7.2 Enclosed parking garage ventilation controls (Mandatory). Enclosed parking garages used for storing or handling automobiles operating under their own power shall employ contamination-sensing devices and auto- matic controls configured to stage fans or modulate fan average airflow rates to 50 percent or less of design capac- ity, or intermittently operate fans less than 20 percent of the occupied time or as required to maintain acceptable contaminant levels in accordance with International Mechanical Code provisions. Failure of contamination- sensing devices shall cause the exhaust fans to operate continuously at design airflow. Exceptions: 1. Garages with a total exhaust capacity less than 22,500 cfm (10 620 L/s) with ventilation systems that do not utilize heating or mechanical cooling. 2. Garages that have a garage area to ventilation system motor nameplate power ratio that exceeds 1125 cfm/hp (710 L/s/kW) and do not utilize heating or mechanical cooling. C403.7.3 Ventilation air heating control (Mandatory). Units that provide ventilation air to multiple zones and operate in conjunction with zone heating and cooling sys- tems shall not use heating or heat recovery to warm supply air to a temperature greater than 60°F (16°C) when repre- sentative building loads or outdoor air temperatures indi- cate that the majority of zones require cooling. C403.7.4 Energy recovery ventilation systems (Manda- tory). Where the supply airflow rate of a fan system exceeds the values specified in Table C403.7.4, the system shall include an energy recovery system. The energy recovery system shall be configured to provide a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of not less than 50 percent of the difference between the outdoor air and return air enthalpies, at design conditions. Where an air economizer is required, the energy recovery system shall include a bypass or controls that permit operation of the economizer as required by Section C403.5. Exception: An energy recovery ventilation system shall not be required in any of the following conditions: 1. Where energy recovery systems are prohibited by the International Mechanical Code. 2. Laboratory fume hood systems that include not fewer than one of the following features: 2.1. Variable-air-volume hood exhaust and room supply systems configured to reduce exhaust and makeup air volume to 50 percent or less of design values. 2.2. Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to or greater than 75 percent of the exhaust rate, heated not warmer than 2°F (1.1°C) above room setpoint, cooled to not cooler than 3°F (1.7°C) below room setpoint, with no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control. 3. Systems serving spaces that are heated to less than 60°F (15.5°C) and that are not cooled. 4. Where more than 60 percent of the outdoor heating energy is provided from site-recovered or site-solar energy. 5.Cooling energy recovery in Climate Zones 3C, 4C, 5B, 5C, 6B, 7 and 8. 6.Systems requiring dehumidification that employ energy recovery in series with the cooling coil. 7.Where the largest source of air exhausted at a single location at the building exterior is less than 75 percent of the design outdoor air flow rate. 8.Systems expected to operate less than 20 hours per week at the outdoor air percentage. 9.Systems exhausting toxic, flammable, paint or corrosive fumes or dust. 10.Commercial kitchen hoods used for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke. C403.7.5 Kitchen exhaust systems (Mandatory). Replacement air introduced directly into the exhaust hood cavity shall not be greater than 10 percent of the hood exhaust airflow rate. Conditioned supply air delivered to any space shall not exceed the greater of the following: 1. The ventilation rate required to meet the space heat- ing or cooling load. 2.The hood exhaust flow minus the available transfer air from adjacent space where available transfer air is considered to be that portion of outdoor ventila- tion air not required to satisfy other exhaust needs, such as restrooms, and not required to maintain pres- surization of adjacent spaces. Where total kitchen hood exhaust airflow rate is greater than 5,000 cfm (2360 L/s), each hood shall be a factory- built commercial exhaust hood listed by a nationally rec- ognized testing laboratory in compliance with UL 710. Each hood shall have a maximum exhaust rate as specified in Table C403.7.5 and shall comply with one of the fol- lowing: 1. Not less than 50 percent of all replacement air shall be transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted. 2. Demand ventilation systems on not less than 75 per- cent of the exhaust air that are configured to provide not less than a 50-percent reduction in exhaust and replacement air system airflow rates, including con- trols necessary to modulate airflow in response to appliance operation and to maintain full capture and containment of smoke, effluent and combustion products during cooking and idle. >>>ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 286 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-44 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 3. Listed energy recovery devices with a sensible heat recovery effectiveness of not less than 40 percent on not less than 50 percent of the total exhaust airflow. Where a single hood, or hood section, is installed over appliances with different duty ratings, the maximum allowable flow rate for the hood or hood section shall be based on the requirements for the highest appliance duty rating under the hood or hood section. Exception: Where not less than 75 percent of all the replacement air is transfer air that would otherwise be exhausted. C403.7.6 Automatic control of HVAC systems serving guestrooms (Mandatory). In Group R-1 buildings con- taining more than 50 guestrooms, each guestroom shall be provided with controls complying with the provisions of Sections C403.7.6.1 and C403.7.6.2. Card key controls comply with these requirements. C403.7.6.1 Temperature setpoint controls. Controls shall be provided on each HVAC system that are ca- pable of and configured to automatically raise the cool- ing setpoint and lower the heating setpoint by not less than 4°F (2°C) from the occupant setpoint within 30 minutes after the occupants have left the guestroom. The controls shall be capable of and configured to auto- matically raise the cooling setpoint to not lower than 80°F (27°C) and lower the heating setpoint to not higher than 60°F (16°C) when the guestroom is unrented or has not been continuously occupied for more than 16 hours or a networked guestroom control system indicates that the guestroom is unrented and the guestroom is unoccupied for more than 30 minutes. A networked guestroom control system that is capable of returning the thermostat setpoints to default occupied setpoints 60 minutes prior to the time a guestroom is scheduled to be occupied is not precluded by this sec- tion. Cooling that is capable of limiting relative humid- ity with a setpoint not lower than 65-percent relative humidity during unoccupied periods is not precluded by this section. C403.7.6.2 Ventilation controls. Controls shall be provided on each HVAC system that are capable of and configured to automatically turn off the ventilation and exhaust fans within 30 minutes of the occupants leav- ing the guestroom, or isolation devices shall be pro- vided to each guestroom that are capable of automatically shutting off the supply of outdoor air to and exhaust air from the guestroom. Exception: Guestroom ventilation systems are not precluded from having an automatic daily pre-occu- pancy purge cycle that provides daily outdoor air ventilation during unrented periods at the design ventilation rate for 60 minutes, or at a rate and dura- tion equivalent to one air change. C403.7.7 Shutoff dampers (Mandatory). Outdoor air intake and exhaust openings and stairway and shaft vents shall be provided with Class I motorized dampers. The dampers shall have an air leakage rate not greater than 4 cfm/ft2 (20.3 L/s • m2) of damper surface area at 1.0 inch water gauge (249 Pa) and shall be labeled by an approved agency when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D for such purpose. Outdoor air intake and exhaust dampers shall be installed with automatic controls configured to close when the systems or spaces served are not in use or during unoc- cupied period warm-up and setback operation, unless the systems served require outdoor or exhaust air in accor- dance with the International Mechanical Code or the dampers are opened to provide intentional economizer cooling. TABLE C403.7.4 ENERGY RECOVERY REQUIREMENT (Ventilation systems operating not less than 8,000 hours per year) For SI: 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s. CLIMATE ZONE PERCENT (%) OUTDOOR AIR AT FULL DESIGN AIRFLOW RATE ≥ 10% and < 20% ≥ 20% and < 30% ≥ 30% and < 40% ≥ 40% and < 50% ≥ 50% and < 60% ≥ 60% and < 70% ≥ 70% and < 80%≥ 80% Design Supply Fan Airflow Rate (cfm) 5B ≥ 2,500 ≥ 2,000 ≥ 1,000 ≥ 500 ≥ 140 ≥ 120 ≥ 100 ≥ 80> > TABLE C403.7.5 MAXIMUM NET EXHAUST FLOW RATE, CFM PER LINEAR FOOT OF HOOD LENGTH For SI:1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s; 1 foot = 305 mm. NA = Not Allowed. TYPE OF HOOD LIGHT-DUTY EQUIPMENT MEDIUM-DUTY EQUIPMENT HEAVY-DUTY EQUIPMENT EXTRA-HEAVY-DUTY EQUIPMENT Wall-mounted canopy 140 210 280 385 Single island 280 350 420 490 Double island (per side)175 210 280 385 Eyebrow 175 175 NA NA Backshelf/Pass-over 210 210 280 NA ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 287 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-45 Stairway and shaft vent dampers shall be installed with automatic controls configured to open upon the activation of any fire alarm initiating device of the building’s fire alarm system or the interruption of power to the damper. Exception: Nonmotorized gravity dampers shall be an alternative to motorized dampers for exhaust and relief openings as follows: 1. In buildings less than three stories in height above grade plane. 2.Where the design exhaust capacity is not greater than 300 cfm (142 L/s). Nonmotorized gravity dampers shall have an air leak- age rate not greater than 20 cfm/ft2 (101.6 L/s • m2) where not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in either dimension and 40 cfm/ft2 (203.2 L/s • m2) where less than 24 inches (610 mm) in either dimension. The rate of air leakage shall be determined at 1.0 inch water gauge (249 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D for such purpose. The dampers shall be labeled by an approved agency. C403.8 Fans and fan controls. Fans in HVAC systems shall comply with Sections C403.8.1 through C403.8.5.1. C403.8.1 Allowable fan horsepower (Mandatory). Each HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate horsepower exceeding 5 hp (3.7 kW) at fan system design conditions shall not exceed the allowable fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1) or fan system bhp (Option 2) shown in Table C403.8.1(1). This includes supply fans, exhaust fans, return/relief fans, and fan-powered terminal units associated with systems providing heating or cooling capability. Single-zone variable air volume systems shall comply with the constant volume fan power limitation. Exceptions: 1. Hospital, vivarium and laboratory systems that utilize flow control devices on exhaust or return to maintain space pressure relationships neces- sary for occupant health and safety or environ- mental control shall be permitted to use variable volume fan power limitation. 2. Individual exhaust fans with motor nameplate horsepower of 1 hp (0.746 kW) or less are exempt from the allowable fan horsepower requirement. C403.8.2 Motor nameplate horsepower (Mandatory). For each fan, the fan brake horsepower shall be indicated on the construction documents and the selected motor shall be not larger than the first available motor size greater than the following: 1. For fans less than 6 bhp (4413 W), 1.5 times the fan brake horsepower. 2. For fans 6 bhp (4413 W) and larger, 1.3 times the fan brake horsepower. 3. Systems complying with Section C403.8.1 fan sys- tem motor nameplate hp (Option 1). Exception: Fans with motor nameplate horsepower less than 1 hp (746 W) are exempt from this section. C403.8.3 Fan efficiency (Mandatory). Fans shall have a fan efficiency grade (FEG) of not less than 67, as deter- mined in accordance with AMCA 205 by an approved, independent testing laboratory and labeled by the manu- facturer. The total efficiency of the fan at the design point of operation shall be within 15 percentage points of the maximum total efficiency of the fan. Exception: The following fans are not required to have a fan efficiency grade: 1. Fans of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less as follows: 1.1. Individual fans with a motor nameplate horsepower of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less, unless Exception 1.2 applies. 1.2. Multiple fans in series or parallel that have a combined motor nameplate horse- power of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less and are operated as the functional equivalent of a single fan. 2. Fans that are part of equipment covered in Sec- tion C403.3.2. 3. Fans included in an equipment package certified by an approved agency for air or energy perfor- mance. 4. Powered wall/roof ventilators. 5. Fans outside the scope of AMCA 205. 6. Fans that are intended to operate only during emergency conditions. C403.8.4 Fractional hp fan motors (Mandatory). Motors for fans that are not less than 1/12 hp (0.062 kW) and less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) shall be electronically com- mutated motors or shall have a minimum motor efficiency of 70 percent, rated in accordance with DOE 10 CFR 431. These motors shall have the means to adjust motor speed for either balancing or remote control. The use of belt- driven fans to sheave adjustments for airflow balancing instead of a varying motor speed shall be permitted. Exceptions: The following motors are not required to comply with this section: 1. Motors in the airstream within fan coils and ter- minal units that only provide heating to the space served. 2. Motors in space-conditioning equipment that comply with Section C403.3.2 or Sections C403.8.1. through C403.8.3. 3. Motors that comply with Section C405.7. > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 288 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-46 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C403.8.1(1) FAN POWER LIMITATION For SI: 1 bhp = 735.5 W, 1 hp = 745.5 W, 1 cfm = 0.4719 L/s. where: CFMS = The maximum design supply airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system in cubic feet per minute. hp = The maximum combined motor nameplate horsepower. bhp = The maximum combined fan brake horsepower. A =Sum of [PD × CFMD / 4131]. where: PD = Each applicable pressure drop adjustment from Table C403.8.1(2) in. w.c. CFMD = The design airflow through each applicable device from Table C403.8.1(2) in cubic feet per minute. LIMIT CONSTANT VOLUME VARIABLE VOLUME Option 1: Fan system motor nameplate hp Allowable nameplate motor hp hp ≤ CFMS × 0.0011 hp ≤ CFMS × 0.0015 Option 2: Fan system bhp Allowable fan system bhp bhp ≤ CFMS × 0.00094 + A bhp ≤ CFMS × 0.0013 + A TABLE C403.8.1(2) FAN POWER LIMITATION PRESSURE DROP ADJUSTMENT For SI: 1 inch w.c. = 249 Pa, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. w.c. = water column, NC = Noise criterion. DEVICE ADJUSTMENT Credits Return air or exhaust systems required by code or accreditation standards to be fully ducted, or systems required to maintain air pressure differentials between adjacent rooms 0.5 inch w.c. (2.15 inches w.c. for laboratory and vivarium systems) Return and exhaust airflow control devices 0.5 inch w.c. Exhaust filters, scrubbers or other exhaust treatment The pressure drop of device calculated at fan system design condition Particulate filtration credit: MERV 9 thru 12 0.5 inch w.c. Particulate filtration credit: MERV 13 thru 15 0.9 inch w.c. Particulate filtration credit: MERV 16 and greater and electronically enhanced filters Pressure drop calculated at 2x clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition. Carbon and other gas-phase air cleaners Clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition. Biosafety cabinet Pressure drop of device at fan system design condition. Energy recovery device, other than coil runaround loop For each airstream, (2.2 × energy recovery effectiveness – 0.5) inch w.c. Coil runaround loop 0.6 inch w.c. for each airstream. Evaporative humidifier/cooler in series with another cooling coil Pressure drop of device at fan system design conditions. Sound attenuation section (fans serving spaces with design background noise goals below NC35)0.15 inch w.c. Exhaust system serving fume hoods 0.35 inch w.c. Laboratory and vivarium exhaust systems in high-rise buildings 0.25 inch w.c./100 feet of vertical duct exceeding 75 feet. Deductions Systems without central cooling device - 0.6 inch w.c. Systems without central heating device - 0.3 inch w.c. Systems with central electric resistance heat - 0.2 inch w.c. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 289 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-47 C403.8.5 Low-capacity ventilation fans. Mechanical ventilation system fans less than 1/12 horsepower in capac- ity shall meet the efficacy requirements of Table C403.8.5. Exceptions: 1. Where ventilation fans are a component of a listed heating or cooling appliance. 2. Dryer exhaust duct power ventilators, domestic range hoods and domestic range booster fans that operate intermittently. TABLE C403.8.5 MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM FAN EFFICACY C403.8.6 Fan control. Controls shall be provided for fans in accordance with Section C403.8.6.1 and as required for specific systems provided in Section C403. C403.8.6.1 Fan airflow control. Each cooling system listed in Table C403.8.6.1 shall be designed to vary the indoor fan airflow as a function of load and shall com- ply with the following requirements: 1. Direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling units that control the capacity of the mechanical cooling directly based on space temperature shall have not fewer than two stages of fan control. Low or minimum speed shall not be greater than 66 percent of full speed. At low or minimum speed, the fan system shall draw not more than 40 percent of the fan power at full fan speed. Low or minimum speed shall be used during periods of low cooling load and ventilation-only operation. 2. Other units including DX cooling units and chilled water units that control the space tempera- ture by modulating the airflow to the space shall have modulating fan control. Minimum speed shall be not greater than 50 percent of full speed. At minimum speed the fan system shall draw not more than 30 percent of the power at full fan speed. Low or minimum speed shall be used during periods of low cooling load and ventila- tion-only operation. 3. Units that include an air-side economizer in accordance with Section C403.5 shall have not fewer than two speeds of fan control during econ- omizer operation. Exceptions: 1.Modulating fan control is not required for chilled water and evaporative cooling units with fan motors of less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) where the units are not used to provide ventila- tion air and the indoor fan cycles with the load. 2. Where the volume of outdoor air required to comply with the ventilation requirements of the International Mechanical Code at low speed exceeds the air that would be delivered at the speed defined in Section C403.8.6, the minimum speed shall be selected to provide the required ventilation air. TABLE C403.8.6.1 COOLING SYSTEMS For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W; 1 hp = 0.746 kW. C403.9 Heat rejection equipment. Heat rejection equip- ment, including air-cooled condensers, dry coolers, open-cir- cuit cooling towers, closed-circuit cooling towers and evaporative condensers, shall comply with this section. Exception: Heat rejection devices where energy usage is included in the equipment efficiency ratings listed in Tables C403.3.2(6) and C403.3.2(7). C403.9.1 Fan speed control. Each fan system powered by an individual motor or array of motors with connected power, including the motor service factor, totaling 5 hp (3.7 kW) or more shall have controls and devices config- ured to automatically modulate the fan speed to control the leaving fluid temperature or condensing temperature and pressure of the heat rejection device. Fan motor power input shall be not more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of the design airflow. Exceptions: 1. Fans serving multiple refrigerant or fluid cooling circuits. 2. Condenser fans serving flooded condensers. C403.9.2 Multiple-cell heat rejection equipment. Multi- ple-cell heat rejection equipment with variable speed fan drives shall be controlled to operate the maximum number of fans allowed that comply with the manufacturer’s requirements for all system components and so that all fans operate at the same fan speed required for the instan- taneous cooling duty, as opposed to staged on and off operation. The minimum fan speed shall be the minimum allowable speed of the fan drive system in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. C403.9.3 Limitation on centrifugal fan open-circuit cooling towers. Centrifugal fan open-circuit cooling tow- ers with a combined rated capacity of 1,100 gpm (4164 L/ m) or greater at 95°F (35°C) condenser water return, 85°F (29°C) condenser water supply, and 75°F (24°C) outdoor air wet-bulb temperature shall meet the energy efficiency FAN LOCATION AIR FLOW RATE MINIMUM (CFM) MINIMUM EFFICACY (CFM/WATT) AIR FLOW RATE MAXIMUM (CFM) HRV or ERV Any 1.2 cfm/watt Any In-line fan Any 3.8 cfm/watt Any Bathroom, utility room 10 2.8 cfm/watt < 90 Bathroom, utility room 90 3.5 cfm/watt Any COOLING SYSTEM TYPE FAN MOTOR SIZE MECHANICAL COOLING CAPACITY DX cooling Any ≥ 65,000 Btu/h Chilled water and evaporative cooling ≥ 1/4 hp Any ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 290 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-48 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE requirement for axial fan open-circuit cooling towers listed in Table C403.3.2(8). Exception: Centrifugal open-circuit cooling towers that are designed with inlet or discharge ducts or require external sound attenuation. C403.9.4 Tower flow turndown. Open-circuit cooling tow- ers used on water-cooled chiller systems that are configured with multiple- or variable-speed condenser water pumps shall be designed so that all open- circuit cooling tower cells can be run in parallel with the larger of the flow that is pro- duced by the smallest pump at its minimum expected flow rate or at 50 percent of the design flow for the cell. C403.9.5 Heat recovery for service water heating. Con- denser heat recovery shall be installed for heating or reheating of service hot water provided that the facility operates 24 hours a day, the total installed heat capacity of water-cooled systems exceeds 6,000,000 Btu/hr (1758 kW) of heat rejection, and the design service water heating load exceeds 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW). The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of the following: 1. Sixty percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions. 2. The preheating required to raise the peak service hot water draw to 85°F (29°C). Exceptions: 1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating or reheat purposes with a heat recovery design exceeding 30 percent of the peak water-cooled condenser load at design conditions. 2. Facilities that provide 60 percent of their service water heating from site solar or site recovered energy or from other sources. C403.10 Refrigeration equipment performance. Refrigera- tion equipment shall have an energy use in kWh/day not greater than the values of Tables C403.10.1(1) and C403.10.1(2) when tested and rated in accordance with AHRI Standard 1200. The energy use shall be verified through certi- fication under an approved certification program or, where a certification program does not exist, the energy use shall be supported by data furnished by the equipment manufacturer. C403.10.1 Walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refriger- ated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers (Mandatory). Refrigerated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with this section. Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers that are neither site assembled nor site constructed shall comply with the following: 1. Be equipped with automatic door-closers that firmly close walk-in doors that have been closed to within 1 inch (25 mm) of full closure. Exception: Automatic closers are not required for doors more than 45 inches (1143 mm) in width or more than 7 feet (2134 mm) in height. 2. Doorways shall have strip doors, curtains, spring- hinged doors or other method of minimizing infil- tration when doors are open. 3.Walk-in coolers and refrigerated warehouse cool- ers shall contain wall, ceiling, and door insulation of not less than R-25 and walk-in freezers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall contain wall, ceiling and door insulation of not less than R-32. Exception: Glazed portions of doors or struc- tural members need not be insulated. 4.Walk-in freezers shall contain floor insulation of not less than R-28. 5. Transparent reach-in doors for walk-in freezers and windows in walk-in freezer doors shall be of triple-pane glass, either filled with inert gas or with heat-reflective treated glass. 6. Windows and transparent reach-in doors for walk- in coolers shall be of double-pane or triple-pane, inert gas-filled, heat-reflective treated glass. 7. Evaporator fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) and less than 460 volts shall use elec- tronically commutated motors, brushless direct- current motors, or 3-phase motors. 8. Condenser fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) shall use electronically commutated motors, permanent split capacitor-type motors or 3-phase motors. 9. Where antisweat heaters without antisweat heater controls are provided, they shall have a total door rail, glass and frame heater power draw of not more than 7.1 W/ft2 (76 W/m2) of door opening for walk-in freezers and 3.0 W/ft2 (32 W/m2) of door opening for walk-in coolers. 10. Where antisweat heater controls are provided, they shall reduce the energy use of the antisweat heater as a function of the relative humidity in the air outside the door or to the condensation on the inner glass pane. 11. Lights in walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refrig- erated warehouse coolers and refrigerated ware- house freezers shall either use light sources with an efficacy of not less than 40 lumens per watt, includ- ing ballast losses, or shall use light sources with an efficacy of not less than 40 lumens per watt, includ- ing ballast losses, in conjunction with a device that turns off the lights within 15 minutes when the space is not occupied. C403.10.2 Walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers (Man- datory). Site-assembled or site-constructed walk-in cool- ers and walk-in freezers shall comply with the following: 1. Automatic door closers shall be provided that fully close walk-in doors that have been closed to within 1 inch (25 mm) of full closure. Exception: Closers are not required for doors more than 45 inches (1143 mm) in width or more than 7 feet (2134 mm) in height. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 291 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-49 2. Doorways shall be provided with strip doors, cur- tains, spring-hinged doors or other method of min- imizing infiltration when the doors are open. 3. Walls shall be provided with insulation having a thermal resistance of not less than R-25, ceilings shall be provided with insulation having a thermal resistance of not less than R-25 and doors of walk- in coolers and walk-in freezers shall be provided with insulation having a thermal resistance of not less than R-32. Exception: Insulation is not required for glazed portions of doors or at structural members asso- ciated with the walls, ceiling or door frame. 4. The floor of walk-in freezers shall be provided with insulation having a thermal resistance of not less than R-28. 5. Transparent reach-in doors for and windows in opaque walk-in freezer doors shall be provided with triple-pane glass having the interstitial spaces filled with inert gas or provided with heat-reflec- tive treated glass. 6. Transparent reach-in doors for and windows in opaque walk-in cooler doors shall be double-pane heat-reflective treated glass having the interstitial space gas filled. 7. Evaporator fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) and less than 460 volts shall be elec- tronically commutated motors or 3-phase motors. 8. Condenser fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.746 kW) in capacity shall be of the electroni- cally commutated or permanent split capacitor- type or shall be 3-phase motors. Exception: Fan motors in walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers combined in a single enclo- sure greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in floor area are exempt. 9. Antisweat heaters that are not provided with anti- sweat heater controls shall have a total door rail, glass and frame heater power draw not greater than 7.1 W/ft2 (76 W/m2) of door opening for walk-in freezers, and not greater than 3.0 W/ft2 (32 W/m2) of door opening for walk-in coolers. 10. Antisweat heater controls shall be configured to reduce the energy use of the antisweat heater as a function of the relative humidity in the air outside the door or to the condensation on the inner glass pane. 11. Light sources shall have an efficacy of not less than 40 lumens per Watt, including any ballast losses, or shall be provided with a device that automatically turns off the lights within 15 min- utes of when the walk-in cooler or walk-in freezer was last occupied. C403.10.2.1 Performance standards (Mandatory). Effective January 1, 2020, walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers shall meet the requirements of Tables C403.10.2.1(1), C403.10.2.1(2) and C403.10.2.1(3). C403.10.3 Refrigerated display cases (Mandatory). Site-assembled or site-constructed refrigerated display cases shall comply with the following: 1. Lighting and glass doors in refrigerated display cases shall be controlled by one of the following: 1.1. Time-switch controls to turn off lights during nonbusiness hours. Timed overrides for display cases shall turn the lights on for up to 1 hour and shall automatically time out to turn the lights off. 1.2. Motion sensor controls on each display case section that reduce lighting power by not less than 50 percent within 3 minutes after the area within the sensor range is vacated. 2. Low-temperature display cases shall incorporate temperature-based defrost termination control with a time-limit default. The defrost cycle shall terminate first on an upper temperature limit breach and sec- ond upon a time limit breach. 3. Antisweat heater controls shall reduce the energy use of the antisweat heater as a function of the rela- tive humidity in the air outside the door or to the condensation on the inner glass pane. C403.10.4 Refrigeration systems. Refrigerated display cases, walk-in coolers or walk-in freezers that are served by remote compressors and remote condensers not located in a condensing unit, shall comply with Sections C403.10.4.1 and C403.10.4.2. Exception: Systems where the working fluid in the refrigeration cycle goes through both subcritical and super-critical states (transcritical) or that use ammonia refrigerant are exempt. TABLE C403.10.1(1) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION a. V = volume of the chiller or frozen compartment as defined in AHAM-HRF-1. EQUIPMENT TYPE APPLICATION ENERGY USE LIMITS (kWh per day)a TEST PROCEDURE Refrigerator with solid doors Holding Temperature 0.10 × V + 2.04 AHRI 1200 Refrigerator with transparent doors 0.12 × V + 3.34 Freezers with solid doors 0.40 × V + 1.38 Freezers with transparent doors 0.75 × V + 4.10 Refrigerators/freezers with solid doors the greater of 0.12 × V + 3.34 or 0.70 Commercial refrigerators Pulldown 0.126 × V + 3.51 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 292 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-50 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C403.10.1(2) MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS (continued) EQUIPMENT TYPE ENERGY USE LIMITS (kWh/day)a, b TEST PROCEDUREEquipment Classc Family Code Operating Mode Rating Temperature VOP.RC.M Vertical open Remote condensing Medium 0.82 × TDA + 4.07 AHRI 1200 SVO.RC.M Semivertical open Remote condensing Medium 0.83 × TDA + 3.18 HZO.RC.M Horizontal open Remote condensing Medium 0.35 × TDA + 2.88 VOP.RC.L Vertical open Remote condensing Low 2.27 × TDA + 6.85 HZO.RC.L Horizontal open Remote condensing Low 0.57 × TDA + 6.88 VCT.RC.M Vertical transparent door Remote condensing Medium 0.22 × TDA + 1.95 VCT.RC.L Vertical transparent door Remote condensing Low 0.56 × TDA + 2.61 SOC.RC.M Service over counter Remote condensing Medium 0.51 × TDA + 0.11 VOP.SC.M Vertical open Self-contained Medium 1.74 × TDA + 4.71 SVO.SC.M Semivertical open Self-contained Medium 1.73 × TDA + 4.59 HZO.SC.M Horizontal open Self-contained Medium 0.77 × TDA + 5.55 HZO.SC.L Horizontal open Self-contained Low 1.92 × TDA + 7.08 VCT.SC.I Vertical transparent door Self-contained Ice cream 0.67 × TDA + 3.29 VCS.SC.I Vertical solid door Self-contained Ice cream 0.38 × V + 0.88 HCT.SC.I Horizontal transparent door Self-contained Ice cream 0.56 × TDA + 0.43 SVO.RC.L Semivertical open Remote condensing Low 2.27 × TDA + 6.85 VOP.RC.I Vertical open Remote condensing Ice cream 2.89 × TDA + 8.7 SVO.RC.I Semivertical open Remote condensing Ice cream 2.89 × TDA + 8.7 HZO.RC.I Horizontal open Remote condensing Ice cream 0.72 × TDA + 8.74 VCT.RC.I Vertical transparent door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.66 × TDA + 3.05 HCT.RC.M Horizontal transparent door Remote condensing Medium 0.16 × TDA + 0.13 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 293 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-51 TABLE C403.10.1(2)—continued MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS: COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS a. V = Volume of the case, as measured in accordance with Appendix C of AHRI 1200. b. TDA = Total display area of the case, as measured in accordance with Appendix D of AHRI 1200. c. Equipment class designations consist of a combination [in sequential order separated by periods (AAA).(BB).(C)] of: (AAA) An equipment family code where: VOP = vertical open SVO = semivertical open HZO = horizontal open HCT = horizontal transparent doors HCS = horizontal solid doors SOC = service over counter (BB) An operating mode code: RC = remote condensing SC = self-contained (C) A rating temperature code: M = medium temperature (38°F) L = low temperature (0°F) I = ice-cream temperature (15°F) For example, “VOP.RC.M” refers to the “vertical-open, remote-condensing, medium-temperature” equipment class. EQUIPMENT TYPE ENERGY USE LIMITS (kWh/day)a, b TEST PROCEDUREEquipment Classc Family Code Operating Mode Rating Temperature HCT.RC.L Horizontal transparent door Remote condensing Low 0.34 × TDA + 0.26 AHRI 1200 HCT.RC.I Horizontal transparent door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.4 × TDA + 0.31 VCS.RC.M Vertical solid door Remote condensing Medium 0.11 × V + 0.26 VCS.RC.L Vertical solid door Remote condensing Low 0.23 × V + 0.54 VCS.RC.I Vertical solid door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.27 × V + 0.63 HCS.RC.M Horizontal solid door Remote condensing Medium 0.11 × V + 0.26 HCS.RC.L Horizontal solid door Remote condensing Low 0.23 × V + 0.54 HCS.RC.I Horizontal solid door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.27 × V + 0.63 HCS.RC.I Horizontal solid door Remote condensing Ice cream 0.27 × V + 0.63 SOC.RC.L Service over counter Remote condensing Low 1.08 × TDA + 0.22 SOC.RC.I Service over counter Remote condensing Ice cream 1.26 × TDA + 0.26 VOP.SC.L Vertical open Self-contained Low 4.37 × TDA + 11.82 VOP.SC.I Vertical open Self-contained Ice cream 5.55 × TDA + 15.02 SVO.SC.L Semivertical open Self-contained Low 4.34 × TDA + 11.51 SVO.SC.I Semivertical open Self-contained Ice cream 5.52 × TDA + 14.63 HZO.SC.I Horizontal open Self-contained Ice cream 2.44 × TDA + 9.0 SOC.SC.I Service over counter Self-contained Ice cream 1.76 × TDA + 0.36 HCS.SC.I Horizontal solid door Self-contained Ice cream 0.38 × V + 0.88 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 294 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-52 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C403.10.4.1 Condensers serving refrigeration sys- tems. Fan-powered condensers shall comply with the following: 1. The design saturated condensing temperatures for air-cooled condensers shall not exceed the design dry-bulb temperature plus 10°F (5.6°C) for low-temperature refrigeration systems, and the design dry- bulb temperature plus 15°F (8°C) for medium temperature refrigeration systems where the saturated condensing temperature for blend refrigerants shall be determined using the average of liquid and vapor temperatures as con- verted from the condenser drain pressure. 2. Condenser fan motors that are less than 1 hp (0.75 kW) shall use electronically commutated motors, permanent split-capacitor-type motors or 3-phase motors. 3. Condenser fans for air-cooled condensers, evapo- ratively cooled condensers, air- or water-cooled fluid coolers or cooling towers shall reduce fan motor demand to not more than 30 percent of design wattage at 50 percent of design air vol- ume, and incorporate one of the following contin- uous variable speed fan control approaches: 3.1. Refrigeration system condenser control for air-cooled condensers shall use vari- able setpoint control logic to reset the condensing temperature setpoint in response to ambient dry-bulb tempera- ture. 3.2. Refrigeration system condenser control for evaporatively cooled condensers shall use variable setpoint control logic to reset the condensing temperature setpoint in response to ambient wet-bulb tempera- ture. 4. Multiple fan condensers shall be controlled in unison. 5. The minimum condensing temperature setpoint shall be not greater than 70˚F (21˚C). C403.10.4.2 Compressor systems. Refrigeration com- pressor systems shall comply with the following: 1. Compressors and multiple-compressor system suction groups shall include control systems that use floating suction pressure control logic to reset the target suction pressure temperature based on the temperature requirements of the attached refrigeration display cases or walk-ins. Exception: Controls are not required for the following: 1. Single-compressor systems that do not have variable capacity capability. 2. Suction groups that have a design saturated suction temperature of 30˚F (- 1.1˚C) or higher, suction groups that comprise the high stage of a two-stage or cascade system, or suction groups that primarily serve chillers for secondary cooling fluids. TABLE C403.10.2.1(1) WALK-IN COOLER AND FREEZER DISPLAY DOOR EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTSa a. Add is the surface area of the display door. TABLE C403.10.2.1(2) WALK-IN COOLER AND FREEZER NONDISPLAY DOOR EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTSa a. And is the surface area of the nondisplay door. TABLE C403.10.2.1(3) WALK-IN COOLER AND FREEZER REFRIGERATION SYSTEM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS CLASS DESCRIPTOR CLASS MAXIMUM ENERGY CONSUMPTION (kWh/day)a Display door, medium temperature DD, M 0.04 × Add + 0.41 Display door, low temperature DD, L 0.15 × Add + 0.29 CLASS DESCRIPTOR CLASS MAXIMUM ENERGY CONSUMPTION (kWh/day)a Passage door, medium temperature PD, M 0.05 × And + 1.7 Passage door, low temperature PD, L 0.14 × And + 4.8 Freight door, medium temperature FD, M 0.04 × And + 1.9 Freight door, low temperature FD, L 0.12 × And + 5.6 CLASS DESCRIPTOR CLASS MINIMUM ANNUAL WALK-IN ENERGY FACTOR AWEF (Btu/W-h) Dedicated condensing, medium temperature, indoor system DC.M.I 5.61 Dedicated condensing, medium temperature, indoor system, > 9,000 Btu/h capacity DC.M.I, > 9,000 5.61 Dedicated condensing, medium temperature, outdoor system DC.M.I 7.60 Dedicated condensing, medium temperature, outdoor system, > 9,000 Btu/h capacity DC.M.I, > 9,000 7.60 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 295 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-53 2. Liquid subcooling shall be provided for all low- temperature compressor systems with a design cooling capacity equal to or greater than 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) with a design-saturated suction temperature of -10˚F (-23˚C) or lower. The sub- cooled liquid temperature shall be controlled at a maximum temperature setpoint of 50˚F (10˚C) at the exit of the subcooler using either compressor economizer (interstage) ports or a separate com- pressor suction group operating at a saturated suction temperature of 18˚F (-7.8˚C) or higher. 2.1. Insulation for liquid lines with a fluid oper- ating temperature less than 60˚F (15.6˚C) shall comply with Table C403.11.3. 3. Compressors that incorporate internal or external crankcase heaters shall provide a means to cycle the heaters off during compressor operation. C403.11 Construction of HVAC system elements (Manda- tory). Ducts, plenums, piping and other elements that are part of an HVAC system shall be constructed and insulated in accordance with Sections C403.11.1 through C403.11.3.1. C403.11.1 Duct and plenum insulation and sealing (Mandatory). Supply and return air ducts and plenums shall be insulated with not less than R-6 insulation where located in unconditioned spaces and where located outside the building with not less than R-12 insulation. Where located within a building envelope assembly, the duct or plenum shall be separated from the building exterior or unconditioned or exempt spaces by not less than R-12 insulation. Exceptions: 1. Where located within equipment. 2. Where the design temperature difference between the interior and exterior of the duct or plenum is not greater than 15°F (8°C). Ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section 603.9 of the International Mechanical Code. C403.11.2 Duct construction (Mandatory). Ductwork shall be constructed and erected in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. C403.11.2.1 Low-pressure duct systems (Manda- tory). Longitudinal and transverse joints, seams and connections of supply and return ducts operating at a static pressure less than or equal to 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (498 Pa) shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), mas- tic-plus-embedded-fabric systems or tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Pres- sure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exception: Locking-type longitudinal joints and seams, other than the snap-lock and button-lock types, need not be sealed as specified in this section. C403.11.2.2 Medium-pressure duct systems (Manda- tory). Ducts and plenums designed to operate at a static pressure greater than 2 inches water gauge (w.g.) (498 Pa) but less than 3 inches w.g. (747 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.11.1. Pres- sure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. C403.11.2.3 High-pressure duct systems (Manda- tory). Ducts and plenums designed to operate at static pressures equal to or greater than 3 inches water gauge (747 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section C403.11.1. In addition, ducts and plenums shall be leak tested in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual and shown to have a rate of air leakage (CL) less than or equal to 4.0 as determined in accordance with Equation 4-7. CL = F/P0.65 (Equation 4-7) where: F = The measured leakage rate in cfm per 100 square feet of duct surface. P = The static pressure of the test. Documentation shall be furnished by the designer demonstrating that representative sections totaling not less than 25 percent of the duct area have been tested and that all tested sections comply with the require- ments of this section. C403.11.3 Piping insulation (Mandatory). Piping serv- ing as part of a heating or cooling system shall be ther- mally insulated in accordance with Table C403.11.3. Exceptions: 1. Factory-installed piping within HVAC equip- ment tested and rated in accordance with a test procedure referenced by this code. 2. Factory-installed piping within room fan-coils and unit ventilators tested and rated according to AHRI 440 (except that the sampling and varia- tion provisions of Section 6.5 shall not apply) and AHRI 840, respectively. 3. Piping that conveys fluids that have a design operating temperature range between 60°F (15°C) and 105°F (41°C). 4. Piping that conveys fluids that have not been heated or cooled through the use of fossil fuels or electric power. 5. Strainers, control valves, and balancing valves associated with piping 1 inch (25 mm) or less in diameter. 6. Direct buried piping that conveys fluids at or below 60°F (15°C). C403.11.3.1 Protection of piping insulation (Manda- tory). Piping insulation exposed to the weather shall be protected from damage, including that caused by sun- light, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind, and shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesive tape shall not be permitted. > > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 296 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-54 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C403.12 Mechanical systems located outside of the build- ing thermal envelope (Mandatory). Mechanical systems providing heat outside of the thermal envelope of a building shall comply with Sections C403.12.1 through C403.12.3. C403.12.1 Heating outside a building. Systems installed to provide heat outside a building shall be radiant systems. Such heating systems shall be controlled by an occu- pancy sensing device or a timer switch, so that the system is automatically de-energized when occupants are not present. C403.12.2 Snow- and ice-melt system controls. Snow- and ice-melting systems shall include automatic controls configured to shut off the system when the pavement tem- perature is above 50°F (10°C) and precipitation is not fall- ing, and an automatic or manual control that is configured to shut off when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F (4°C). C403.12.3 Freeze protection system controls. Freeze protection systems, such as heat tracing of outdoor piping and heat exchangers, including self-regulating heat trac- ing, shall include automatic controls configured to shut off the systems when outdoor air temperatures are above 40°F (4°C) or when the conditions of the protected fluid will prevent freezing. SECTION C404 SERVICE WATER HEATING (MANDATORY) C404.1 General. This section covers the minimum efficiency of, and controls for, service water-heating equipment and insulation of service hot water piping. C404.2 Service water-heating equipment performance efficiency. Water-heating equipment and hot water storage tanks shall meet the requirements of Table C404.2. The effi- ciency shall be verified through data furnished by the manu- facturer of the equipment or through certification under an approved certification program. Water-heating equipment intended to be used to provide space heating shall meet the applicable provisions of Table C404.2. C404.2.1 High input service water-heating systems. Gas-fired water-heating equipment installed in new build- ings shall be in compliance with this section. Where a sin- gular piece of water-heating equipment serves the entire building and the input rating of the equipment is 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW) or greater, such equipment shall have a thermal efficiency, Et, of not less than 92 percent. Where multiple pieces of water-heating equipment serve the building and the combined input rating of the water-heat- ing equipment is 1,000,000 Btu/h (293 kW) or greater, the combined input-capacity-weighted-average thermal effi- ciency, Et, shall be not less than 90 percent. Exceptions: 1. Where not less than 25 percent of the annual ser- vice water-heating requirement is provided by on- site renewable energy or site-recovered energy, the minimum thermal efficiency requirements of this section shall not apply. 2. The input rating of water heaters installed in indi- vidual dwelling units shall not be required to be included in the total input rating of service water- heating equipment for a building. TABLE C403.11.3 MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION THICKNESS (in inches)a, c For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8. a. For piping smaller than 1 1/2 inches and located in partitions within conditioned spaces, reduction of these thicknesses by 1 inch shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b) but not to a thickness less than 1 inch. b. For insulation outside the stated conductivity range, the minimum thickness (T) shall be determined as follows: T =r [(1 + t/r)K/k – 1] where: T = minimum insulation thickness, r = actual outside radius of pipe, t = insulation thickness listed in the table for applicable fluid temperature and pipe size, K = conductivity of alternate material at mean rating temperature indicated for the applicable fluid temperature (Btu • in/h • ft 2 • °F) and k = the upper value of the conductivity range listed in the table for the applicable fluid temperature. c. For direct-buried heating and hot water system piping, reduction of these thicknesses by 11/2 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted (before thickness adjustment required in footnote b but not to thicknesses less than 1 inch. FLUID OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGE AND USAGE (°F) INSULATION CONDUCTIVITY NOMINAL PIPE OR TUBE SIZE (inches) Conductivity Btu • in./(h • ft2 • °F)b Mean Rating Temperature, °F < 11 to < 11/2 11/2 to < 44 to < 8 ≥ 8 > 350 0.32 – 0.34 250 4.5 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 251 – 350 0.29 – 0.32 200 3.0 4.0 4.5 4.5 4.5 201 – 250 0.27 – 0.30 150 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 141 – 200 0.25 – 0.29 125 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2.0 105 – 140 0.21 – 0.28 100 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 40 – 60 0.21 – 0.27 75 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 < 40 0.20 – 0.26 50 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 297 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-55 3. The input rating of water heaters with an input rating of not greater than 100,000 Btu/h (29.3 kW) shall not be required to be included in the total input rating of service water-heating equip- ment for a building. C404.3 Heat traps for hot water storage tanks. Storage tank-type water heaters and hot water storage tanks that have vertical water pipes connecting to the inlet and outlet of the tank shall be provided with integral heat traps at those inlets and outlets or shall have pipe-configured heat traps in the pip- ing connected to those inlets and outlets. Tank inlets and out- lets associated with solar water-heating system circulation loops shall not be required to have heat traps. C404.4 Insulation of piping. Piping from a water heater to the termination of the heated water fixture supply pipe shall be insulated in accordance with Table C403.11.3. On both the inlet and outlet piping of a storage water heater or heated water storage tank, the piping to a heat trap or the first 8 feet (2438 mm) of piping, whichever is less, shall be insulated. Piping that is heat traced shall be insulated in accordance with Table C403.11.3 or the heat trace manufacturer’s instructions. Tubu- lar pipe insulation shall be installed in accordance with the insulation manufacturer’s instructions. Pipe insulation shall be continuous except where the piping passes through a framing member. The minimum insulation thickness requirements of this section shall not supersede any greater insulation thick- ness requirements necessary for the protection of piping from freezing temperatures or the protection of personnel against external surface temperatures on the insulation. Exception: Tubular pipe insulation shall not be required on the following: 1. The tubing from the connection at the termination of the fixture supply piping to a plumbing fixture or plumbing appliance. 2. Valves, pumps, strainers and threaded unions in pip- ing that is 1 inch (25 mm) or less in nominal diameter. 3. Piping from user-controlled shower and bath mixing valves to the water outlets. 4. Cold-water piping of a demand recirculation water system. 5. Tubing from a hot drinking-water heating unit to the water outlet. 6. Piping at locations where a vertical support of the piping is installed. 7. Piping surrounded by building insulation with a thermal resistance (R-value) of not less than R-3. C404.5 Heated water supply piping. Heated water supply piping shall be in accordance with Section C404.5.1 or C404.5.2. The flow rate through 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) piping shall be not greater than 0.5 gpm (1.9 L/m). The flow rate through 5/16-inch (7.9 mm) piping shall be not greater than 1 gpm (3.8 L/m). The flow rate through 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) pip- ing shall be not greater than 1.5 gpm (5.7 L/m). C404.5.1 Maximum allowable pipe length method. The maximum allowable piping length from the nearest source of heated water to the termination of the fixture supply pipe shall be in accordance with the following. Where the piping contains more than one size of pipe, the largest size of pipe within the piping shall be used for determining the maximum allowable length of the piping in Table C404.5.1. 1. For a public lavatory faucet, use the “Public lavatory faucets” column in Table C404.5.1. 2. For all other plumbing fixtures and plumbing appli- ances, use the “Other fixtures and appliances” col- umn in Table C404.5.1. C404.5.2 Maximum allowable pipe volume method. The water volume in the piping shall be calculated in accor- dance with Section C404.5.2.1. Water heaters, circulating water systems and heat trace temperature maintenance sys- tems shall be considered to be sources of heated water. The volume from the nearest source of heated water to the termination of the fixture supply pipe shall be as follows: 1. For a public lavatory faucet: not more than 2 ounces (0.06 L). 2. For other plumbing fixtures or plumbing appliances; not more than 0.5 gallon (1.89 L). C404.5.2.1 Water volume determination. The volume shall be the sum of the internal volumes of pipe, fittings, valves, meters and manifolds between the nearest source of heated water and the termination of the fixture supply pipe. The volume in the piping shall be determined from the “Volume” column in Table C404.5.1. The volume contained within fixture shutoff valves, within flexible water supply connectors to a fixture fitting and within a fixture fitting shall not be included in the water volume determination. Where heated water is supplied by a recirculating system or heat-traced piping, the volume shall include the portion of the fitting on the branch pipe that supplies water to the fixture. C404.6 Heated-water circulating and temperature main- tenance systems. Heated-water circulation systems shall be in accordance with Section C404.6.1. Heat trace temperature maintenance systems shall be in accordance with Section C404.6.2. Controls for hot water storage shall be in accor- dance with Section C404.6.3. Automatic controls, tempera- ture sensors and pumps shall be in a location with access. Manual controls shall be in a location with ready access. C404.6.1 Circulation systems. Heated-water circulation systems shall be provided with a circulation pump. The system return pipe shall be a dedicated return pipe or a cold water supply pipe. Gravity and thermo-syphon circu- lation systems shall be prohibited. Controls for circulating hot water system pumps shall start the pump based on the identification of a demand for hot water within the occu- pancy. The controls shall automatically turn off the pump when the water in the circulation loop is at the desired temperature and when there is not a demand for hot water. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 298 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-56 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C404.2 MINIMUM PERFORMANCE OF WATER-HEATING EQUIPMENT (continued) EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (input) SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION PERFORMANCE REQUIREDa, b TEST PROCEDURE Water heaters, electric ≤ 12 kWd Tabletope, ≥ 20 gallons and ≤ 120 gallons Resistance ≥ 20 gallons and ≤ 55 gallons Grid-enabledf > 75 gallons and ≤ 120 gallons 0.93 - 0.00132V, EF 0.960 - 0.0003V, EF 1.061 - 0.00168V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430 > 12 kW Resistance (0.3 + 27/Vm), %/h ANSI Z21.10.3 ≤ 24 amps and ≤ 250 volts Heat pump > 55 gallons and ≤ 120 gallons 2.057 - 0.00113V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430 Storage water heaters, gas ≤ 75,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gallons and ≤ 55 gallons > 55 gallons and ≤ 100 gallons 0.675 - 0.0015V, EF 0.8012 - 0.00078V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430 > 75,000 Btu/h and ≤ 155,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3 > 155,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et Instantaneous water heaters, gas > 50,000 Btu/h and < 200,000 Btu/hc ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 2 gal 0.82 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430 ≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 10 gal 80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3 ≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and ≥ 10 gal 80% Et Storage water heaters, oil ≤ 105,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gal and ≤ 50 gallons 0.68 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430 ≥ 105,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3 Instantaneous water heaters, oil ≤ 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 2 gal 0.59 - 0.0019V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430 > 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 10 gal 80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3 > 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and ≥ 10 gal 78% Et Hot water supply boilers, gas and oil ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and < 12,500,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and < 10 gal 80% Et ANSI Z21.10.3Hot water supply boilers, gas ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and < 12,500,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and ≥ 10 gal 80% Et Hot water supply boilers, oil > 300,000 Btu/h and < 12,500,000 Btu/h > 4,000 Btu/h/gal and > 10 gal 78% Et Pool heaters, gas and oil All —82% Et ASHRAE 146 Q/800 110 V+()SL, Btu/h Q/800 110 V+()SL, Btu/h Q/800 110 V+()SL, Btu/h Q/800 110 V+()SL, Btu/h Q/800 110 V+()SL, Btu/h Q/800 110 V+()SL, Btu/h Q/800 110 V+()SL, Btu/h ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 299 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-57 C404.6.2 Heat trace systems. Electric heat trace systems shall comply with IEEE 515.1. Controls for such systems shall be able to automatically adjust the energy input to the heat tracing to maintain the desired water temperature in the piping in accordance with the times when heated water is used in the occupancy. Heat trace shall be arranged to be turned off automatically when there is not a demand for hot water. C404.6.3 Controls for hot water storage. The controls on pumps that circulate water between a water heater and a heated-water storage tank shall limit operation of the TABLE C404.2—continued MINIMUM PERFORMANCE OF WATER-HEATING EQUIPMENT For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2,°C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 British thermal unit per hour per gallon = 0.078 W/L. a. Energy factor (EF) and thermal efficiency (Et) are minimum requirements. In the EF equation, V is the rated volume in gallons. b. Standby loss (SL) is the maximum Btu/h based on a nominal 70°F temperature difference between stored water and ambient requirements. In the SL equation, Q is the nameplate input rate in Btu/h. In the equations for electric water heaters, V is the rated volume in gallons and Vm is the measured volume in gallons. In the SL equation for oil and gas water heaters and boilers, V is the rated volume in gallons. c. Instantaneous water heaters with input rates below 200,000 Btu/h shall comply with these requirements where the water heater is designed to heat water to temperatures 180°F or higher. d. Electric water heaters with an input rating of 12 kW (40,950 Btu/h) or less that are designed to heat water to temperatures of 180°F or greater shall comply with the requirements for electric water heaters that have an input rating greater than 12 kW (40,950 Btu/h). e A tabletop water heater is a water heater that is enclosed in a rectangular cabinet with a flat top surface not more than 3 feet in height. f. A grid-enabled water heater is an electric resistance water heater that meets all of the following: 1. Has a rated storage tank volume of more than 75 gallons. 2. Was manufactured on or after April 16, 2015. 3. Is equipped at the point of manufacture with an activation lock. 4. Bears a permanent label applied by the manufacturer that complies with all of the following: 4.1. Is made of material not adversely affected by water. 4.2. Is attached by means of nonwater-soluble adhesive. 4.3. Advises purchasers and end users of the intended and appropriate use of the product with the following notice printed in 16.5 point Arial Narrow Bold font: “IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This water heater is intended only for use as part of an electric thermal storage or demand response program. It will not provide adequate hot water unless enrolled in such a program and activated by your utility company or another program operator. Confirm the availability of a program in your local area before purchasing or installing this product.” EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (input) SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION PERFORMANCE REQUIREDa, b TEST PROCEDURE Heat pump pool heaters All —4.0 COP AHRI 1160 Unfired storage tanks All — Minimum insulation requirement R-12.5 (h • ft2 • °F)/Btu (none) TABLE C404.5.1 PIPING VOLUME AND MAXIMUM PIPING LENGTHS For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 liquid ounce = 0.030 L, 1 gallon = 128 ounces. NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (inches) VOLUME (liquid ounces per foot length) MAXIMUM PIPING LENGTH (feet) Public lavatory faucets Other fixtures and appliances 1/4 0.33 6 50 5/16 0.5 4 50 3/8 0.75 3 50 1/2 1.5 2 43 5/8 2132 3/4 30.521 7/8 40.516 150.513 11/4 80.58 11/2 11 0.5 6 2 or larger 18 0.5 4 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 300 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-58 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE pump from heating cycle startup to not greater than 5 min- utes after the end of the cycle. C404.7 Demand recirculation controls. Demand recircula- tion water systems shall have controls that comply with both of the following: 1. The controls shall start the pump upon receiving a signal from the action of a user of a fixture or appliance, sens- ing the presence of a user of a fixture or sensing the flow of hot or tempered water to a fixture fitting or appliance. 2. The controls shall limit the temperature of the water enter- ing the cold-water piping to not greater than 104°F (40°C). C404.8 Drain water heat recovery units. Drain water heat recovery units shall comply with CSA B55.2. Potable water- side pressure loss shall be less than 10 psi (69 kPa) at maxi- mum design flow. For Group R occupancies, the efficiency of drain water heat recovery unit efficiency shall be in accor- dance with CSA B55.1. C404.9 Energy consumption of pools and permanent spas (Mandatory). The energy consumption of pools and perma- nent spas shall be controlled by the requirements in Sections C404.9.1 through C404.9.3. C404.9.1 Heaters. The electric power to all heaters shall be controlled by an on-off switch that is an integral part of the heater, mounted on the exterior of the heater, or exter- nal to and within 3 feet (914 mm) of the heater in a loca- tion with ready access. Operation of such switch shall not change the setting of the heater thermostat. Such switches shall be in addition to a circuit breaker for the power to the heater. Gas-fired heaters shall not be equipped with con- tinuously burning ignition pilots. C404.9.2 Time switches. Time switches or other control methods that can automatically turn off and on heaters and pump motors according to a preset schedule shall be installed for heaters and pump motors. Heaters and pump motors that have built-in time switches shall be in compli- ance with this section. Exceptions: 1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation. 2. Pumps that operate solar- and waste-heat-recov- ery pool heating systems. C404.9.3 Covers. Outdoor heated pools and outdoor per- manent spas shall be provided with a vapor-retardant cover or other approved vapor-retardant means. Exception: Where more than 75 percent of the energy for heating, computed over an operating season of not fewer than 3 calendar months, is from site-recovered energy such as from a heat pump or on-site renewable energy system, covers or other vapor-retardant means shall not be required. C404.10 Energy consumption of portable spas (Manda- tory). The energy consumption of electric-powered portable spas shall be controlled by the requirements of APSP 14. SECTION C405 ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS C405.1 General (Mandatory). This section covers lighting system controls, the maximum lighting power for interior and exterior applications and electrical energy consumption. C405.1.1 Lighting for dwelling units. Not less than 90 percent of the luminaires in dwelling units shall be provided by lamps with an efficacy of not less than 65 lm/W or shall be luminaires with an efficacy of not less than 45 lm/W. Exception: Lighting in accordance with Sections C405.2.4 and C405.3. C405.1.2 Lighting for refrigerated applications. Light- ing installed in walk-in coolers, walk-in freezers, refriger- ated warehouse coolers and refrigerated warehouse freezers shall comply with the lighting requirements of Section C403.10.1 or C403.10.2. C405.2 Lighting controls (Mandatory). Lighting systems shall be provided with controls that comply with one of the following. 1. Lighting controls as specified in Sections C405.2.1 through C405.2.6. 2. Luminaire level lighting controls (LLLC) and lighting controls as specified in Sections C405.2.1, C405.2.4 and C405.2.5. The LLLC luminaire shall be inde- pendently capable of: 2.1. Monitoring occupant activity to brighten or dim lighting when occupied or unoccupied, respec- tively. 2.2. Monitoring ambient light, both electric light and daylight, and brighten or dim artificial light to maintain desired light level. 2.3. For each control strategy, configuration and reconfiguration of performance parameters including; bright and dim setpoints, timeouts, dimming fade rates, sensor sensitivity adjust- ments, and wireless zoning configurations. Exceptions: Lighting controls are not required for the fol- lowing: 1. Areas designated as security or emergency areas that are required to be continuously lighted. 2. Interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps and exit passageways. 3. Emergency egress lighting that is normally off. C405.2.1 Occupant sensor controls. Occupant sensor controls shall be installed to control lights in the following space types: 1. Classrooms/lecture/training rooms. 2. Conference/meeting/multipurpose rooms. 3. Copy/print rooms. 4. Lounges/breakrooms. 5. Enclosed offices. 6. Open plan office areas. 7. Restrooms. 8. Storage rooms.>ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 301 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-59 9. Locker rooms. 10. Other spaces 300 square feet (28 m 2) or less that are enclosed by floor-to-ceiling height partitions. 11. Warehouse storage areas. C405.2.1.1 Occupant sensor control function. Occu- pant sensor controls in warehouses shall comply with Section C405.2.1.2. Occupant sensor controls in open plan office areas shall comply with Section C405.2.1.3. Occupant sensor controls for all other spaces specified in Section C405.2.1 shall comply with the following: 1. They shall automatically turn off lights within 20 minutes after all occupants have left the space. 2. They shall be manual on or controlled to auto- matically turn on the lighting to not more than 50- percent power. Exception: Full automatic-on controls shall be permitted to control lighting in public corridors, stairways, restrooms, primary building entrance areas and lobbies, and areas where manual-on operation would endanger the safety or security of the room or building occupants. 3. They shall incorporate a manual control to allow occupants to turn off lights. C405.2.1.2 Occupant sensor control function in warehouses. In warehouses, the lighting in aisleways and open areas shall be controlled with occupant sen- sors that automatically reduce lighting power by not less than 50 percent when the areas are unoccupied. The occupant sensors shall control lighting in each aisleway independently and shall not control lighting beyond the aisleway being controlled by the sensor. C405.2.1.3 Occupant sensor control function in open plan office areas. Occupant sensor controls in open plan office spaces less than 300 square feet (28 m2) in area shall comply with Section C405.2.1.1. Occupant sensor controls in all other open plan office spaces shall comply with all of the following: 1. The controls shall be configured so that general lighting can be controlled separately in control zones with floor areas not greater than 600 square feet (55 m2) within the open plan office space. 2. The controls shall automatically turn off general lighting in all control zones within 20 minutes after all occupants have left the open plan office space. 3. The controls shall be configured so that general lighting power in each control zone is reduced by not less than 80 percent of the full zone general lighting power in a reasonably uniform illumina- tion pattern within 20 minutes of all occupants leaving that control zone. Control functions that switch control zone lights completely off when the zone is vacant meet this requirement. 4. The controls shall be configured such that any daylight responsive control will activate open plan office space general lighting or control zone general lighting only when occupancy for the same area is detected. C405.2.2 Time-switch controls. Each area of the building that is not provided with occupant sensor controls com- plying with Section C405.2.1.1 shall be provided with time-switch controls complying with Section C405.2.2.1. Exception: Where a manual control provides light reduction in accordance with Section C405.2.2.2, time- switch controls shall not be required for the following: 1. Spaces where patient care is directly provided. 2. Spaces where an automatic shutoff would endan- ger occupant safety or security. 3. Lighting intended for continuous operation. 4. Shop and laboratory classrooms. C405.2.2.1 Time-switch control function. Each space provided with time-switch controls shall be provided with a manual control for light reduction in accordance with Section C405.2.2.2. Time-switch controls shall include an override switching device that complies with the following: 1. Have a minimum 7-day clock. 2. Be capable of being set for seven different day types per week. 3. Incorporate an automatic holiday “shutoff” fea- ture, which turns off all controlled lighting loads for not fewer than 24 hours and then resumes nor- mally scheduled operations. 4. Have program backup capabilities, which prevent the loss of program and time settings for not fewer than 10 hours, if power is interrupted. 5. Include an override switch that complies with the following: 5.1. The override switch shall be a manual control. 5.2. The override switch, when initiated, shall permit the controlled lighting to remain on for not more than 2 hours. 5.3. Any individual override switch shall con- trol the lighting for an area not larger than 5,000 square feet (465 m2). Exceptions: 1. Within mall concourses, auditoriums, sales areas, manufacturing facilities and sports arenas: 1.1. The time limit shall be permitted to be greater than 2 hours, provided that the switch is a captive key device. 1.2. The area controlled by the override switch shall not be limited to 5,000 square feet (465 m2) provided that such area is less than 20,000 square feet (1860 m2). 2. Where provided with manual control, the fol- lowing areas are not required to have light reduction control: 2.1. Spaces that have only one luminaire with a rated power of less than 100 watts. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 302 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-60 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 2.2. Spaces that use less than 0.6 watts per square foot (6.5 W/m2). 2.3. Corridors, lobbies, electrical rooms and or mechanical rooms. C405.2.2.2 Light-reduction controls. Spaces required to have light-reduction controls shall have a manual control that allows the occupant to reduce the con- nected lighting load in a reasonably uniform illumina- tion pattern by not less than 50 percent. Lighting reduction shall be achieved by one of the following or another approved method: 1. Controlling all lamps or luminaires. 2. Dual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate luminaires or alternate lamps. 3. Switching the middle lamp luminaires inde- pendently of the outer lamps. 4. Switching each luminaire or each lamp. Exception: Light reduction controls are not required in daylight zones with daylight responsive controls complying with Section C405.2.3. C405.2.3 Daylight-responsive controls. Daylight-respon- sive controls complying with Section C405.2.3.1 shall be provided to control the electric lights within daylight zones in the following spaces: 1. Spaces with a total of more than 150 watts of general lighting within sidelit zones complying with Section C405.2.3.2 General lighting does not include light- ing that is required to have specific application con- trol in accordance with Section C405.2.4. 2. Spaces with a total of more than 150 watts of gen- eral lighting within toplit zones complying with Section C405.2.3.3. Exceptions: Daylight responsive controls are not required for the following: 1. Spaces in health care facilities where patient care is directly provided. 2. Lighting that is required to have specific applica- tion control in accordance with Section C405.2.4. 3. Sidelit zones on the first floor above grade in Group A-2 and Group M occupancies. 4. New buildings where the total connected lighting power calculated in accordance with Section C405.3.1 is not greater than the adjusted interior lighting power allowance (LPAadj) calculated in accordance with Equation 4-8: LPAadj = [LPAnorm × (1.0 - 0.4 × UDZFA / TBFA)] (Equation 4-8) where: LPAadj = Adjusted building interior lighting power allowance in watts. LPAnorm = Normal building lighting power allowance in watts calculated in accordance with Section C405.3.2. UDZFA = Uncontrolled daylight zone floor area is the sum of all sidelit and toplit zones, calculated in accor- dance with Sections C405.2.3.2 and C405.2.3.3, that do not have daylight responsive controls. TBFA = Total building floor area is the sum of all floor areas included in the lighting power allowance calculation in Section C405.3.2. C405.2.3.1 Daylight-responsive control function. Where required, daylight-responsive controls shall be provided within each space for control of lights in that space and shall comply with all of the following: 1. Lights in toplit zones in accordance with Section C405.2.3.3 shall be controlled independently of lights in sidelit zones in accordance with Section C405.2.3.2. 2.Daylight responsive controls within each space shall be configured so that they can be calibrated from within that space by authorized personnel. 3. Calibration mechanisms shall be in a location with ready access. 4. Where located in offices, classrooms, laboratories and library reading rooms, daylight responsive con- trols shall dim lights continuously from full light output to 15 percent of full light output or lower. 5.Daylight responsive controls shall be configured to completely shut off all controlled lights. 6. Lights in sidelit zones in accordance with Section C405.2.3.2 facing different cardinal orientations [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of due north, east, south, west] shall be controlled independently of each other. Exception: Up to 150 watts of lighting in each space is permitted to be controlled together with lighting in a daylight zone facing a different cardinal orientation. C405.2.3.2 Sidelit zone. The sidelit zone is the floor area adjacent to vertical fenestration that complies with all of the following: 1. Where the fenestration is located in a wall, the sidelit zone shall extend laterally to the nearest full- height wall, or up to 1.0 times the height from the floor to the top of the fenestration, and longitudi- nally from the edge of the fenestration to the nearest full-height wall, or up to 2 feet (610 mm), which- ever is less, as indicated in Figure C405.2.3.2. 2. The area of the fenestration is not less than 24 square feet (2.23 m2). 3. The distance from the fenestration to any build- ing or geological formation that would block access to daylight is greater than the height from the bottom of the fenestration to the top of the building or geologic formation. 4. The visible transmittance of the fenestration is not less than 0.20.> ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 303 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-61 C405.2.3.3 Toplit zone. The toplit zone is the floor area underneath a roof fenestration assembly that com- plies with all of the following: 1. The toplit zone shall extend laterally and longitu- dinally beyond the edge of the roof fenestration assembly to the nearest obstruction that is taller than 0.7 times the ceiling height, or up to 0.7 times the ceiling height, whichever is less, as indicated in Figure C405.2.3.3(1). 2. Where the fenestration is located in a rooftop monitor, the toplit zone shall extend laterally to the nearest obstruction that is taller than 0.7 times the ceiling height, or up to 1.0 times the height from the floor to the bottom of the fenestration, whichever is less, and longitudinally from the edge of the fenestration to the nearest obstruction that is taller than 0.7 times the ceiling height, or up to 0.25 times the height from the floor to the bot- tom of the fenestration, whichever is less, as indi- cated in Figures C405.2.3.3(2) and C405.2.3.3(3). 3. Direct sunlight is not blocked from hitting the roof fenestration assembly at the peak solar angle on the summer solstice by buildings or geological formations. 4. The product of the visible transmittance of the roof fenestration assembly and the area of the rough opening of the roof fenestration assembly divided by the area of the toplit zone is not less than 0.008. C405.2.4 Specific application controls. Specific applica- tion controls shall be provided for the following: 1. The following lighting shall be controlled by an occupant sensor complying with Section C405.2.1.1 or a time-switch control complying with Section C405.2.2.1. In addition, a manual control shall be provided to control such lighting separately from the general lighting in the space: 1.1. Display and accent. 1.2. Lighting in display cases. 1.3. Supplemental task lighting, including per- manently installed under-shelf or under-cab- inet lighting. 1.4. Lighting equipment that is for sale or demonstration in lighting education. 2.Sleeping units shall have control devices or systems that are configured to automatically switch off all permanently installed luminaires and switched receptacles within 20 minutes after all occupants have left the unit. Exceptions: 1. Lighting and switched receptacles con- trolled by card key controls. 2. Spaces where patient care is directly pro- vided. 3. Permanently installed luminaires within dwelling units shall be provided with controls complying with Section C405.2.1.1 or C405.2.2.2. 4. Lighting for nonvisual applications, such as plant growth and food warming, shall be controlled by a time switch control complying with Section C405.2.2.1 that is independent of the controls for other lighting within the room or space. C405.2.5 Manual controls. Where required by this code, manual controls for lights shall comply with the following: 1. They shall be in a location with ready access to occupants. 2. They shall be located where the controlled lights are visible, or shall identify the area served by the lights and indicate their status. C405.2.6 Exterior lighting controls. Exterior lighting systems shall be provided with controls that comply with Sections C405.2.6.1 through C405.2.6.4. Decorative light- ing systems shall comply with Sections C405.2.6.1, C405.2.6.2 and C405.2.6.4. Exceptions: 1. Lighting for covered vehicle entrances and exits from buildings and parking structures where required for eye adaptation. 2. Lighting controlled from within dwelling units. FIGURE C405.2.3.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 304 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-62 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE FIGURE C405.2.3.3(1) TOPLIT ZONE FIGURE C405.2.3.3(2) DAYLIGHT ZONE UNDER A ROOFTOP MONITOR FIGURE C405.2.3.3(3) DAYLIGHT ZONE UNDER A SLOPED ROOFTOP MONITOR ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 305 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-63 C405.2.6.1 Daylight shutoff. Lights shall be automati- cally turned off when daylight is present and satisfies the lighting needs. C405.2.6.2 Decorative lighting shutoff. Building façade and landscape lighting shall automatically shut off from not later than 1 hour after business closing to not earlier than 1 hour before business opening. C405.2.6.3 Lighting setback. Lighting that is not con- trolled in accordance with Section C405.2.6.2 shall be controlled so that the total wattage of such lighting is automatically reduced by not less than 30 percent by selectively switching off or dimming luminaires at one of the following times: 1. From not later than midnight to not earlier than 6 a.m. 2. From not later than one hour after business clos- ing to not earlier than one hour before business opening. 3. During any time where activity has not been detected for 15 minutes or more. C405.2.6.4 Exterior time-switch control function. Time-switch controls for exterior lighting shall comply with the following: 1. They shall have a clock capable of being pro- grammed for not fewer than 7 days. 2. They shall be capable of being set for seven dif- ferent day types per week. 3. They shall incorporate an automatic holiday set- back feature. 4. They shall have program backup capabilities that prevent the loss of program and time settings for a period of not less than 10 hours in the event that power is interrupted. C405.2.7 Parking garage lighting control. Lighting for parking garages shall comply with the following: 1. Parking garage lighting shall have an automatic time-switch shutoff in accordance with Section C405.2.2.1. 2. Lighting power of each luminaire shall be automati- cally reduced by not less than 60 percent when there is no activity detected within a lighting zone for 20 minutes. Lighting zones for this requirement shall be not greater than 3,600 feet. 3. Where lighting for eye adaptation is provided at covered vehicle entrances and exits from buildings and parking structures, such lighting shall be sepa- rately controlled by a device that automatically reduces lighting power by at least 50 percent from sunset to sunrise. 4. The power to luminaires within 30 feet of perimeter wall openings or fenestration shall automatically reduce in response to daylight by at least 50 percent. Exceptions: 1. Where the opening or fenestration-to-wall-ratio is less than 40 percent as viewed from the interior and encompases the vertical distance from the driving surface to the lowest structural element. 2. Where the distance from the opening or fenestra- tion to any exterior daylight blocking obstruction is less than one-half the height from the bottom of the opening or fenestration to the top of the obstruction. 3. Where openings are obstructed by permanent screens or architectural elements restricting day- light entering the interior space. C405.3 Interior lighting power requirements (Prescrip- tive). A building complies with this section where its total connected interior lighting power calculated under Section C405.3.1 is not greater than the interior lighting power allow- ance calculated under Section C405.3.2. C405.3.1 Total connected interior lighting power. The total connected interior lighting power shall be deter- mined in accordance with Equation 4-9. TCLP = [LVL + BLL + LED + TRK + Other] (Equation 4-9) where: TCLP = Total connected lighting power (watts). LVL = For luminaires with lamps connected directly to building power, such as line voltage lamps, the rated wattage of the lamp. BLL = For luminaires incorporating a ballast or transformer, the rated input wattage of the ballast or transformer when operating that lamp. LED =For light-emitting diode luminaires with either integral or remote drivers, the rated wattage of the luminaire. TRK = For lighting track, cable conductor, rail conductor, and plug-in busway systems that allow the addition and relocation of luminaires without rewiring, the wattage shall be one of the following: 1. The specified wattage of the luminaires, but not less than 8 W per linear foot (25 W/lin m). 2. The wattage limit of the permanent current- limiting devices protecting the system. 3. The wattage limit of the transformer sup- plying the system. Other = The wattage of all other luminaires and lighting sources not covered previously and associated with interior lighting verified by data supplied by the manufacturer or other approved sources. The connected power associated with the following lighting equipment and applications is not included in cal- culating total connected lighting power. 1. Television broadcast lighting for playing areas in sports arenas. 2. Emergency lighting automatically off during nor- mal building operation. 3. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs, including those with visual impairment and other medical and age-related issues. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 306 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-64 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 4. Casino gaming areas. 5. Mirror lighting in dressing rooms. 6. Task lighting for medical and dental purposes that is in addition to general lighting and controlled by an independent control device. 7. Display lighting for exhibits in galleries, museums and monuments that is in addition to general lighting and controlled by an independent control device. 8. Lighting for theatrical purposes, including perfor- mance, stage, film production and video production. 9. Lighting for photographic processes. 10. Lighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and installed by the manufacturer. 11. Task lighting for plant growth or maintenance. 12. Advertising signage or directional signage. 13. Lighting for food warming. 14. Lighting equipment that is for sale. 15. Lighting demonstration equipment in lighting edu- cation facilities. 16. Lighting approved because of safety consider- ations. 17. Lighting in retail display windows, provided that the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height parti- tions. 18. Furniture-mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shutoff. 19. Exit signs. C405.3.2 Interior lighting power allowance. The total interior lighting power allowance (watts) is determined according to Table C405.3.2(1) using the Building Area Method, or Table C405.3.2(2) using the Space-by-Space Method, for all areas of the building covered in this permit. C405.3.2.1 Building Area Method. For the Building Area Method, the interior lighting power allowance is the floor area for each building area type listed in Table C405.3.2(1) times the value from Table C405.3.2(1) for that area. For the purposes of this method, an “area” shall be defined as all contiguous spaces that accommo- date or are associated with a single building area type, as listed in Table C405.3.2(1). Where this method is used to calculate the total interior lighting power for an entire building, each building area type shall be treated as a separate area. C405.3.2.2 Space-by-Space Method. For the Space- by-Space Method, the interior lighting power allow- ance is determined by multiplying the floor area of each space times the value for the space type in Table C405.3.2(2) that most closely represents the proposed use of the space, and then summing the lighting power allowances for all spaces. Tradeoffs among spaces are permitted. TABLE C405.3.2(1) INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: BUILDING AREA METHOD a. Where sleeping units are excluded from lighting power calculations, neither the area of the sleeping units nor the wattage of lighting in the sleeping units is counted. b. Where dwelling units are excluded from lighting power calculations, neither the area of the dwelling units nor the wattage of lighting in the dwelling units is counted. c.Where dwelling units are excluded from lighting power calculations by application of Section C405.1.1, neither the area of the dwelling units nor the wattage of lighting in the dwelling units shall be counted. Where dwelling units are included in the lighting power calculations, only the area served by hardwired lighting shall be included. BUILDING AREA TYPE LPD (w/ft2) Automotive facility 0.64 Convention center 0.64 Courthouse 0.74 Dining: bar lounge/leisure 0.69 Dining: cafeteria/fast food 0.66 Dining: family 0.61 Dormitorya, b 0.52 Exercise center 0.65 Fire stationa 0.50 Gymnasium 0.65 Health care clinic 0.68 Hospitala 0.86 Hotel/Motela, b 0.56 Library 0.70 Manufacturing facility 0.60 Motion picture theater 0.44 Multifamilyc 0.45 Museum 0.55 Office 0.64 Parking garage 0.12 Penitentiary 0.67 Performing arts theater 0.85 Police station 0.66 Post office 0.62 Religious building 0.67 Retail 0.84 School/university 0.65 Sports arena 0.75 Town hall 0.69 Transportation 0.51 Warehouse 0.41 Workshop 0.83 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 307 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-65 TABLE C405.3.2(2) INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD (continued) COMMON SPACE TYPESa LPD (watts/sq ft) Atrium Less than 40 feet in height 0.48 Greater than 40 feet in height 0.60 Audience seating area In an auditorium 0.61 In a convention center 0.65 In a gymnasium 0.23 In a motion picture theater 0.27 In a penitentiary 0.67 In a performing arts theater 1.16 In a religious building 0.72 In a sports arena 0.33 Otherwise 0.23 Banking activity area 0.61 Breakroom (See Lounge/breakroom) Classroom/lecture hall/training room In a penitentiary 0.89 Otherwise 0.71 Computer room 0.94 Conference/meeting/multipurpose room 0.93 Confinement cells 0.52 Copy/print room 0.50 Corridor In a facility for the visually impaired (and not used primarily by the staff)b 0.71 In a hospital 0.71 In a manufacturing facility 0.28 In a primary or secondary school (and not used primarily by the staff)0.74 Otherwise 0.41 Courtroom 1.06 Dining area In bar/lounge or leisure dining 0.62 In cafeteria or fast food dining 0.40 In a facility for the visually impaired (and not used primarily by the staff)b 1.27 In family dining 0.54 In a penitentiary 0.42 Otherwise 0.43 Dwelling unit 0.43 Electrical/mechanical room 0.39 Emergency vehicle garage 0.41 TABLE C405.3.2(2)—continued INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD (continued) COMMON SPACE TYPESa LPD (watts/sq ft) Food preparation area 0.92 Guestroomc, d 0.41 Laboratory In or as a classroom 1.04 Otherwise 1.32 Laundry/washing area 0.43 Loading dock, interior 0.51 Lobby For an elevator 0.52 In a facility for the visually impaired (and not used primarily by the staff)b 1.69 In a hotel 0.51 In a motion picture theater 0.23 In a performing arts theater 0.82 Otherwise 0.9 Locker room 0.45 Lounge/breakroom In a healthcare facility 0.42 Otherwise 0.44 Office Enclosed 0.74 Open plan 0.61 Parking area, interior 0.11 Pharmacy area 1.23 Restroom In a facility for the visually impaired (and not used primarily by the staffb 0.81 Otherwise 0.63 Sales area 1.05 Seating area, general 0.23 Stairway (see Space containing stairway) Stairwell 0.49 Storage room 0.43 Vehicular maintenance area 0.53 Workshop 1.09 BUILDING TYPE SPECIFIC SPACE TYPESa LPD (watts/sq ft) Automotive (see Vehicular maintenance area) Convention Center—exhibit space 0.61 Dormitory—living quartersc, d 0.46 Facility for the visually impairedb In a chapel (and not used primarily by the staff)0.70 In a recreation room (and not used primarily by the staff)1.53 Fire Station—sleeping quartersc 0.19 Gymnasium/fitness center In an exercise area 0.50 In a playing area 0.75 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 308 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-66 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C405.3.2(2)—continued INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD (continued) BUILDING TYPE SPECIFIC SPACE TYPESa LPD (watts/sq ft) Healthcare facility In an exam/treatment room 1.16 In an imaging room 0.94 In a medical supply room 0.54 In a nursery 0.92 In a nurse’s station 0.75 In an operating room 1.87 In a patient roomc 0.45 In a physical therapy room 0.84 In a recovery room 0.89 Library In a reading area 0.77 In the stacks 1.18 Manufacturing facility In a detailed manufacturing area 0.80 In an equipment room 0.61 In an extra-high-bay area (greater than 50′ floor-to-ceiling height)0.73 In a high-bay area (25-50′ floor-to-ceiling height)0.58 In a low-bay area (less than 25′ floor-to- ceiling height)0.61 Museum In a general exhibition area 0.31 In a restoration room 0.77 Performing arts theater—dressing room 0.35 Post office—sorting area 0.66 Religious buildings In a fellowship hall 0.54 In a worship/pulpit/choir area 0.85 Retail facilities In a dressing/fitting room 0.49 In a mall concourse 0.79 Sports arena—playing area For a Class I facilitye 2.26 For a Class II facilityf 1.45 For a Class III facilityg 1.08 For a Class IV facilityh 0.72 Transportation facility In a baggage/carousel area 0.45 In an airport concourse 0.31 At a terminal ticket counter 0.62 TABLE C405.3.2(2)—continued INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES: SPACE-BY-SPACE METHOD a. In cases where both a common space type and a building area specific space type are listed, the building area specific space type shall apply b. A ‘Facility for the Visually Impaired’ is a facility that is licensed or will be licensed by local or state authorities for senior long-term care, adult daycare, senior support or people with special visual needs. c. Where sleeping units are excluded from lighting power calculations by application of Section C405.1.1, neither the area of the sleeping units nor the wattage of lighting in the sleeping units is counted. Where sleeping units are included in the lighting power calculations, only the area served by hardwired lighting shall be included. d. Where dwelling units are excluded from lighting power calculations by application of Section C405.1.1, neither the area of the dwelling units nor the wattage of lighting in the dwelling units is counted. Where dwelling units are included in the lighting power calculations, only the area served by hardwired lighting shall be included. e. Class I facilities consist of professional facilities; and semiprofessional, collegiate, or club facilities with seating for 5,000 or more spectators. f. Class II facilities consist of collegiate and semiprofessional facilities with seating for fewer than 5,000 spectators; club facilities with seating for between 2,000 and 5,000 spectators; and amateur league and high-school facilities with seating for more than 2,000 spectators. g. Class III facilities consist of club, amateur league and high-school facilities with seating for 2,000 or fewer spectators. h. Class IV facilities consist of elementary school and recreational facilities; and amateur league and high-school facilities without provision for spectators. BUILDING TYPE SPECIFIC SPACE TYPESa LPD (watts/sq ft) Warehouse—storage area For medium to bulky, palletized items 0.35 For smaller, hand-carried items 0.69 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 309 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-67 C405.3.2.2.1 Additional interior lighting power. Where using the Space-by-Space Method, an increase in the interior lighting power allowance is permitted for specific lighting functions. Additional power shall be permitted only where the specified lighting is installed and automatically controlled separately from the general lighting, to be turned off during nonbusiness hours. This additional power shall be used only for the specified luminaires and shall not be used for any other purpose. An increase in the interior lighting power allowance is permitted in the following cases: 1. For lighting equipment to be installed in sales areas specifically to highlight merchandise, the additional lighting power shall be deter- mined in accordance with Equation 4-10. Additional interior lighting power allowance = 1000 W + (Retail Area 1 × 0.45 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 2 × 0.45W/ft2) + (Retail Area 3 × 1.05 W/ft2) + (Retail Area 4 × 1.87 W/ft2) For SI units: Additional interior lighting power allowance = 1000 W + (Retail Area 1 × 4.8 W/m2) + (Retail Area 2 × 4.84 W/m2) + (Retail Area 3 × 11 W/m2) + (Retail Area 4 × 20 W/m2) (Equation 4-10) where: Retail Area 1 = The floor area for all products not listed in Retail Area 2, 3 or 4. Retail Area 2 = The floor area used for the sale of vehicles, sporting goods and small electronics. Retail Area 3 = The floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork. Retail Area 4 = The floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal and china. Exception: Other merchandise categories are permitted to be included in Retail Areas 2 through 4, provided that justification doc- umenting the need for additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display is approved by the code official. 2. For spaces in which lighting is specified to be installed in addition to the general lighting for the purpose of decorative appearance or for highlighting art or exhibits, provided that the additional lighting power shall be not more than 0.9 W/ft2 (9.7 W/m2) in lobbies and not more than 0.75 W/ft2 (8.1 W/m2) in other spaces. C405.4 Lighting for plant growth and maintenance. Not less than 95 percent of the permanently installed luminaires used for plant growth and maintenance shall have a photon efficiency of not less than 1.6 µmol/J, rated in accordance with ANSI/ASABE S640. C405.5 Exterior lighting power requirements (Manda- tory). The total connected exterior lighting power calculated in accordance with Section C405.4.1 shall be not greater than the exterior lighting power allowance calculated in accor- dance with Section C405.5.2. C405.5.1 Total connected exterior building exterior lighting power. The total exterior connected lighting power shall be the total maximum rated wattage of all lighting that is powered through the energy service for the building. Exception: Lighting used for the following applica- tions shall not be included. 1. Lighting approved because of safety consider- ations. 2. Emergency lighting automatically off during normal business operation. 3. Exit signs. 4. Specialized signal, directional and marker light- ing associated with transportation. 5. Advertising signage or directional signage. 6. Integral to equipment or instrumentation and installed by its manufacturer. 7. Theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production. 8. Athletic playing areas. 9. Temporary lighting. 10. Industrial production, material handling, trans- portation sites and associated storage areas. 11. Theme elements in theme/amusement parks. 12. Used to highlight features of art, public monu- ments, and the national flag. 13. Lighting for water features and swimming pools. 14. Lighting controlled from within dwelling units, where the lighting complies with Section R404.1. C405.5.2 Exterior lighting power allowance. The total exterior lighting power allowance is the sum of the base site allowance plus the individual allowances for areas that are to be illuminated by lighting that is powered through the energy service for the building. Lighting power allow- ances are as specified in Table C405.5.2(2). The lighting zone for the building exterior is determined in accordance with Table C405.5.2(1) unless otherwise specified by the code official. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 310 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-68 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C405.5.2(1) EXTERIOR LIGHTING ZONES C405.5.2.1 Additional exterior lighting power. Any increase in the exterior lighting power allowance is lim- ited to the specific lighting applications indicated in Table C405.5.2(3). The additional power shall be used only for the luminaires that are serving these applica- tions and shall not be used for any other purpose. C405.5.3 Gas lighting (Mandatory). Gas-fired lighting appliances shall not be equipped with continuously burn- ing pilot ignition systems. C405.6 Dwelling electrical meter (Mandatory). Each dwelling unit located in a Group R-2 building shall have a separate electrical meter. C405.7 Electrical transformers (Mandatory). Low-voltage dry-type distribution electric transformers shall meet the min- imum efficiency requirements of Table C405.7 as tested and rated in accordance with the test procedure listed in DOE 10 CFR 431. The efficiency shall be verified through certifica- tion under an approved certification program or, where a cer- tification program does not exist, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data furnished by the trans- former manufacturer. Exceptions: The following transformers are exempt: 1. Transformers that meet the Energy Policy Act of 2005 exclusions based on the DOE 10 CFR 431 definition of special purpose applications. 2. Transformers that meet the Energy Policy Act of 2005 exclusions that are not to be used in general purpose applications based on information pro- vided in DOE 10 CFR 431. 3. Transformers that meet the Energy Policy Act of 2005 exclusions with multiple voltage taps where the highest tap is not less than 20 percent more than the lowest tap. 4. Drive transformers. 5. Rectifier transformers. 6. Auto-transformers. 7. Uninterruptible power system transformers. 8. Impedance transformers. 9. Regulating transformers. 10. Sealed and nonventilating transformers. 11. Machine tool transformers. 12. Welding transformers. 13. Grounding transformers. 14. Testing transformers. C405.8 Electric motors (Mandatory). Electric motors shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Tables C405.8(1) through C405.8(4) when tested and rated in accor- dance with the DOE 10 CFR 431. The efficiency shall be ver- ified through certification under an approved certification program or, where a certification program does not exist, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data fur- nished by the motor manufacturer. Exception: The standards in this section shall not apply to the following exempt electric motors: 1. Air-over electric motors. 2. Component sets of an electric motor. 3. Liquid-cooled electric motors. 4. Submersible electric motors. 5. Inverter-only electric motors. C405.9 Vertical and horizontal transportation systems and equipment. Vertical and horizontal transportation sys- tems and equipment shall comply with this section. C405.9.1 Elevator cabs. For the luminaires in each eleva- tor cab, not including signals and displays, the sum of the lumens divided by the sum of the watts shall be not less than 35 lumens per watt. Ventilation fans in elevators that do not have their own air-conditioning system shall not consume more than 0.33 watts/cfm at the maximum rated speed of the fan. Controls shall be provided that will de- energize ventilation fans and lighting systems when the elevator is stopped, unoccupied and with its doors closed for over 15 minutes. C405.9.2 Escalators and moving walks. Escalators and moving walks shall comply with ASME A17.1/CSA B44 and shall have automatic controls configured to reduce speed to the minimum permitted speed in accordance with ASME A17.1/CSA B44 or applicable local code when not conveying passengers. Exception: A variable voltage drive system that reduces operating voltage in response to light loading conditions is an alternative to the reduced speed function. C405.9.2.1 Regenerative drive. An escalator designed either for one-way down operation only or for reversible operation shall have a variable frequency regenerative drive that supplies electrical energy to the building electri- cal system when the escalator is loaded with passengers whose combined weight exceeds 750 pounds (340 kg). C405.10 Voltage drop in feeders and branch circuits. The total voltage drop across the combination of feeders and branch circuits shall not exceed 5 percent. LIGHTING ZONE DESCRIPTION 1 Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas 2 Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed-use areas 3 All other areas not classified as lighting zone 1, 2 or 4 4 High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local land use planning authority ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 311 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-69 TABLE C405.5.2(2) LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m 2. W = watts. LIGHTING ZONES Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Base Site Allowance 350 W 400 W 500 W 900 W Uncovered Parking Areas Parking areas and drives 0.03W/ft2 0.04 W/ft2 0.06 W/ft2 0.08 W/ft2 Building Grounds Walkways and ramps less than 10 feet wide 0.5 W/linear foot 0.5 W/linear foot 0.6 W/linear foot 0.7 W/linear foot Walkways and ramps 10 feet wide or greater, plaza areas, special feature areas 0.10 W/ft2 0.10 W/ft2 0.11 W/ft2 0.14 W/ft2 Dining areas 0.65 W/ft2 0.65 W/ft2 0.75 W/ft2 0.95 W/ft2 Stairways 0.6 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2 Pedestrian tunnels 0.12 W/ft2 0.12 W/ft2 0.14 W/ft2 0.21 W/ft2 Landscaping 0.03 W/ft2 0.04 W/ft2 0.04 W/ft2 0.04 W/ft2 Building Entrances and Exits Pedestrian and vehicular entrances and exits 14 W/linear foot of opening 14 W/linear foot of opening 21 W/linear foot of opening 21 W/linear foot of opening Entry canopies 0.20 W/ft 2 0.25 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2 Loading docks 0.35 W/ft2 0.35 W/ft2 0.35 W/ft2 0.35 W/ft2 Sales Canopies Free-standing and attached 0.40 W/ft 2 0.40 W/ft2 0.6 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2 Outdoor Sales Open areas (including vehicle sales lots)0.20 W/ft2 0.20 W/ft2 0.35 W/ft2 0.50 W/ft2 Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to “open area” allowance No allowance 7 W/linear foot 7 W/linear foot 21 W/linear foot TABLE C405.5.2(3) INDIVIDUAL LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS For SI: 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m 2. W = watts. LIGHTING ZONES Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Building façades No allowance 0.075 W/ft2 of gross above-grade wall area 0.113 W/ft2 of gross above-grade wall area 0.15 W/ft2 of gross above-grade wall area Automated teller machines (ATM) and night depositories 135 W per location plus 45 W per additional ATM per location Uncovered entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities 0.5 W/ft2 of area Uncovered loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency service vehicles 0.35 W/ft2 of area Drive-up windows and doors 200 W per drive through Parking near 24-hour retail entrances. 400 W per main entry ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 312 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-70 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C405.7 MINIMUM NOMINAL EFFICIENCY LEVELS FOR 10 CFR 431 LOW-VOLTAGE DRY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS a. kiloVolt-Amp rating. b. Nominal efficiencies shall be established in accordance with the DOE 10 CFR 431 test procedure for low-voltage dry-type transformers. SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS kVAa Efficiency (%)b kVAa Efficiency (%)b 15 97.70 15 97.89 25 98.00 30 98.23 37.5 98.20 45 98.40 50 98.30 75 98.60 75 98.50 112.5 98.74 100 98.60 150 98.83 167 98.70 225 98.94 250 98.80 300 99.02 333 98.90 500 99.14 ——750 99.23 ——1000 99.28 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 313 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-71 TABLE C405.8(1) MINIMUM NOMINAL FULL-LOAD EFFICIENCY FOR NEMA DESIGN A, NEMA DESIGN B, AND IEC DESIGN N MOTORS (EXCLUDING FIRE PUMP) ELECTRIC MOTORS AT 60 HZa, b a. Nominal efficiencies shall be established in accordance with DOE 10 CFR 431. b. For purposes of determining the required minimum nominal full-load efficiency of an electric motor that has a horsepower or kilowatt rating between two horsepower or two kilowatt ratings listed in this table, each such motor shall be deemed to have a listed horsepower or kilowatt rating, determined as follows: 1. A horsepower at or above the midpoint between the two consecutive horsepowers shall be rounded up to the higher of the two horsepowers. 2. A horsepower below the midpoint between the two consecutive horsepowers shall be rounded down to the lower of the two horsepowers. 3. A kilowatt rating shall be directly converted from kilowatts to horsepower using the formula: 1 kilowatt = (1/0.746) horsepower. The conversion should be calculated to three significant decimal places, and the resulting horsepower shall be rounded in accordance with No. 1 or No. 2 above, as applicable. MOTOR HORSEPOWER (STANDARD KILOWATT EQUIVALENT) NOMINAL FULL-LOAD EFFICIENCY (%) AS OF JUNE 1, 2016 2 Pole 4 Pole 6 Pole 8 Pole Enclosed Open Enclosed Open Enclosed Open Enclosed Open 1 (0.75)77.0 77.0 85.5 85.5 82.5 82.5 75.5 75.5 1.5 (1.1)84.0 84.0 86.5 86.5 87.5 86.5 78.5 77.0 2 (1.5)85.5 85.5 86.5 86.5 88.5 87.5 84.0 86.5 3 (2.2)86.5 85.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 88.5 85.5 87.5 5 (3.7)88.5 86.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 86.5 88.5 7.5 (5.5)89.5 88.5 91.7 91.0 91.0 90.2 86.5 89.5 10 (7.5)90.2 89.5 91.7 91.7 91.0 91.7 89.5 90.2 15 (11)91.0 90.2 92.4 93.0 91.7 91.7 89.5 90.2 20 (15)91.0 91.0 93.0 93.0 91.7 92.4 90.2 91.0 25 (18.5)91.7 91.7 93.6 93.6 93.0 93.0 90.2 91.0 30 (22)91.7 91.7 93.6 94.1 93.0 93.6 91.7 91.7 40 (30)92.4 92.4 94.1 94.1 94.1 94.1 91.7 91.7 50 (37)93.0 93.0 94.5 94.5 94.1 94.1 92.4 92.4 60 (45)93.6 93.6 95.0 95.0 94.5 94.5 92.4 93.0 75 (55)93.6 93.6 95.4 95.0 94.5 94.5 93.6 94.1 100 (75)94.1 93.6 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 93.6 94.1 125 (90)95.0 94.1 95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 94.1 94.1 150 (110)95.0 94.1 95.8 95.8 95.8 95.4 94.1 94.1 200 (150)95.4 95.0 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.4 94.5 94.1 250 (186)95.8 95.0 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.8 95.0 95.0 300 (224)95.8 95.4 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.8 350 (261)95.8 95.4 96.2 95.8 95.8 95.8 400 (298)95.8 95.8 96.2 95.8 450 (336)95.8 96.2 96.2 96.2 500 (373)95.8 96.2 96.2 96.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 314 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-72 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE C405.8(2) MINIMUM NOMINAL FULL-LOAD EFFICIENCY FOR NEMA DESIGN C AND IEC DESIGN H MOTORS AT 60 HZa, b a. Nominal efficiencies shall be established in accordance with DOE 10 CFR 431. b. For purposes of determining the required minimum nominal full-load efficiency of an electric motor that has a horsepower or kilowatt rating between two horsepower or two kilowatt ratings listed in this table, each such motor shall be deemed to have a listed horsepower or kilowatt rating, determined as follows: 1. A horsepower at or above the midpoint between the two consecutive horsepowers shall be rounded up to the higher of the two horsepowers. 2. A horsepower below the midpoint between the two consecutive horsepowers shall be rounded down to the lower of the two horsepowers. 3. A kilowatt rating shall be directly converted from kilowatts to horsepower using the formula: 1 kilowatt = (1/0.746) horsepower. The conversion should be calculated to three significant decimal places, and the resulting horsepower shall be rounded in accordance with No. 1 or No. 2 above, as applicable. MOTOR HORSEPOWER (STANDARD KILOWATT EQUIVALENT) NOMINAL FULL-LOAD EFFICIENCY (%) AS OF JUNE 1, 2016 4 Pole 6 Pole 8 Pole Enclosed Open Enclosed Open Enclosed Open 1 (0.75)85.5 85.5 82.5 82.5 75.5 75.5 1.5 (1.1)86.5 86.5 87.5 86.5 78.5 77.0 2 (1.5)86.5 86.5 88.5 87.5 84.0 86.5 3 (2.2)89.5 89.5 89.5 88.5 85.5 87.5 5 (3.7)89.5 89.5 89.5 89.5 86.5 88.5 7.5 (5.5)91.7 91.0 91.0 90.2 86.5 89.5 10 (7.5)91.7 91.7 91.0 91.7 89.5 90.2 15 (11)92.4 93.0 91.7 91.7 89.5 90.2 20 (15)93.0 93.0 91.7 92.4 90.2 91.0 25 (18.5)93.6 93.6 93.0 93.0 90.2 91.0 30 (22)93.6 94.1 93.0 93.6 91.7 91.7 40 (30)94.1 94.1 94.1 94.1 91.7 91.7 50 (37)94.5 94.5 94.1 94.1 92.4 92.4 60 (45)95.0 95.0 94.5 94.5 92.4 93.0 75 (55)95.4 95.0 94.5 94.5 93.6 94.1 100 (75)95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 93.6 94.1 125 (90)95.4 95.4 95.0 95.0 94.1 94.1 150 (110)95.8 95.8 95.8 95.4 94.1 94.1 200 (150)96.2 95.8 95.8 95.4 94.5 94.1 TABLE C405.8(3) MINIMUM AVERAGE FULL-LOAD EFFICIENCY POLYPHASE SMALL ELECTRIC MOTORSa a. Average full-load efficiencies shall be established in accordance with DOE 10 CFR 431. MOTOR HORSEPOWER OPEN MOTORS Number of Poles246 Synchronous Speed (RPM)3600 1800 1200 0.25 65.6 69.5 67.5 0.33 69.5 73.4 71.4 0.50 73.4 78.2 75.3 0.75 76.8 81.1 81.7 1 77.0 83.5 82.5 1.5 84.0 86.5 83.8 2 85.5 86.5 N/A 3 85.5 86.9 N/A ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 315 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-73 C405.11 Electric vehicle (EV) charging for new construc- tion. The building shall be provided with electric vehicle (EV) charging in accordance with this section and the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70). Where parking spaces are added or modified without an increase in building size, only the new parking spaces are subject to this requirement. The number of parking spaces can be determined by actual spaces provided or consistent with Boulder’s Municipal Code, Title 9: Land Use Code, Chapter 9: Development Standards, 9-9-6: Parking Standards. C405.11.1. Group R occupancies. Group R occupancies with three or more dwelling units and/or sleeping units shall be provided with EV charging in accordance with Table C405.11.1. Calculations for the number of spaces shall be rounded up to the nearest whole number. TABLE C405.11.1 C405.11.2 Group A, B, E, I, M and S-2 occupancies. Group A, B, E, I, M and open or enclosed parking garages under S-2 occupancy shall be provided with electric vehi- cle charging in accordance with Table C405.11.2. Calcula- tions for the number of spaces shall be rounded up to the nearest whole number. Exception: The number of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installed spaces may be reduced by up to five provided that the building includes not less than one parking space equipped with an EV fast char- ger and not less than one EV ready space. TABLE C405.11.2 C405.11.3 Identification. Construction documents shall designate all EV capable spaces, EV ready spaces and EVSE installed spaces and indicate the locations of con- duit and termination points serving them. The circuits or spaces reserved for the circuits for EV capable spaces, EV ready spaces and EVSE installed spaces shall be clearly identified in the panel or subpanel directory. The conduit for EV capable spaces shall be clearly identified at both the panel or subpanel and the termination point at the parking space. C405.11.4 Accessible parking. Where new EVSE installed spaces and/or new EV ready spaces and new accessible parking are both provided, parking facilities shall be designed so that at least one accessible parking space shall be EV ready or EVSE installed. SECTION C406 SOLAR READINESS C406.1 General (Mandatory). All newly constructed com- mercial buildings shall comply with the requirements of Sec- tions C406.2 through C406.5. C406.2 Solar zone. Solar zones shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents. C406.2.1 Location and size of solar zone. The solar zone shall have a minimum total area described as follows. The solar zone shall comply with access, pathway, smoke venti- NUMBER OF EV READY SPACES/ DWELLING UNIT NUMBER OF EV CAPABLE SPACES NUMBER OF EVSE INSTALLED SPACES 1–25 spaces 1 None None > 25 spaces 10% of spaces 40% of remaining spaces 5% of spaces (minimum one dual port charging station) NUMBER OF EV READY SPACES NUMBER OF EV CAPABLE SPACES NUMBER OF EVSE INSTALLED SPACES 1 space 1 None None 2–25 spaces 1 1 None > 25 spaces 10% of spaces 10% of remaining spaces 5% of spaces (minimum one dual port charging station) TABLE C405.8(4) MINIMUM AVERAGE FULL-LOAD EFFICIENCY FOR CAPACITOR-START CAPACITOR-RUN AND CAPACITOR-START INDUCTION-RUN SMALL ELECTRIC MOTORSa a. Average full-load efficiencies shall be established in accordance with DOE 10 CFR 431. MOTOR HORSEPOWER OPEN MOTORS Number of Poles 2 4 6 Synchronous Speed (RPM)3600 1800 1200 0.25 66.6 68.5 62.2 0.33 70.5 72.4 66.6 0.50 72.4 76.2 76.2 0.75 76.2 81.8 80.2 1 80.4 82.6 81.1 1.5 81.5 83.8 N/A 2 82.9 84.5 N/A 3 84.1 N/A N/A ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 316 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-74 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE lation and spacing requirements as specified in the Boulder Revised Code. The solar zone total area shall be comprised of one or more rectangular areas that are not less than 80 square feet and no side of any rectangular area shall be less than 5 feet in length. The solar zone shall be located on: 1. The roof or overhang of the building. 2. The roof or overhang of another structure located within 250 feet of the building on the same parcel or lot. 3. Covered parking installed with the building project. 4. A façade of the building that is within 15 degrees of true south. The solar zone shall cover not less than 40 percent of the total roof area, as measured by the area of the roof planes. The following roof areas can be excluded when calculating the total roof area of the building: 1. Roof areas with a permanently installed domestic solar water-heating system. 2. Roof areas where the annual solar access is less than 70 percent. For the purpose of this code, solar access means the ratio of solar insolation including shade to the solar insolation without shade. Shading from obstructions located on the roof or any other part of the building shall not be included in the determina- tion of annual solar access. 3. Roof areas with a permanently installed solar elec- tric system having a nameplate DC power rating, measured under standard test conditions, of not less than 1 watt per square foot of roof area. Exception: Solar zones are not required in build- ings where the roof is designed and approved to be used for vehicular traffic or parking or for a heliport. C406.2.2 Orientation. All sections of the solar zone located on steep sloped roofs shall be oriented between 90 degrees and 270 degrees of true north. C406.2.3 Shading. 1. No obstructions, including but not limited to, vents, chimneys, architectural features and roof-mounted equipment, shall be located in the solar zone. 2. Any obstruction located on the roof or any other part of the building that projects above a solar zone shall be located at least twice the distance, measured in the horizontal plane, of the height difference between the highest point of the obstruction and the horizontal projection of the nearest point of the solar zone, measured in the vertical plane. Exception: Any roof obstruction, located on the roof or any other part of the building, that is ori- ented north of all points on the solar zone. C406.2.4 Structural design loads on construction docu- ments. For areas of the roof designated as solar zone, the structural design loads for roof dead load and roof live load shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents. Note: The inclusion of any collateral loads for future solar energy systems is not required. C406.3 Interconnection pathways. The construction docu- ments shall indicate a location for inverters and metering equipment and a pathway for routing of conduit from the solar zone to the point of interconnection with the electrical service. C406.4 Documentation. A copy of the construction docu- ments or a comparable document indicating the information from Sections C406.2 and C406.3 shall be provided to and maintained by the building owner. The building owner shall provide a copy of the construction documents or a compara- ble document indicating the information from Sections C406.2 and C406.3 to any purchasers and subsequent owners of the building or any part thereof. C406.5 Main electrical service panel. 1. The main electrical service panel shall have a minimum bus bar rating of not less than 200 amps. 2. The main electrical service panel shall have a reserved space to allow for the installation of double pole circuit breakers for a future solar electric installation. The min- imum reserved amperage shall be determined from Table C406.5. 2.1.Location. The reserved space shall be posi- tioned at the opposite (load) end from the input feeder location or main circuit location. 2.2.Marking. The reserved spaces shall be perma- nently marked as “For Future Solar Electric.” TABLE C406.5 MINIMUM RESERVED AMPERAGE PER SQUARE FOOT OF PLANNED SOLAR AREA SECTION C407 TOTAL BUILDING PERFORMANCE C407.1 Scope. This section establishes criteria for compli- ance using total building performance. Compliance with this section requires the use of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 Appendix G, with modifications. Required modifications to this standard are summarized in this section.1 All end use load components within and associated with the building shall be modeled. Exception: Energy used to recharge or refuel vehicles that are used for on-road and off-site transportation purposes shall be excluded from compliance modeling. Energy sup- plied to vehicle charging equipment shall be submetered per section C407.6. INVERTER SYSTEM VOLTAGE AMPERAGE PER SQUARE FOOT 120 0.125 240 0.063 208 0.042 277 0.054 480 0.018 1. A complete list of Boulder required modifications to the Appendix G protocol can be found on the City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code website in the document “Boulder Modified Appendix G Protocol.”>ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 317 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-75 C407.2 Mandatory requirements. Compliance with this section requires compliance with all mandatory requirements of this chapter. C407.3 Performance-based compliance. Compliance based on total building performance requires that the proposed design be shown to have a predicted annual energy perfor- mance that is 25 percent better than the predicted annual energy performance of the standard reference design base- line. Energy use for the proposed design shall also be reported to the code official as energy use intensity (EUI) in kBtu/sf/yr. The energy performance improvements beyond the standard reference design shall be calculated in one of the following three ways: C407.3.1 Modeled baseline. An annual energy use reduc- tion of 25 percent compared to the energy use of a build- ing modeled to achieve the performance cost index target (PCIt) calculated using the standard reference design of Appendix G of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2016 Energy Standard for Buildings Except for Low-rise Resi- dential Buildings, as modified in Section C407.4. C407.3.2 Fixed performance target. Projects of the types listed in Table C407.3.2 may use the EUI targets identified in the table in lieu of baseline modeling. The proposed building model predicted performance will be demon- strated using the energy modeling procedures in Appendix G of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2016 Energy Stan- dard for Buildings Except for Low-rise Residential Build- ings, as modified in Section C407.4. Buildings with multiple occupancy types listed in Table C407.3.2 (only) may develop a performance target based on a weighted- average EUI calculated by floor area of each occupancy type. TABLE C407.3.2 FIXED EUI TARGETS C407.3.3 Measured performance outcome. With approval of the building official, projects may demonstrate compliance with this code by proving that the building has achieved the EUI performance calculated per C407.3.1 or C407.3.2 based on metered energy use after occupancy. Buildings following the measured performance outcome path are required to comply with the mandatory measures of this chapter. C407.3.3.1 Excluded energy use. Energy used for data centers and EV charging equipment may be excluded from the total EUI of the building, provided that this energy use is separately metered per the requirements of Section C407.6. C407.3.3.2 Demonstration of operating energy use. Metered energy data shall be reported to the building official using Energy Star Portfolio Manager, and adjusted for the percentage of floor area occupied. While at least 75 percent occupied, the building shall operate at or below its assigned energy use target estab- lished in Section C407.3.2 for any recording period of 12 consecutive months that is completed within three years of the date of the Certificate of Occupancy. The owner shall notify the building official when this 12- month period has been successfully completed. C407.3.3.3 Adjustments to energy targets. The build- ing official may approve adjustments to building EUI targets based on unanticipated changes to building operation and conditions. Adjustments to targets must be approved by the building official based on specific documentation of the need for adjustment. The follow- ing conditions can be considered as the basis for adjust- ments to EUI targets: 1.Adjustment for change in occupancy. When the occupancy of the building or a portion of the building changes from that assumed in the permit submittal, the assigned energy performance tar- get shall be adjusted to reflect the new occu- pancy. If the new occupancy is not listed in Section C407.3.2, either the building official shall assign it an energy use target based on the best-performing local examples of that occu- pancy type, or a metering system shall be pro- vided that excludes the energy loads for the additional occupancy. 2.Adjustment for unusually cold years. If the heating degree days (HDD) recorded by the National Weather Service for the Denver Interna- tional Airport exceeds the average HDD value identified in local TMY3 data for the 12-month demonstration period, the assigned energy per- formance target is permitted to be increased by 1 percent for each 4-percent increase of HDD from average HDD for that period. 3.Adjustment for other factors. Adjustments for conditions other than those identified in this sec- tion that represent reasonable and unanticipated changes to building use characteristics may be considered as a basis for target adjustment on a case-by-case basis by the building official. C407.3.3.4 Financial security. The applicant shall provide a financial security to be used if the building fails to achieve an operating energy use lower than the building’s energy use target according to Section C407.3.2. The financial security shall be submitted to and approved by the code official prior to issuance of the building permit. The financial security requirement shall be fulfilled by one of the following methods: 1. An irrevocable letter of credit from a financial institution authorized to do business in Boulder, for an amount equal to $2.00 per square foot of gross floor area. BUILDING TYPE PERFORMANCE TARGETS (kBtu/ft2) Medium office (5,000–50,000 sf)23 Mid-rise apartment (Type R2)32 Primary school 34 Small office (< 5000 sf)19 Secondary school 31 Warehouse 11 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 318 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-76 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 2. A bond secured by the applicant to ensure com- pliance with this section for an amount equal to $2.00 per square foot of gross floor area. If the owner provides evidence that the building has operated at or below its target energy performance level, as provided in Section C407.3.3.2, the financial security provided by the applicant shall be returned to the applicant or the pledge and covenant shall be released, and the applicant will have no further obliga- tions under this section. C407.3.3.5 Procedure for noncompliance. If the owner fails to provide evidence that the building has operated as required under Section C407.3.3.2, the building official shall require the applicant to draw down on the financial security of Section C407.3.3.4 to lower the operating energy use of the building, includ- ing recommissioning, repairs and improvements to the existing energy-consuming systems, or provision of additional energy efficiency measures to reduce the building’s energy use. Such expenditures shall be approved in advance by the building official, and the work shall be fully completed within one year of the date when a financial security has been drawn down. C407.4 Modifications to Appendix G. Compliance with this section requires the use of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016 Appendix G, with specific modifications adopted by the City of Boulder. A complete list of these modifications can be found in the document: “Boulder Modified Appendix G Pro- tocol.” Required modifications to the Appendix G protocol include the following: C407.4.1 Building performance requirement. Projects must demonstrate that the proposed building design will achieve a required PCI (PCIr) that is 25 percent less than the PCI target (PCIt) calculated using the standard refer- ence design of Appendix G of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2016 Energy Standard for Buildings Except for Low- rise Residential Buildings, as calculated in Section 4.2.1.1 of that standard. C407.4.1.1 Revised building performance factors. Projects using this standard must use the revised building performance factors listed in Table C407.4.1.1 instead of the BPFs listed in Table 4.2.1.1 of Standard 90.1. C407.4.1.2 Annual energy use intensity (EUI) met- ric. Projects must report to the building official the pre- dicted EUI associated with the proposed building design that meets the required PCI (PCIr) identified in Section C407.4.1. C407.4.2 Performance backstop. All elements of the building envelope and HVAC system must meet the pre- scriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016, Sections 5.5 and 6.8. No individual component tradeoffs below these prescriptive requirements will be allowed in the proposed building performance model. C407.4.3 Fixed schedules. All projects using the perfor- mance pathway must use the mandatory building sched- ules and equipment power density schedules provided in the “Boulder Modified Appendix G Protocol” for both the baseline and proposed building model. Mandatory sched- ules are available on the City of Boulder Energy Conser- vation Code website. Exceptions: 1. The code official may approve alternate sched- ules prior to submittal to account for special use conditions. 2. The code official may approve alternate sched- ules for unregulated loads in the proposed build- ing design that reflect plug and process load management strategies. C407.4.4 Appendix G mandatory requirements. The following mandatory sections of Appendix G are super- seded by the mandatory requirements listed in Section C407.2: Sections 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4 and 10.4. C407.5 Solar requirements. On-site renewable energy gen- erated by a system installed as part of this project that is used by the building shall be subtracted from the proposed design energy consumption prior to calculating the proposed build- ing performance. C407.5.1 Minimum installed solar capacity. All projects using the performance pathway must install an on-site renewable energy system sized to meet at least 5 percent of annual proposed design energy consumption. C407.5.2 Solar readiness. All projects must also meet the requirements of Section C406, Solar Readiness. C407.6 Energy monitoring. All projects must install sub- metering or monitoring capabilities to support building energy performance analysis. The project must include capa- bilities to store and access a 24-month continuous data set on an ongoing basis. C407.6.1 Individual fuel sources. All fuel sources serv- ing the building must be separately metered. Individual meters used to comply with this section may not serve multiple buildings. TABLE C407.4.1.1 BUILDING PERFORMANCE FACTORS (BPF) FOR CLIMATE ZONE 5B BUILDING AREA TYPE CLIMATE ZONE 5B Office 0.56 Retail 0.58 School 0.43 Healthcare 0.55 Restaurant 0.62 Hotel 0.58 Warehouse 0.50 Apartment 0.78 All others 0.55 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 319 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-77 C407.6.2 On-site renewable energy production. Energy production from on-site renewable energy systems must be independently metered. C407.6.3 End-use metering. Measurement devices shall be installed in new buildings to monitor the electric energy use of each of the following separately: 1. Total electric energy. 2. HVAC systems energy use. 3. Interior lighting. 4. Exterior lighting. 5. Receptacle circuits. 6. Data centers representing over 10 percent of total building load or 5 percent of building floor area. 7. Other process loads that represent 10 percent or more of total building energy use based on building energy use modeling. C407.6.4 Electric vehicle (EV) supply equipment. EV supply equipment must be metered independently from other building loads. C407.6.5 Tenant metering. For buildings with tenants, individual tenant energy loads shall be capable of being separately monitored. C407.7 Performance feedback. Projects using the perfor- mance path are required to submit an analysis comparing design modeling to actual energy use for a consecutive 12- month period within two years of project occupancy. This analysis should use billing data and submetered data from the building to identify the accuracy of the energy model and any areas of performance divergence from predicted energy use. All projects are required to provide a narrative summary describing areas of alignment and misalignment of predictive modeling with actual energy use patterns, including modeled EUI and metered EUI. This effort may be designed to support an ongoing commissioning or retro-commissioning process required in Section 408. SECTION C408 MAINTENANCE INFORMATION AND SYSTEM COMMISSIONING C408.1 General. This section covers the provision of main- tenance information and the commissioning of, and the func- tional testing requirements for, building systems. C408.1.1 Building operations and maintenance infor- mation. The building operations and maintenance docu- ments shall be provided to the owner and shall consist of manufacturers’ information, specifications and recom- mendations; programming procedures and data points; narratives; and other means of illustrating to the owner how the building, equipment and systems are intended to be installed, maintained and operated. Required regular maintenance actions for equipment and systems shall be clearly stated on a readily visible label. The label shall include the title or publication number for the operation and maintenance manual for that particular model and type of product. C408.1.2 Energy use monitoring plan. As part of the operations manual, the project must provide a written description of what metered data is collected, how meter- ing data is collected and stored, and how the data can be accessed for project analysis by the building operator. C408.2 Mechanical systems and service water-heating systems commissioning and completion requirements. Prior to the final mechanical and plumbing inspections, the registered design professional or approved agency shall pro- vide evidence of mechanical systems commissioning and completion in accordance with the provisions of this section. Construction document notes shall clearly indicate provi- sions for commissioning and completion requirements in accordance with this section and are permitted to refer to specifications for further requirements. Copies of all docu- mentation shall be given to the owner or owner’s authorized agent and made available to the code official upon request in accordance with Sections C408.2.4 and C408.2.5. Exceptions: The following systems are exempt: 1. Mechanical systems and service water heater sys- tems in buildings where the total mechanical equip- ment capacity is less than 480,000 Btu/h (140.7 kW) cooling capacity and 600,000 Btu/h (175.8 kW) combined service water-heating and space-heating capacity. 2. Systems included in Section C403.5 that serve indi- vidual dwelling units and sleeping units. C408.2.1 Commissioning plan. A commissioning plan shall be developed by a registered design professional or approved agency and shall include the following items: 1. A narrative description of the activities that will be accomplished during each phase of commissioning, including the personnel intended to accomplish each of the activities. 2. A listing of the specific equipment, appliances or systems to be tested and a description of the tests to be performed. 3. Functions to be tested including, but not limited to, calibrations and economizer controls. 4. Conditions under which the test will be performed. Testing shall affirm winter and summer design con- ditions and full outside air conditions. 5. Measurable criteria for performance. C408.2.2 Systems adjusting and balancing. HVAC sys- tems shall be balanced in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards. Air and water flow rates shall be measured and adjusted to deliver final flow rates within the tolerances provided in the product specifica- tions. Test and balance activities shall include air system and hydronic system balancing. C408.2.2.1 Air systems balancing. Each supply air outlet and zone terminal device shall be equipped with means for air balancing in accordance with the require- ments of Chapter 6 of the International Mechanical Code. Discharge dampers used for air-system balancing are prohibited on constant-volume fans and variable- ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 320 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-78 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE volume fans with motors 10 hp (18.6 kW) and larger. Air systems shall be balanced in a manner to first mini- mize throttling losses then, for fans with system power of greater than 1 hp (0.746 kW), fan speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions. Exception: Fans with fan motors of 1 hp (0.74 kW) or less are not required to be provided with a means for air balancing. C408.2.2.2 Hydronic systems balancing. Individual hydronic heating and cooling coils shall be equipped with means for balancing and measuring flow. Hydronic systems shall be proportionately balanced in a manner to first minimize throttling losses, then the pump impeller shall be trimmed or pump speed shall be adjusted to meet design flow conditions. Each hydronic system shall have either the capability to measure pres- sure across the pump, or test ports at each side of each pump. Exception: The following equipment is not required to be equipped with a means for balancing or mea- suring flow: 1. Pumps with pump motors of 5 hp (3.7 kW) or less. 2. Where throttling results in not greater than 5 percent of the nameplate horsepower draw above that required if the impeller were trimmed. C408.2.3 Functional performance testing. Functional performance testing specified in Sections C408.2.3.1 through C408.2.3.3 shall be conducted. C408.2.3.1 Equipment. Equipment functional perfor- mance testing shall demonstrate the installation and operation of components, systems, and system-to-sys- tem interfacing relationships in accordance with approved plans and specifications such that operation, function, and maintenance serviceability for each of the commissioned systems is confirmed. Testing shall include all modes and sequence of operation, including under full-load, part-load and the following emergency conditions: 1. All modes as described in the sequence of opera- tion. 2. Redundant or automatic back-up mode. 3. Performance of alarms. 4. Mode of operation upon a loss of power and res- toration of power. Exception: Unitary or packaged HVAC equipment listed in Tables C403.3.2(1) through C403.3.2(3) that do not require supply air economizers. C408.2.3.2 Controls. HVAC and service water-heating control systems shall be tested to document that control devices, components, equipment and systems are cali- brated and adjusted and operate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. Sequences of opera- tion shall be functionally tested to document they oper- ate in accordance with approved plans and specifications. C408.2.3.3 Economizers. Air economizers shall undergo a functional test to determine that they operate in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications. C408.2.4 Preliminary commissioning report. A prelimi- nary report of commissioning test procedures and results shall be completed and certified by the registered design professional or approved agency and provided to the building owner or owner’s authorized agent. The report shall be organized with mechanical and service hot water findings in separate sections to allow independent review. The report shall be identified as “Preliminary Commis- sioning Report,” shall include the completed Commission- ing Compliance Checklist, Figure C408.2.4, and shall identify: 1. Itemization of deficiencies found during testing required by this section that have not been corrected at the time of report preparation. 2. Deferred tests that cannot be performed at the time of report preparation because of climatic conditions. 3. Climatic conditions required for performance of the deferred tests. 4. Results of functional performance tests. 5. Functional performance test procedures used during the commissioning process, including measurable criteria for test acceptance. C408.2.4.1 Acceptance of report. Buildings, or por- tions thereof, shall not be considered as acceptable for a final inspection pursuant to Section C105.2.6 until the code official has received the Preliminary Commission- ing Report from the building owner or owner’s autho- rized agent. C408.2.4.2 Copy of report. The code official shall be permitted to require that a copy of the Preliminary Commissioning Report be made available for review by the code official. C408.2.5 Documentation requirements. The construc- tion documents shall specify that the documents described in this section be provided to the building owner or owner’s authorized agent within 90 days of the date of receipt of the certificate of occupancy. C408.2.5.1 System balancing report. A written report describing the activities and measurements completed in accordance with Section C408.2.2. C408.2.5.2 Final commissioning report. A report of test procedures and results identified as “Final Com- missioning Report” shall be delivered to the building owner or owner’s authorized agent. The report shall be organized with mechanical system and service hot water system findings in separate sections to allow independent review. The report shall include the fol- lowing: 1. Results of functional performance tests. 2. Disposition of deficiencies found during testing, including details of corrective measures used or proposed. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 321 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-79 3. Functional performance test procedures used during the commissioning process including mea- surable criteria for test acceptance, provided herein for repeatability. Exception: Deferred tests that cannot be performed at the time of report preparation due to climatic con- ditions. C408.3 Functional testing of lighting controls. Automatic lighting controls required by this code shall comply with this section. C408.3.1 Functional testing. Prior to passing final inspection, the registered design professional shall pro- vide evidence that the lighting control systems have been tested to ensure that control hardware and software are cal- ibrated, adjusted, programmed and in proper working con- dition in accordance with the construction documents and manufacturer’s instructions. Functional testing shall be in accordance with Sections C408.3.1.1 through C408.3.1.3 for the applicable control type. C408.3.1.1 Occupant sensor controls. Where occu- pant sensor controls are provided, the following proce- dures shall be performed: 1. Certify that the occupant sensor has been located and aimed in accordance with manufacturer rec- ommendations. 2. For projects with seven or fewer occupant sen- sors, each sensor shall be tested. 3. For projects with more than seven occupant sen- sors, testing shall be done for each unique combi- nation of sensor type and space geometry. Where multiples of each unique combination of sensor type and space geometry are provided, not less than 10 percent and in no case fewer than one, of each combination shall be tested unless the code official or design professional requires a higher percentage to be tested. Where 30 percent or more of the tested controls fail, all remaining identical combinations shall be tested. For occupant sensor controls to be tested, ver- ify the following: 3.1. Where occupant sensor controls include status indicators, verify correct operation. 3.2. The controlled lights turn off or down to the permitted level within the required time. 3.3. For auto-on occupant sensor controls, the lights turn on to the permitted level when an occupant enters the space. 3.4. For manual-on occupant sensor controls, the lights turn on only when manually activated. 3.5. The lights are not incorrectly turned on by movement in adjacent areas or by HVAC operation. C408.3.1.2 Time-switch controls. Where time-switch controls are provided, the following procedures shall be performed: 1. Confirm that the time-switch control is pro- grammed with accurate weekday, weekend and holiday schedules. 2. Provide documentation to the owner of time- switch controls programming including weekday, weekend, holiday schedules, and set-up and prefer- ence program settings. 3. Verify the correct time and date in the time switch. 4. Verify that any battery back-up is installed and energized. 5. Verify that the override time limit is set to not more than 2 hours. 6. Simulate occupied condition. Verify and docu- ment the following: 6.1. All lights can be turned on and off by their respective area control switch. 6.2. The switch only operates lighting in the enclosed space in which the switch is located. 7. Simulate unoccupied condition. Verify and docu- ment the following: 7.1. Nonexempt lighting turns off. 7.2. Manual override switch allows only the lights in the enclosed space where the over- ride switch is located to turn on or remain on until the next scheduled shutoff occurs. 8. Additional testing as specified by the registered design professional. C408.3.1.3 Daylight responsive controls. Where day- light responsive controls are provided, the following shall be verified: 1. Control devices have been properly located, field calibrated and set for accurate setpoints and threshold light levels. 2. Daylight controlled lighting loads adjust to light level setpoints in response to available daylight. 3. The calibration adjustment equipment is located for ready access only by authorized personnel. C408.3.2 Documentation requirements. The construc- tion documents shall specify that the documents described in this section be provided to the building owner or owner’s authorized agent within 90 days of the date of receipt of the certificate of occupancy. C408.3.2.1 Drawings. Construction documents shall include the location and catalogue number of each piece of equipment. C408.3.2.2 Manuals. An operating and maintenance manual shall be provided and include the following: 1. Name and address of not less than one service agency for installed equipment. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 322 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY C-80 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE 2. A narrative of how each system is intended to operate, including recommended setpoints. 3. Submittal data indicating all selected options for each piece of lighting equipment and lighting controls. 4. Operation and maintenance manuals for each piece of lighting equipment. Required routine maintenance actions, cleaning and recommended relamping shall be clearly identified. 5. A schedule for inspecting and recalibrating all lighting controls. C408.3.2.3 Report. A report of test results shall be pro- vided and include the following: 1. Results of functional performance tests. 2. Disposition of deficiencies found during testing, including details of corrective measures used or proposed. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 323 of 389 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-81 FIGURE C408.2.4 COMMISSIONING COMPLIANCE CHECKLIST Project Information: _____________________________ Project Name:___________________________________ Project Address: _________________________________________________________________________________ Commissioning Authority: __________________________________________________________________________ Commissioning Plan (Section C408.2.1) Commissioning Plan was used during construction and includes all items required by Section C408.2.1 Systems Adjusting and Balancing has been completed. HVAC Equipment Functional Testing has been executed. If applicable, deferred and follow-up testing is scheduled to be provided on:___________________________ HVAC Controls Functional Testing has been executed. If applicable, deferred and follow-up testing is scheduled to be provided on:___________________________ Economizer Functional Testing has been executed. If applicable, deferred and follow-up testing is scheduled to be provided on:___________________________ Lighting Controls Functional Testing has been executed. If applicable, deferred and follow-up testing is scheduled to be provided on:___________________________ Service Water-Heating System Functional Testing has been executed. If applicable, deferred and follow-up testing is scheduled to be provided on:___________________________ Manual, record documents and training have been completed or scheduled Preliminary Commissioning Report submitted to owner and includes all items required by Section C408.2.4 I hereby certify that the commissioning provider has provided me with evidence of mechanical, service water heating and lighting systems commissioning in accordance with the 2018 IECC. Signature of Building Owner or Owner’s Representative ___________________________ Date______________ ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 324 of 389 C-82 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 325 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-83 CHAPTER 5 [CE] EXISTING BUILDINGS User note: About this chapter: Many buildings are renovated or altered in numerous ways that could affect the energy use of the building as a whole. Chapter 5 requires the application of certain parts of Chapter 4 in order to maintain, if not improve, the conservation of energy by the reno- vated or altered building. SECTION C501 GENERAL C501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the alteration, repair, addition and change of occupancy of existing buildings and structures. C501.2 Existing buildings. Except as specified in this chap- ter, this code shall not be used to require the removal, alter- ation or abandonment of, nor prevent the continued use and maintenance of, an existing building or building system law- fully in existence at the time of adoption of this code. C501.3 Maintenance. Buildings and structures, and parts thereof, shall be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. Devices and systems required by this code shall be main- tained in conformance to the code edition under which they were installed. The owner or the owner’s authorized agent shall be responsible for the maintenance of buildings and structures. The requirements of this chapter shall not provide the basis for removal or abrogation of energy conservation, fire protection and safety systems and devices in existing structures. C501.4 Compliance. Alterations, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy to, or relocation of, existing buildings and structures shall comply with the provisions for alter- ations, repairs, additions and changes of occupancy or relo- cation, respectively, in this code and in the International Building Code, International Existing Building Code, Inter- national Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, Interna- tional Mechanical Code, International Plumbing Code, International Property Maintenance Code, International Pri- vate Sewage Disposal Code and NFPA 70. C501.5 New and replacement materials. Except as other- wise required or permitted by this code, materials permitted by the applicable code for new construction shall be used. Like materials shall be permitted for repairs, provided that hazards to life, health or property are not created. Hazardous materials shall not be used where the code for new construc- tion would not allow use of these materials in buildings of similar occupancy, purpose and location. C501.6 Historic buildings. Provisions of this code relating to the construction, repair, alteration, restoration and move- ment of structures, and change of occupancy shall not be mandatory for historic buildings provided that a report has been submitted to the code official and signed by a registered design professional, or a representative of the State Historic Preservation Office or the historic preservation authority hav- ing jurisdiction, demonstrating that compliance with that pro- vision would threaten, degrade or destroy the historic form, fabric or function of the building. SECTION C502 ADDITIONS C502.1 General. Additions to an existing building, building system or portion thereof shall conform to the provisions of this code as those provisions relate to new construction. Addi- tions shall not create an unsafe or hazardous condition or overload existing building systems. An addition shall be deemed to comply with this code if the addition alone com- plies or if the existing building and addition comply with this code as a single building. 1. New additions with a construction valuation of $500,000 or more shall comply with Section C407. 2. New buildings and additions with a construction valua- tion less than $500,000 shall comply with Section C502.2. C502.2 Prescriptive compliance. Additions shall comply with Sections C502.2.1 through C502.2.6.2. C502.2.1 Vertical fenestration. New vertical fenestration area that results in a total building fenestration area less than or equal to that specified in Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.1.5, C402.4.3 or C407. Addi- tions with vertical fenestration that result in a total building fenestration area greater than Section C402.4.1 or addi- tions that exceed the fenestration area greater than Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4.1.1 for the addition only. Additions that result in a total building verti- cal fenestration area exceeding that specified in Section C402.4.1.1 shall comply with Section C402.1.5 or C407. C502.2.2 Skylight area. New skylight area that results in a total building fenestration area less than or equal to that specified in Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.1.5 or C407. Additions with skylight area that result in a total building skylight area greater than C402.4.1 or additions that exceed the skylight area shall comply with Section C402.4.1.2 for the addition only. Additions that result in a total building skylight area exceeding that speci- fied in Section C402.4.1.2 shall comply with Section C402.1.5 or C407. C502.2.3 Building mechanical systems. New mechanical systems and equipment that are part of the addition and >>ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 326 of 389 EXISTING BUILDINGS C-84 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE serve the building heating, cooling and ventilation needs shall comply with Section C403. C502.2.3.1 Mechanical systems acceptance testing. New mechanical systems that serve additions shall com- ply with Sections C408.2.2, C408.2.3 and C408.2.5. Exceptions: 1. Mechanical systems and service water-heating systems in buildings where the total mechani- cal equipment capacity is less than 480,000 Btu/h (140.7 kW) cooling capacity and 600,000 Btu/h (175.8 kW) combined service water-heating and space-heating capacity. 2. Systems included in Section C403.5 that serve individual dwelling units and sleeping units. C502.2.4 Service water-heating systems. New service water-heating equipment, controls and service water heat- ing piping shall comply with Section C404. C502.2.4.1 Service hot water systems acceptance testing. New service hot water systems that serve addi- tions shall comply with Sections C408.2.3 and C408.2.5. Exceptions: 1. Service water-heating systems in buildings where the total mechanical equipment capac- ity is less than 600,000 Btu/h (175.8 kW) combined service water-heating and space- heating capacity. 2. Systems included in Section C403.5 that serve individual dwelling units and sleeping units. C502.2.5 Pools and inground permanently installed spas. New pools and inground permanently installed spas shall comply with Section C404.10. C502.2.6 Lighting power and systems. New lighting sys- tems that are installed as part of the addition shall comply with Section C405. C502.2.6.1 Interior lighting power. The total interior lighting power for the addition shall comply with Sec- tion C405.3.2 for the addition alone, or the existing building and the addition shall comply as a single build- ing. C502.2.6.2 Exterior lighting power. The total exterior lighting power for the addition shall comply with Sec- tion C405.4.2 for the addition alone, or the existing building and the addition shall comply as a single build- ing. C502.2.6.3 Lighting acceptance testing. New lighting systems that serve additions shall comply with Section C408.3. SECTION C503 ALTERATIONS C503.1 General. Alterations to any building or structure shall comply with the requirements of Section C503 and the code for new construction. Alterations shall be such that the existing building or structure is not less conforming to the provisions of this code than the existing building or structure was prior to the alteration. Alterations to an existing build- ing, building system or portion thereof shall conform to the provisions of this code as those provisions relate to new con- struction. Alterations shall not create an unsafe or hazardous condition or overload existing building systems. Level 3 alterations shall also comply with Section C503.7. Level 4 alterations shall also comply with Section C503.8. Exception: The following alterations need not comply with the requirements for new construction, provided that the energy use of the building is not increased: 1. Storm windows installed over existing fenestration. 2. Surface-applied window film installed on existing single-pane fenestration assemblies reducing solar heat gain, provided that the code does not require the glazing or fenestration to be replaced. 3. Existing ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction, provided that these cavities are filled with insulation. 4. Construction where the existing roof, wall or floor cavity is not exposed. 5.Roof recover. 6.Air barriers shall not be required for roof recover and roof replacement where the alterations or reno- vations to the building do not include alterations, renovations or repairs to the remainder of the build- ing envelope. C503.2 Change in space conditioning. Any nonconditioned or low-energy space that is altered to become conditioned space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this code. Exceptions: 1. Where the component performance alternative in Section C402.1.5 is used to comply with this sec- tion, the proposed UA shall be not greater than 110 percent of the target UA. 2. Where the total building performance option in Sec- tion C407 is used to comply with this section, the annual energy cost of the proposed design shall be not greater than 110 percent of the annual energy cost otherwise permitted by Section C407.3. C503.3 Building envelope. New building envelope assem- blies that are part of the alteration shall comply with Sections C402.1 through C402.5. Exception: Where the existing building exceeds the fenes- tration area limitations of Section C402.4.1 prior to alter- ation, the building is exempt from Section C402.4.1 provided that there is not an increase in fenestration area. C503.3.1 Roof replacement. Roof replacements shall comply with Section C402.1.3, C402.1.4, C402.1.5 or C407 where the existing roof assembly is part of the build- ing thermal envelope and contains insulation entirely above the roof deck. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 327 of 389 EXISTING BUILDINGS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-85 C503.3.2 Vertical fenestration. The addition of vertical fenestration that results in a total building fenestration area less than or equal to that specified in Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.1.5, C402.4.3 or C407. The addition of vertical fenestration that results in a total building fenestration area greater than Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4.1.1 for the space adjacent to the new fenestration only. Alterations that result in a total building vertical fenestration area exceeding that specified in Section C402.4.1.1 shall com- ply with Section C402.1.5 or C407. Provided that the ver- tical fenestration area is not changed, using the same vertical fenestration area in the standard reference design as the building prior to alteration shall be an alternative to using the vertical fenestration area specified in Table C407.5.1(1). C503.3.3 Skylight area. New skylight area that results in a total building skylight area less than or equal to that specified in Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.1.5, C402.4 or C407. The addition of skylight area that results in a total building skylight area greater than Section C402.4.1 shall comply with Section C402.4.1.2 for the space adjacent to the new skylights. Alterations that result in a total building skylight area exceeding that specified in Section C402.4.1.2 shall comply with Section C402.1.5 or C407. Provided that the skylight area is not changed, using the same skylight area in the standard ref- erence design as the building prior to alteration shall be an alternative to using the skylight area specified in Table C407.5.1(1). C503.4 Heating and cooling systems. New heating, cooling and duct systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Sections C403. C503.4.1 Economizers. New cooling systems that are part of alteration shall comply with Section C403.5. C503.4.2 Mechanical system acceptance testing. New mechanical systems that serve alterations shall comply with Sections C408.2.2, C408.2.3 and C408.2.5. Exceptions: 1. Mechanical systems and service water-heating systems in buildings where the total mechanical equipment capacity is less than 480,000 Btu/h (140.7 kW) cooling capacity and 600,000 Btu/h (175.8 kW) combined service water-heating and space-heating capacity. 2. Systems included in Section C403.5 that serve individual dwelling units and sleeping units. C503.5 Service hot water systems. New service hot water systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Sec- tion C404. C503.5.1 Service hot water system acceptance testing. New service hot water systems that serve alterations shall comply with Sections C408.2.3 and C408.2.5. Exceptions: 1. Service water-heating systems in buildings where the total mechanical equipment capacity is less than 600,000 Btu/h (175.8 kW) combined service water-heating and space-heating capacity. 2. Systems included in Section C403.5 that serve individual dwelling units and sleeping units. C503.6 Lighting systems. New lighting systems that are part of the alteration shall comply with Section C405. Exception. Alterations that replace less than 10 percent of the luminaires in a space, provided that such alterations do not increase the installed interior lighting power. C503.6.1 Lighting acceptance testing. New lighting sys- tems that serve alterations shall comply with Section C408.3. C503.7 Level 3 alterations. Level 3 alterations shall also comply with Section C407.3 where the proposed design EUI or PCI shall be not greater than 125 percent of the EUI or PCI otherwise permitted by Section C407.3. C503.8 Level 4 alterations. Level 4 alterations shall also comply with Section C407.3 where the proposed design EUI or PCI shall be not greater than 110 percent of the EUI or PCI otherwise permitted by Section C407.3. SECTION C504 REPAIRS C504.1 General. Buildings and structures, and parts thereof, shall be repaired in compliance with Section C501.3 and this section. Work on nondamaged components that is necessary for the required repair of damaged components shall be con- sidered to be part of the repair and shall not be subject to the requirements for alterations in this chapter. Routine mainte- nance required by Section C501.3, ordinary repairs exempt from permit and abatement of wear due to normal service conditions shall not be subject to the requirements for repairs in this section. Where a building was constructed to comply with ANSI/ ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1, repairs shall comply with the stan- dard and need not comply with Sections C402, C403, C404 and C405. C504.2 Application. For the purposes of this code, the fol- lowing shall be considered to be repairs: 1. Glass-only replacements in an existing sash and frame. 2.Roof repairs. 3. Air barriers shall not be required for roof repair where the repairs to the building do not include alterations, renovations or repairs to the remainder of the building envelope. 4. Replacement of existing doors that separate condi- tioned space from the exterior shall not require the installation of a vestibule or revolving door, provided that an existing vestibule that separates a conditioned space from the exterior shall not be removed. 5.Repairs where only the bulb, the ballast or both within the existing luminaires in a space are replaced, pro- vided that the replacement does not increase the installed interior lighting power. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 328 of 389 EXISTING BUILDINGS C-86 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE SECTION C505 CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY OR USE C505.1 General. Spaces undergoing a change in occupancy that would result in an increase in demand for either fossil fuel or electrical energy shall comply with this code. Where the use in a space changes from one use in Table C405.3.2(1) or C405.3.2(2) to another use in Table C405.3.2(1) or C405.3.2(2), the installed lighting wattage shall comply with Section C405.3. Where the space undergoing a change in occupancy or use is in a building with a fenestration area that exceeds the limitations of Section C402.4.1, the space is exempt from Section C402.4.1 provided that there is not an increase in fenestration area. Exceptions: 1. Where the component performance alternative in Section C402.1.5 is used to comply with this sec- tion, the proposed UA shall be not greater than 110 percent of the target UA. 2.Where performance-based compliance in Section C407 is required to comply with this section, the proposed design EUI or PCI shall be not greater than 110 percent of the EUI or PCI otherwise permitted by Section C407.3. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 329 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-87 CHAPTER 6 [CE] REFERENCED STANDARDS User note: About this chapter: Chapter 6 lists the full title, edition year and address of the promulgator for all standards that are referenced in the code. The section numbers in which the standards are referenced are also listed. This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this document that reference the standard. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 107. AAMA American Architectural Manufacturers Association 1827 Walden Office Square Suite 550 Schaumburg, IL 60173-4268 AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A C440—17: North American Fenestration Standard/Specifications for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights Table C402.5.2 AHAM Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers 1111 19th Street NW, Suite 402 Washington, DC 20036 ANSI/AHAM RAC-1—2008: Room Air Conditioners Table C403.3.2(3) AHAM HRF-1—2016: Energy, Performance and Capacity of Household Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers Table C403.10.1 AHRI Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute 2111 Wilson Blvd, Suite 500 Arlington, VA 22201 ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1 (1998 RA2014): Water-to-Air and Brine-to-Air Heat Pumps—Testing and Rating for Performance Table C403.3.2(2) ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-2 (1998 RA2014): Water-to-Water and Brine-to-Water Heat Pumps —Testing and Rating for Performance Table C403.3.2(2) 210/240—2016: Performance Rating of Unitary Air-conditioning and Air-source Heat Pump Equipment Table C403.3.2(1), Table C403.3.2(2) 310/380—2014 (CSA-C744-04): Standard for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Table C403.3.2(3) 340/360—2015: Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment Table C403.3.2(1), Table C403.3.2(2) 365(I-P)—2009: Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-conditioning Condensing Units Table C403.3.2(1), Table C403.3.2(6) 390 (I-P)—2015: Performance Rating of Single Package Vertical Air-conditioners and Heat Pumps Table C403.3.2(3) 400 (I-P)—2015: Performance Rating of Liquid to Liquid Heat Exchangers Table C403.3.2(10) 440—2008: Performance Rating of Room Fan Coils—with Addendum 1 C403.11.3 460—2005: Performance Rating of Remote Mechanical-draft Air-cooled Refrigerant Condensers Table C403.3.2(8) ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 330 of 389 REFERENCED STANDARDS C-88 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE AHRI—continued 550/590 (I-P)—2015: Performance Rating of Water-chilling and Heat Pump Water-heating Packages Using the Vapor Compression Cycle C403.3.2.1, Table C403.3.2(7) 560—00: Absorption Water Chilling and Water Heating Packages Table C403.3.2(7) 1160 (I-P) —2014: Performance Rating of Heat Pump Pool Heaters Table C404.2 1200 (I-P)—2013: Performance Rating of Commercial Refrigerated Display Merchandisers and Storage Cabinets C403.10, Table C403.10.1(1), Table C403.10.1(2) AMCA Air Movement and Control Association International 30 West University Drive Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1806 205—12: Energy Efficiency Classification for Fans C403.8.3 220—08 (R2012): Laboratory Methods of Testing Air Curtain Units for Aerodynamic Performance Rating C402.5.6 500D—12: Laboratory Methods for Testing Dampers for Rating C403.7.7 ANSI American National Standards Institute 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor New York, NY 10036 Z21.10.3/CSA 4.3—11: Gas Water Heaters, Volume III—Storage Water Heaters with Input Ratings Above 75,000 Btu per Hour, Circulating Tank and Instantaneous Table C404.2 Z21.47/CSA 2.3—12: Gas-fired Central Furnaces Table C403.3.2(4) Z83.8/CSA 2.6—09: Gas Unit Heaters, Gas Packaged Heaters, Gas Utility Heaters and Gas-fired Duct Furnaces Table C403.3.2(4) APSP The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Suite 580 Alexandria, VA 22314 14—2014: American National Standard for Portable Electric Spa Energy Efficiency C404.8 ASHRAE ASHRAE 1791 Tullie Circle NE Atlanta, GA 30329 ASHRAE 127-2007: Method of Testing for Rating Computer Table C403.3.2(9) ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183—2007 (RA2014): Peak Cooling and Heating Load Calculations in Buildings, Except Low-rise Residential Buildings C403.1.1 ASHRAE—2016: ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook C403.1.1 ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1 (1998 RA2014): Water-to-Air and Brine-to-Air Heat Pumps—Testing and Rating for Performance Table C403.3.2(2) ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-2 (1998 RA2014): Water-to-Water and Brine-to-Water Heat Pumps—Testing and Rating for Performance Table C403.3.2(2) ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 331 of 389 REFERENCED STANDARDS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-89 ASHRAE—continued 55—2013: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Table C407.5.1 90.1—2016: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings C401.2, Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4, Table C407.6.1, C502.1, C503.1, C504.1 140—2014: Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs C407.6.1 146—2011: Testing and Rating Pool Heaters Table C404.2 ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers Two Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5990 ASME A17.1—2016/CSA B44—16: Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators C405.8.2 ASTM ASTM International 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700 West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 C90—14: Specification for Load-bearing Concrete Masonry Units Table C401.3 C1363—11: Standard Test Method for Thermal Performance of Building Materials and Envelope Assemblies by Means of a Hot Box Apparatus C303.1.4.1, Table C402.1.4, 402.2.7 C1371—15: Standard Test Method for Determination of Emittance of Materials Near Room Temperature Using Portable Emissometers Table C402.3 C1549—09(2014): Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer Table C402.3 D1003—13: Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics C402.4.2.2 E283—04(2012): Test Method for Determining the Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors Under Specified Pressure Differences Across the Specimen Table C402.5.2, C402.5.7 E408—13: Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-meter Techniques Table C402.3 E779—10: Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by Fan Pressurization C402.5 E903—12: Standard Test Method Solar Absorptance, Reflectance and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres (Withdrawn 2005) Table C402.3 E1827—11: Standard Test Methods for Determining Airtightness of Building Using an Orifice Blower Door C402.5, C606.4 E1918—06(2015): Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal or Low-sloped Surfaces in the Field Table C402.3 E1980—11: Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and Low-sloped Opaque Surfaces Table C402.3, C402.3.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 332 of 389 REFERENCED STANDARDS C-90 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE CRRC Cool Roof Rating Council 449 15th Street, Suite 400 Oakland, CA 94612 ANSI/CRRC-S100—2016: Standard Test Methods for Determining Radiative Properties of Materials Table C402.3, C402.3.1 CSA CSA Group 8501 East Pleasant Valley Road Cleveland, OH 44131-5516 AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440—17: North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights Table C402.5.2 CSA B55.1—2015: Test Method for Measuring Efficiency and Pressure Loss of Drain Water Heat Recovery Units C404.8 CSA B55.2—2015: Drain Water Heat Recovery Units C404.8 CTI Cooling Technology Institute P. O. Box 681807 Houston, TX 77268 ATC 105 (00): Acceptance Test Code for Water Cooling Tower Table C403.3.2(8) ATC 105S—11: Acceptance Test Code for Closed Circuit Cooling Towers Table C403.3.2(8) ATC 106—11: Acceptance Test for Mechanical Draft Evaporative Vapor Condensers Table C403.3.2(8) STD 201—11: Standard for Certification of Water Cooling Towers Thermal Performances Table C403.3.2(8) CTI STD 201 RS(15): Performance Rating of Evaporative Heat Rejection Equipment Table C403.3.2(8) DASMA Door & Access Systems Manufacturers Association, International 1300 Sumner Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115-2851 105—2016: Test Method for Thermal Transmittance and Air Infiltration of Garage Doors and Rolling Doors C303.1.3, Table C402.5.2 DOE U.S. Department of Energy c/o Superintendent of Documents 1000 Independence Avenue SW Washington, DC 20585 10 CFR, Part 430—2015: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures and Certification and Enforcement Requirement for Plumbing Products; and Certification and Enforcement Requirements for Residential Appliances; Final Rule Table C403.3.2(4), Table C403.3.2(5), Table C404.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 333 of 389 REFERENCED STANDARDS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-91 DOE—continued 10 CFR, Part 430, Subpart B, Appendix N—(2015): Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers C202 10 CFR, Part 431—2015: Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures and Efficiency Standards; Final Rules Table C403.3.2(5), C405.6, Table C405.6, C405.7 10 CFR 431 Subpart B App B: Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors C403.8.4, Table C405.7(1), Table C405.7(2), Table C405.7(3), C405.7(4) NAECA 87—(88): National Appliance Energy Conservation Act 1987 [Public Law 100-12 (with Amendments of 1988-P.L. 100-357)] Table C403.3.2(1), Table C403.3.2(2), Table C403.3.2(4) ICC International Code Council, Inc. 500 New Jersey Avenue NW 6th Floor Washington, DC 20001 IBC—18: International Building Code® C201.3, C303.2, C402.5.3, C501.4 IFC—18: International Fire Code® C201.3, C501.4 IFGC—18: International Fuel Gas Code® C201.3, C501.4 IMC—18: International Mechanical Code® C403.7.7, C403.2.2, C403.7.1, C403.7.2, C403.7.4, C403.7.5, C403.11.1, C403.11.2.1, C403.11.2.2, C403.6, C403.6.6, C501.4 IPC—18: International Plumbing Code® C201.3, C501.4 IPMC—18: International Property Maintenance Code® C501.4 IPSDC—18: International Private Sewage Disposal Code® C501.4 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers 3 Park Avenue, 17th Floor New York, NY 10016 IEEE 515.1—2012: IEE Standard for the Testing, Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Electrical Resistance Trace Heating for Commercial Applications C404.6.2 IES Illuminating Engineering Society 120 Wall Street, 17th Floor New York, NY 10005-4001 ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1—2016: Energy Standard for Buildings, Except Low-rise Residential Buildings C401.2, Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4, C502.1, C503.1, C504.1 ISO International Organization for Standardization Chemin de Blandonnet 8, CP 401, 1214 Vernier Geneva, Switzerland ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1(1998 RA2014): Water-to-Air and Brine-to-Air Heat Pumps -Testing and Rating for Performance Table C403.3.2(2) ISO/AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-2(1998 RA2014): Water-to-Water and Brine-to-Water Heat Pumps -Testing and Rating for Performance C403.3.2(2) ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 334 of 389 REFERENCED STANDARDS C-92 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 North 17th Street, Suite 900 Rosslyn, VA 22209 MG1—2014: Motors and Generators C202 NFPA National Fire Protection Association 1 Batterymarch Park Quincy, MA 02169-7471 70—17: National Electrical Code C501.4 NFRC National Fenestration Rating Council, Inc. 6305 Ivy Lane, Suite 140 Greenbelt, MD 20770 100—2017: Procedure for Determining Fenestration Products U-factors C303.1.3, C402.2.1.1 200—2017: Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Solar Heat Gain Coefficients and Visible Transmittance at Normal Incidence C303.1.3, C402.4.1.1 400—2017: Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Air Leakage Table C402.5.2 SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association, Inc. 4021 Lafayette Center Drive Chantilly, VA 20151-1219 SMACNA—2012: HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual Second Edition C403.2.11.2.3 UL UL LLC 333 Pfingsten Road Northbrook, IL 60062-2096 710—12: Exhaust Hoods for Commercial Cooking Equipment—with Revisions through November 2013 C403.7.5 727—06: Oil-fired Central Furnaces—with Revisions through October 2013 Table C403.3.2(4) 731—95: Oil-fired Unit Heaters—with Revisions through October 2013 Table C403.3.2(4) 1784—01: Air Leakage Tests of Door Assemblies—with Revisions through February 2015 C402.5.3 US-FTC United States-Federal Trade Commission 600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW Washington, DC 20580 CFR Title 16 (2015): R-value Rule C303.1.4 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 335 of 389 REFERENCED STANDARDS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-93 WDMA Window and Door Manufacturers Association 2025 M Street NW, Suite 800 Washington, DC 20036-3309 AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440—17: North American Fenestration Standard/Specification for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights Table C402.5.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 336 of 389 C-94 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 337 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-95 APPENDIX CA SOLAR-READY ZONE—COMMERCIAL SEE SECTION C406 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 338 of 389 C-96 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 339 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-97 INDEX A ACCESSIBLE Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.3, C404.6, C404.9.1, C405.2.2.3, C405.2.3.1 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 ADDITIONAL EFFICIENCY PACKAGE . . . . . . . .C406 ADDITIONS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Historic buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C501.6 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C502 ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 1 AIR BARRIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5 Access openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.4 Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.1.1 Dampers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.5, C403.7.7 Doors other than fenestration. . . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.4 Fenestration . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.2, Table C402.5.2 Penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.1.1 Recessed lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.8 Rooms with fuel burning appliances. . . . . . .C402.5.3 Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5 Vestibules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.7 AIR CONDITIONERS Efficiency requirements . . . . . .Tables C403.3.2(1, 3) AIR CURTAIN Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Vestibules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.7 AIR ECONOMIZERS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . C403.5, C403.5.1, C403.5.2, C403.5.3, C403.5.4 AIR INFILTRATION (see AIR BARRIER) Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 AIR INTAKES AND EXHAUSTS. . . . . . . . . . C402.5.5, C403.7.7 AIR LEAKAGE—THERMAL ENVELOPE (see AIR BARRIER) AIR SYSTEM BALANCING . . . . . . . . . . . .C408.2.2.1, C408.2.2.2, C408.2.5.3 ALTERATIONS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Historic buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C501.6 Replacement fenestration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C401.2.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C503 ALTERNATE MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C102 APPROVED Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 APPROVED AGENCY Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Inspections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C105.4 AREA-WEIGHTED U-FACTOR . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.3.4 AUTOMATIC Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 B BASEMENT WALLS (see WALL, BELOW GRADE) Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.2.1 BELOW-GRADE WALLS (see WALL, BELOW GRADE) BOARD OF APPEALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C109 Limitations on authority. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C109.2 Qualifications of members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C109.3 BOILERS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . Table C403.3.2(5), C403.3.4, C403.4.3, C404.2, Table C404.2 Setback controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.1.5 Turndown controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.3.4 BUILDING Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Multifamily residential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C407.5.2.3 BUILDING COMMISSIONING Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C408 BUILDING ENTRANCE Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Exterior lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C405.4.2(2) Lighting controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.2.1.1 Vestibules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.7 BUILDING ENVELOPE Compliance documentation . . . . . .C103.2, C103.2.1 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Exemptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.1.1, C402.1.2 Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.1.1 Insulation and fenestration criteria . . . .C402.1.3, Table C402.1.3, C402.1.4, Table C402.1.4 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402 Performance method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C407.3 BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE Air leakage and barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.5 Low-energy buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.1.1 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 340 of 389 INDEX C-98 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.1, C402.1.3, C402.1.4, C402.1.5 Rooms with fuel-burning appliances . . . . . . C402.5.3 Specific insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.2 C C-FACTOR Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Assembly U-, C- or F-factor method . . . . . .C402.1.4, Table C402.1.4 CAULKING AND WEATHERSTRIPPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.1.1, C402.5.3, C402.5.4, C402.5.6, C402.5.8 CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY . . . . . . . . . C501.4, C505 CHILLERS . . . . Table C403.3.2(7), Table C407.5.1(4) Positive displacement chilling packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.3.2.2 Water-cooled centrifugal chiller packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.3.2.1, Table C403.3.2(7), Table C407.5.1(5) CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C404.6.1, C404.6.3 CIRCULATING PUMPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.4.3.3 CIRCULATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.3.3, C404.6 CLIMATE ZONES Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Established . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C301 CODE OFFICIAL Approval of alternate methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C102 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Examination of construction documents . . . . .C103.3 Inspections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C105 COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C403.3.2(2), Table C403.3.2(7) COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C101.2, C101.4.1, C101.5, C401.1, C401.2, Chapter 5 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Total building performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C407 COMMISSIONING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C408 COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C101.5 Existing buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C501.4 COMPRESSOR (REFRIGERATION) SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.10.4.2 COMPONENT PERFORMANCE APPROACH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.1.5 COMPUTER ROOM Air conditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(9) Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 CONDENSING UNITS Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Efficiency requirements . . . . . .Tables C403.3.2(1, 6) CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 CONDITIONED SPACE Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Change from nonconditioned or low energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C503.2 Roof solar reflectance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.3 Rooms containing fuel-burning appliances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.3 CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103 Amended . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103.4 Approval. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103.3.1 Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103.3 Information required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103.2 Phased approvals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103.3.3 Previous approvals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103.3.2 Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103.5 Revocation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C105.7.1 CONTINUOUS AIR BARRIER Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.1 CONTINUOUS INSULATION Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.2.2, C402.1.3, Table C402.1.3, C402.2.2, C402.2.3 CONTROLS Capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . .C403, C403.3.1, C403.4.1, C403.4.1.2, C403.4.2.1, C403.4.2.2, C403.4.3.3.1, C403.4.5, C403.7.1, C404.6, 404.7 Chilled water plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.5 Economizers . . . . . . .C403.5, C403.5.1, C403.5.3.2, C403.5.3.3, Table C403.5.3.3 Energy recovery systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.7.4 Fan speed . . . . . . . C403.8.1, C403.8.5, C403.8.5.1, C403.9 Freeze protection system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.12.3 Glazing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.3.3 Heat pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.4.1.1, C403.4.3.3 Heating and cooling . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.3.1, C403.4, C403.5.1 Hot water system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.6 Humidity. . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.1, C403.5.1, C403.7.4 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 341 of 389 INDEX 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-99 HVAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4, C408.2.3.2 Hydronic systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.4.3 Lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.4, C402.4.1.1, C402.4.1.2, C402.4.2.1, C402.4.3.1, C405.2, C405.4.1 Off hour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.4.2 Service water heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.3.3, C404.5, C404.6 Shutoff dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . .C 403.4.4, C403.7.7 Snow melt system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.12.2 Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.4.1, C403.4.2, C403.4.2.1, C403.4.2.2, C403.4.2.3, C403.4.3, C403.7.7 Three-pipe system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.3.1 Two-pipe changeover system. . . . . . . . . . C403.4.3.2 Variable air volume systems. . . . . .C403.5.2, C403.6 Ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.2.6 COOLING SYSTEMS Hot gas bypass limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.2.2 COOLING TOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.9.3, C403.9.4 COOLING WITH OUTDOOR AIR . . . . . . . . . .C403.5.1 CRAWL SPACE WALLS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C303.2.1 CURTAIN WALL Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Air leakage of fenestration . . . . . . . . .Table C402.5.2 D DAMPERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.5, C403.7.7 DAYLIGHT RESPONSIVE CONTROL Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Required. . . . . . C402.4.1.1, C402.4.1.2, C402.4.2.1, C402.4.3.1, C402.4.3.2, C405.2.3.1 DAYLIGHT ZONE . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.4, C405.2.3.2, C405.2.3.3 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Under skylights. . . C402.4.1.2, C402.4.2, C405.2.2.3 DAYLIGHT ZONE CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.2.3 DEADBAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.4.1.2, C403.4.1.3, C403.4.3.3.1 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV) Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.7.1 DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.7 DESIGN CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C302 DIRECT EXPANSION (DX). . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.8.5.1 DOORS Default U-factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C303.1.3(2) Garage doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.1.3 Loading docks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.6 Opaque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.7 Performance requirements . . . . . . . . Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4, C402.4, C402.4.5, 402.5.4 Vestibules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.7 DRAIN WATER HEAT RECOVERY . . . . . . . . . C404.8 DUAL DUCT VAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.6.3, C403.6.4 DUCTS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Insulation. . . . . . . . . . C103.2, C403.11.1, C403.11.2, C403.11.2.1, C403.11.2.2, C403.11.2.3 Sealing . . . . . . . . . C103.2, C403.11.1, C403.11.2.1, C403.11.2.2, C403.11.2.3 DUCT SYSTEM Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.11.2 DWELLING UNIT Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Electrical Meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.5 Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.1 Vestibules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.7 DYNAMIC GLAZING Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.3.3 E ECONOMIZER Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.5, C403.5.3 Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . C403.5.1, C403.6.8, C403.6.9 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) . . . C403.2.5.5 High-limit shutoff control . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.5.3.3, Table C403.5.3.3 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.5.3, C403.5.4 Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.5.4 EFFICIENCY, ADDITIONAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C406 ELECTRICAL METERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.5 ELECTRICAL MOTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.7 ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING . . . . . . . C405 ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMERS . . . . . . . . . . . C405.6 ELEVATOR POWER . . . . . . . . . . . C405.8.1, C405.8.2 ELEVATOR SHAFTS . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.4, C402.5.5 ENCLOSED SPACE Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Under skylights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 342 of 389 INDEX C-100 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ENERGY ANALYSIS, ANNUAL Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C407 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C407 ENERGY COST Compliance performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C401.2 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Performance basis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C407.3 ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (EER). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.3.2, Tables C403.3.2(1, 2, 3, 6, 7) ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEMS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.1.1, C403.7.4 ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements/use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C101.5.1, C407, C407.2, C407.5 ENTRANCE DOOR Air leakage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.5.2 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Thermal performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C402.4 ENVELOPE, BUILDING THERMAL Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 ENVELOPE DESIGN METHODS. . . . . . . . . .C402.1.3, C402.1.4, C402.1.5 EQUIPMENT BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.1.2 EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCIES . . . . . .C103.2, C403.3.2, C403.5.1, C403.8.5, C404.2 EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.3.2 Boilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(5) Condensing units. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(6) Economizer exception . . . . . . . . . . Tables C403.5(2) Heat rejection equipment. . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(8) Packaged terminal air conditioners and heat pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(3) Unitary air conditioners and condensing units. . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(1) Unitary and applied heat pumps . .Table C403.3.2(2) Warm air duct furnaces and unit heaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(4) Warm air furnaces . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(4) Warm air furnaces/ air-conditioning units. . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(4) Water chilling packages, standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(7) Water heating . . . . . . . . . . . Table C404.2, C404.2.1 EQUIPMENT ROOM Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Lower power allowance . . . . . . . . .Table C405.4.2(2) ESCALATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.8.2 EXEMPT BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . . .C401.1.1, C402.1.2 EXHAUSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.5 EXIT SIGNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.2, C405.3.1 EXISTING BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 EXTERIOR LIGHTING . . . . . . . . . . . C405.2.5, C405.4 EXTERNAL SHADING . . . . . . . . . . .Table C407.5.1(1) EXTERIOR WALLS Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Thermal performance. . . . . . . . . . . . .C402, C402.2.2 F F–FACTOR Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Assembly U-, C- or F-factor method . . . . . . .C402.1.4, Table C402.1.4 FAN BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP) Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 FAN EFFICIENCY GRADE (FEG) Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.8.3 FAN FLOOR HORSEPOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.8.1 FAN POWER LIMITATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tables C403.8.1(1, 2) FAN SYSTEM BHP Allowable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.8.1 Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS Allowable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.8.2 Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 FAULT DETECTION & DIAGNOSTICS (FDD) Economizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.2.5.5 FEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C104 Refunds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C104.5 Related fees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C104.4 Schedule of permit fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C104.2 FENESTRATION (see also Doors). . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.1.3, C402.4 Air leakage (infiltration) rate. . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.2, Table C402.5.2 Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Maximum area . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.1, C402.4.1.2 Rating and labeling . . . . . . . . . . .C303.1.3, C402.1.3 Skylights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.4.1.2, C402.4.2, C402.4.2.1, C402.4.2.2, C402.4.3, C502.2.2, C503.3.3 Solar heat gain (SHGC). . . . C402.4.3, Table C402.4 Vertical. . . . . . . . . . . .C402.1, C402.4.1.1, C402.4.3, Table C402.4, C502.2.1, C503.3.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 343 of 389 INDEX 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-101 FENESTRATION PRODUCT, FIELD-FABRICATED Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Air leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.2 FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 FLOOR AREA, NET Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Fenestration increase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.1.1 FLOORS Slab on grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.2.4 Thermal properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.2.3 FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEMS . . . . . . .C403.12.3 FURNACE EFFICIENCY . . . . . . . . . Table C403.3.2(4) G GENERAL LIGHTING Additional lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.3.2.2.1 Daylight controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.2.3 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Interior lighting power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.3.1 GENERAL PURPOSE ELECTRIC MOTORS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 GREENHOUSE Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Building envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.1.1 GUESTROOMS (see SLEEPING UNIT) GLAZING AREA Default fenestration U-factors. . . . Table C303.1.3(1) Dynamic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.3.3 H HAZE FACTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.2.2 HEAT PUMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..Tables C403.3.2(2, 3), C403.4.1.1, C403.4.3.3 HEAT RECOVERY Drain water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.8 Economizer exemption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.5 Kitchen exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.7.5 Service water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.9.5 HEAT REJECTION EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . .C403.9, Table C403.3.2(8) HEAT TRACE SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C404.6.2 HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C403.3.2(9) HEAT TRAPS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.3, C404.4 HEATED SLAB Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4, C402.2.6 HEATING AND COOLING LOADS . . . . . . . . . . . . . C302.1, C403.1.1, C403.3.1, C403.3.2, C403.4.1.1, C403.5 HEATING OUTSIDE A BUILDING . . . . . . . C403.12.1 HIGH-SPEED DOOR Air leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.5.2 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 HISTORIC BUILDINGS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C501.6 HOT GAS BYPASS . . . . . . . C403.3.3, Table C403.3.3 HOT WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.2, C404.6 Efficient delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.5 Piping insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.11.3, C404.4 System controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.9.5, C404.6 HUMIDISTAT Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.1, C403.7.4 HVAC EQUIPMENT Automatic setback and shutdown. . . . . . . C403.4.2.2 Automatic start capabilities. . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.2.3 Performance requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.3.2 Supply-air temperature reset . . . . . . . . . . . C403.6.5 System map zones . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C407.5.1(2), C407.5.2.1 HVAC SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403, C408.2 Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C408.2.5.2 Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C408.2.1 Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C408.2.4, C408.2.4.1, C408.2.4.2, C408.2.5.4 HYDRONIC HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS . . . . . C403.4.3.3 I ICE MELT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.12.2 IDENTIFICATION (MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM). . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.1 INDIRECTLY CONDITIONED SPACE (see CONDITIONED SPACE) INFILTRATION (air leakage) (see AIR BARRIER) Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 INSPECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C105 Inspection agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C105.4 INSULATED SIDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.1.4.1 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 344 of 389 INDEX C-102 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE INSULATION Continuous insulation . . . . . . . . C303.2.2, C402.1.3, Table C402.1.3, C402.2.1 Duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.11.1 Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.1, C303.1.2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C303.1.1, C303.1.1.1, C303.1.2, C303.2 Mechanical system piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.11.3 Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C404.4 Plenum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.11.1 Product rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.1.4 Protection of exposed foundation . . . . . . . . C303.2.1 Protection of piping insulation . . . . . . . . .C403.11.3.1 Radiant heating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.6 Requirements . . . . . . . . . C402.1.3, Table C402.1.3, C402.2 through C402.2.6 INTEGRATED PART LOAD VALUE (IPLV) Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables C403.3.2(6, 7), C403.3.2.1, Table 403.3(2) INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER . . . . C405.3, C405.3.2 K KITCHEN EXHAUST . . . . . .C403.7.5, Table C403.7.5 L LABELED Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.7.7 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Fans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.8.3 Glazing, skylights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.1.1, C402.4.2.4, C402.5.2 HVAC equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C403.3.2(3) Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.8, C405.3.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C303.1.3, C303.3, Table C403.3.2(3) LIGHTING POWER Additional lighting. . . . . . . . . .C405.3.2.2.1, C405.4.1 Design procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.3.2, C405.3.2.1, C405.3.2.2 Exterior connected. . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.4, C405.4.1, Tables C405.4.2(1, 2) Interior connected . . . . C405.3, C405.3.1, C405.3.2, Tables C405.3.2(1, 2) LIGHTING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405 Controls, exterior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.2.5, Tables C405.4.2(1, 2), C405.4.1 Controls, interior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.2.2, C405.3, C405.3.1, C405.3.2, Tables C405.3.2(1, 2) Daylight responsive . . . . . . . . . C405.2.3, C405.2.3.1 Dwelling and sleeping units . . . . . .C405.1, C405.2.2, C405.2.3, C405.2.4, C405.3.1 Existing buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C502.1, C502.2.6, C503.1, C503.6, 504.1 Light reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.2.2.2 Occupant sensor controls . . . .C405.2.1, C405.2.1.1, C405,2.1.2 Recessed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.8 Retail display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.3.2.2.1 Specific applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.2.4 Time switch controls. . . . . . . . . C405.2.2, C405.2.2.1 LINER SYSTEM (Ls) Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.1.3 LISTED Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Kitchen exhaust hoods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.7.5 Skylights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.1.1 LOADING DOCK WEATHERSEALS . . . . . . . C402.5.6 LOW-ENERGY BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.1.1 LOW-SLOPED ROOF Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Roof solar reflectance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.3 LUMINAIRE Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.2, C405.2.1, C405.2.2, C405.2.3, C405.2.4 Sealed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.8 Wattage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.3.1, C405.4.1 M MAINTENANCE General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C501.2, C501.3 Instructions for equipment and systems. . . . . C303.3 Owner responsibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C501.3 MANUALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C101.5.1 Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 MASS Floor. . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4 Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.2 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403 Existing buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C501.5, C502.1, C502.2.3, C503.4, C504 MECHANICAL VENTILATION . . . . . C403.1, C403.2.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 345 of 389 INDEX 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-103 METERS, ELECTRICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.5 MOTOR NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.8.2 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.7 MOVING WALKWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.8.2 MULTIFAMILY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . C407.5.2.3 MULTIPLE-ZONE SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.6, C403.6.5 N NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 NET FLOOR AREA (see FLOOR AREA, NET) NONCONDITIONED SPACE Alterations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C503.2 NONSTANDARD PART LOAD VALUE Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 O OCCUPANCY Complex HVAC systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.6 Compliance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C101.4, C101.5 Lighting power allowances. . . . . . C405.2.2, C405.3.2, C405.3.2.1, Tables C405.3.2(1, 2) Mixed occupancies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C101.4.1 OCCUPANT SENSOR CONTROL Commissioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C408.3.1.1 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Outdoor heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.12.1 Required. . . . . . . . C405.2.1, C405.2.1.1, C405.2.1.2 OFF-HOUR, CONTROLS . . . . . . .C403.4.2, C403.7.7, C405.2.2.1 ON-SITE RENEWABLE ENERGY Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 OPAQUE AREAS . . . . . . . . . C402.1, Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4 OPAQUE DOORS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Regulated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.1.3, C402.1.4, C402.4.5 OPERATING & MAINTENANCE MANUAL. . . . . . . . . . . . C408.2.5.2 ORIENTATION Daylight Responsive controls . . . . . . . . . . C405.2.3.1 Fenestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.4 Thermostatic controls . . . . . . . .C403.4.1, C407.5.2.2 P PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONER (PTAC) Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C403.3.2(3) PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMP Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C403.3.2(3) PARKING GARAGE VENTILATION . . . . . . . C403.7.2 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C407 PERMIT (see FEES) Work commencing before permit . . . . . . . . C104.3 PIPE INSULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.11.3, Table C403.11.3, C404.4 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . C103 PLENUMS Insulation and sealing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.11.1 POOLS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.9 Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.9.1, 404.9.2 Covers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.9.3 Existing buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C502.2.5 POWERED ROOF/WALL VENTILATORS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Fan efficiency exemption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.8.3 PROPOSED DESIGN Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C407 PUBLIC LAVATORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.5 PUMPING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . .C403.4.3.3, C404.6, C408.2.2.2 R R-VALUE Above-grade walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.2 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Insulation component method. . . . . . . . . . . C402.1.3, Table C402.1.3 Roof assemblies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.1 Slabs on grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.4 Steel stud walls. . . . . . C402.1.4.1, Table C402.1.4.1 RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.6 READY ACCESS Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Lighting controls . . . . . . . . . . C405.2.2.3, C405.2.3.1 RECOOLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.6 REFERENCED STANDARDS . . . . . . .C107, Chapter 6 REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE COOLER Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.10.1 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 346 of 389 INDEX C-104 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE FREEZER Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.10.1 REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT Performance . . . . . C403.10, Tables C403.10.1(1, 2) REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C408 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 REHEATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.6.5, C403.9.5 REPAIR Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Historic buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C501.6 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C501.5, C504 REPLACEMENT MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C501.5 Replacement fenestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C401.2.1 REROOFING Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 RESET CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.6.5 RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . C101.2, C101.4.1, C101.5 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 ROOF ASSEMBLY Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Fenestration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.4.1, C402.4.1.2, C402.4.2, C405.2.3.3 Recover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C503.1 Reflectance and emittance options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C402.3 Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C504.1 Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C503.3.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . C303.1.1.1, C402.2.1 Solar reflectance and thermal emittance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.3 ROOF RECOVER Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Exemption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C503.1 ROOF REPAIR Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Exemption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C504.1 ROOF REPLACEMENT Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C503.3.1 ROOFTOP MONITOR Daylight zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.2.3.2 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Skylights required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.2 ROOF VENTILATORS (see POWERED ROOF/ WALL VENTILATORS) ROOMS WITH FUEL-BURNING APPLIANCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.5.3 S SATURATED CONDENSING TEMPERATURE Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Refrigeration systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.10.4.1 SCOPE OF CODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C101.2 SCREW LAMP HOLDERS Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.3.1 SEASONAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (SEER). . . . . . . . . . .Tables C403.3.2(1, 2, 3) SERVICE WATER HEATING Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Drain water heat recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.8 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.2.1, 404.5 Existing buildings . . . . . . . C502.2.4, C503.5, C504.1 Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . C403.9.5, C404, C404.2, C404.2.1, 404.5, 404.6, 404.7 SETBACK THERMOSTAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.2, C403.4.2.1, C403.4.2.2 SHADING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.3, C402.4.3 SHGC (see SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT) SHUTOFF DAMPERS . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.5, C403.7.7 SIMULATED PERFORMANCE ALTERNATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C407 SIMULATION TOOL (see ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL) SINGLE ZONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.5 SIZING Equipment and system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.3.1 SKYLIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.1.5, C402.3, Table C402.4, C402.4.3.1, C402.4.3.2 Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C502.2.2 Air leakage (infiltration) . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.5.2 Alterations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C503.3.3 Curb insulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.2.1.1 Defined (see Fenestration). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Haze factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.2.2 Lighting controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.2.1 Maximum area . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.1, C402.4.1.2 Minimum area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.2 SLAB-EDGE INSULATION . . . . . .C303.2.1, C402.2.4 SLEEPING UNIT Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Lighting. . . . . .C405.1, C405.2.2, C405.2.4, C405.2.3 SMALL ELECTRIC MOTOR Defined. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Minimum efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.7 SNOW MELT AND ICE SYSTEM CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.12.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 347 of 389 INDEX 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE C-105 SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). . . . C103.2, Table C303.1.3(3), C402.4.1.1, C402.4.3, Table C402.4, C402.4.3.1 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Dynamic glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.3.3 Replacement products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C401.2.1 SPAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.9, C404.10 STAIRWAYS . . . . . . . . .C402.5.4, C402.5.5, C403.7.7, C405.2, C405.2.1.1, Table C405.3.2(2) STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . C407, Tables C407.5.1(1, 3) STANDARDS, REFERENCED . . . . . .C107, Chapter 6 STEEL FRAMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4, C402.1.4.1 STOP WORK ORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C108 Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C108.1 Emergencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C108.3 Failure to comply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C108.4 Issuance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C108.2 STOREFRONT Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C402.5.2 SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE RESET CONTROLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.6.5 SUSPENDED CEILINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.2.1 SWIMMING POOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C404.9 T TEMPERATURE DEADBAND . . . . . . . . .C403.4.3.3.1 THERMAL CONDUCTANCE (see C-Factor) THERMAL MASS (see MASS) THERMAL RESISTANCE (see R-VALUE) THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (see U-FACTOR) THERMOSTAT Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Pools and spa heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C404.9.1 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4, C403.4.1, C403.2.4.1.2, C403.4.1.3, C403.4.2, C403.6 Setback capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C403.4.2 TIME SWITCH CONTROL Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C405.2.2, C405.2.2.1 TOTAL BUILDING PERFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . .C407 TOWNHOUSE (see RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS) TRANSFORMERS, ELECTRIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . C405.6 U U-FACTOR Area-weighted U-factor fenestration. . . . . C402.4.3.4 Assembly U-, C- or F-factor method. . . . . C402.1.4, Table C402.1.4 Component performance alternative. . . . . . C402.1.5 Default door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C303.1.3(2) Default glazed fenestration. . . . . . Table C303.1.3(1) Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Fenestration . . . . C401.2.1, C402.4.3, Table C402.4 Skylights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C402.4, C402.4.3.2 Steel framing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.1.4.1 V VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS (VAV) . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4.5.6, C403.5.2, C403.6.2, C403.6.3, C403.6.5, C403.6.7, C403.6.9, C403.9.5, Table C407.5.1(3) VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW SYSTEM Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 VENTILATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.2.2 Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Demand control ventilation (DCV) . . . . . . . C403.7.1 Energy recovery system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.7.4 Parking garages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.7.2 VENTILATION AIR Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Energy recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.7.4 Fan controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.8.5.1 Kitchen exhaust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.7.5 VERTICAL FENESTRATION (see FENESTRATION) VESTIBULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.5.7, C403.4.1.4 VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE (VT) Default glazed fenestration. . . . . . Table C303.1.3(3) Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Dynamic glazing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.3.3 Increased fenestration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C402.4.1.1 Skylights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C402.4.2, C405.2.3.3 W WALK-IN COOLER Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.10.1, C403.2.16 WALK-IN FREEZER Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.10.1, C403.10.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 348 of 389 INDEX C-106 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE WALL Above-grade wall, defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Thermal resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4, C402.2.2 Below-grade wall, defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Thermal resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table C402.1.3, Table C402.1.4, C402.1.5 Crawl space wall, defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Exterior wall, defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Steel framed . . . . . . . .C402.1.4.1, Table C402.1.4.1 WALLS (see EXTERIOR WALLS AND ENVELOPE, BUILDING THERMAL) WALLS ADJACENT TO UNCONDITIONED SPACE (see BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE) WALL VENTILATORS (see POWERED ROOF/ WALL VENTILATORS) WATER ECONOMIZER . . . . . . . . . .C403.5, C403.5.4, C403.5.4.1, C403.5.4.2 WATER HEATER Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table C404.2, C404.2.1 WATER HEATING . . . . . . . . . . . . C404, Table C404.2 WINDOW AREA (see FENESTRATION and GLAZING AREA) Z ZONE (see also CLIMATE ZONES) Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C202 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C403.4, C403.5, C407.5.2.1, C407.5.2.2 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 349 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-1 RESIDENTIAL PROVISIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R-3 PART 1—SCOPE AND APPLICATION. . . . . . . . . . .R-3 Section R101 Scope and General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-3 R102 Alternative Materials, Design and Methods of Construction and Equipment . . . . . R-3 PART 2—ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R-3 R103 Construction Documents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-3 R104 Fees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-4 R105 Inspections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-4 R106 Validity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-5 R107 Referenced Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-5 R108 Stop Work Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-5 R109 Board of Appeals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-6 CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R-7 Section R201 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-7 R202 General Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-7 CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. . . . .R-11 Section R301 Climate Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-11 R302 Design Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-11 R303 Materials, Systems and Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . R-11 CHAPTER 4 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .R-15 Section R401 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-15 R402 Building Thermal Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-15 R403 Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-19 R404 Electrical Power and Lighting Systems. . . . . . . . R-23 R405 Reserved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-24 R406 Energy Rating Index Compliance Alternative. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-24 R407 Solar Readiness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-25 CHAPTER 5 EXISTING BUILDINGS. . . . . . . . . . R-27 Section R501 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-27 R502 Additions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-27 R503 Alterations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-28 R504 Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-30 R505 Change of Occupancy or Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-30 CHAPTER 6 REFERENCED STANDARDS. . . . . R-31 APPENDIX RA SOLAR-READY PROVISIONS—DETACHED ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS AND TOWNHOUSES (See Section R407) . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-35 INDEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-37 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 350 of 389 R-2 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 351 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-3 CHAPTER 1 [RE] SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION User note: About this chapter: Chapter 1 establishes the limits of applicability of this code and describes how the code is to be applied and enforced. Chapter 1 is in two parts: Part 1—Scope and Application (Sections 101–102) and Part 2—Administration and Enforcement (Sections 103– 109). Section 101 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview and references other I-Codes as applicable. Standards and codes are scoped to the extent referenced (see Section 107.1). This code is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document, and it cannot be effective without adequate provisions for its adminis- tration and enforcement. The provisions of Chapter 1 establish the authority and duties of the code official appointed by the authority having jurisdiction and also establish the rights and privileges of the design professional, contractor and property owner. PART 1—SCOPE AND APPLICATION SECTION R101 SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS R101.1 Title. This code shall be known as the 2020 City of Boulder Energy Conservation Code, and shall be cited as such. It is referred to herein as “this code.” R101.2 Scope. This code applies to residential buildings and the building sites and associated systems and equipment. R101.3 Intent. This code shall regulate the design and con- struction of buildings for the effective use and conservation of energy over the useful life of each building. This code is intended to provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve this objective. This code is not intended to abridge safety, health or environmen- tal requirements contained in other applicable codes or ordi- nances. R101.4 Applicability. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general require- ment and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall govern. R101.4.1 Mixed residential and commercial buildings. Where a building includes both residential building and commercial building portions, each portion shall be sepa- rately considered and meet the applicable provisions of the IECC—Commercial Provisions or IECC—Residential Provisions. R101.5 Compliance. Residential buildings shall meet the provisions of IECC—Residential Provisions. Commercial buildings shall meet the provisions of IECC—Commercial Provisions. R101.5.1 Compliance materials. The code official shall be permitted to approve specific computer software, work- sheets, compliance manuals and other similar materials that meet the intent of this code. SECTION R102 ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS, DESIGN AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT R102.1 General. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code. The code official shall have the authority to approve an alternative material, design or method of con- struction upon application of the owner or the owner’s autho- rized agent. The code official shall first find that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the pro- visions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, not less than the equiva- lent of that prescribed in this code for strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Where the alternative material, design or method of construction is not approved, the code official shall respond to the applicant, in writing, stating the reasons why the alternative was not approved. R102.1.1 Above code programs. The code official or other authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to deem a national, state or local energy-efficiency program to exceed the energy efficiency required by this code. Buildings approved in writing by such an energy-effi- ciency program shall be considered to be in compliance with this code. The requirements identified as “manda- tory” in Chapter 4 shall be met. PART 2—ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT SECTION R103 CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS R103.1 General. Construction documents, technical reports and other supporting data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each application for a permit. The construction doc- uments and technical reports shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the code official is authorized to require necessary construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional. Exception: The code official is authorized to waive the requirements for construction documents or other support- ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 352 of 389 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION R-4 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ing data if the code official determines they are not neces- sary to confirm compliance with this code. R103.2 Information on construction documents. Construc- tion documents shall be drawn to scale on suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted where approved by the code official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed, and show in sufficient detail pertinent data and features of the building, systems and equipment as herein governed. Details shall include the fol- lowing as applicable: 1. Insulation materials and their R-values. 2. Fenestration U-factors and solar heat gain coefficients (SHGC). 3. Area-weighted U-factor and solar heat gain coeffi- cients (SHGC) calculations. 4. Mechanical system design criteria. 5. Mechanical and service water-heating systems and equipment types, sizes and efficiencies. 6. Equipment and system controls. 7. Duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location. 8. Air sealing details. R103.2.1 Building thermal envelope depiction. The building thermal envelope shall be represented on the con- struction documents. R103.3 Examination of documents. The code official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying con- struction documents and shall ascertain whether the construc- tion indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordi- nances. The code official is authorized to utilize a registered design professional, or other approved entity not affiliated with the building design or construction, in conducting the review of the plans and specifications for compliance with the code. R103.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the code official issues a permit where construction docu- ments are required, the construction documents shall be endorsed in writing and stamped “Reviewed for Code Compliance.” Such approved construction documents shall not be changed, modified or altered without authori- zation from the code official. Work shall be done in accor- dance with the approved construction documents. One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the code official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the code official or a duly autho- rized representative. R103.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pur- sued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned. R103.3.3 Phased approval. The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit for the construction of part of an energy conservation system before the construction documents for the entire system have been submitted or approved, provided adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assurance that the permit for the entire energy conservation system will be granted. R103.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be installed in accordance with the approved construction docu- ments, and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of con- struction documents. R103.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws. SECTION R104 FEES R104.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees pre- scribed in Section R104.2 have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid. R104.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as estab- lished by the applicable governing authority. R104.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences any work before obtaining the neces- sary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the code official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees. R104.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the con- struction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity autho- rized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law. R104.5 Refunds. The code official is authorized to establish a refund policy. SECTION R105 INSPECTIONS R105.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the code official or his or her designated agent, and such construction or work shall remain visible and able to be accessed for inspection purposes until approved. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain visible and able to be accessed for inspection purposes. Neither the code official ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 353 of 389 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-5 nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material, product, system or building component required to allow inspection to validate compliance with this code. R105.2 Required inspections. The code official or his or her designated agent, upon notification, shall make the inspec- tions set forth in Sections R105.2.1 through R105.2.5. R105.2.1 Footing and foundation inspection. Inspec- tions associated with footings and foundations shall verify compliance with the code as to R-value, location, thick- ness, depth of burial and protection of insulation as required by the code and approved plans and specifica- tions. R105.2.2 Framing and rough-in inspection. Inspections at framing and rough-in shall be made before application of interior finish and shall verify compliance with the code as to: types of insulation and corresponding R-values and their correct location and proper installation; fenestration properties such as U-factor and SHGC and proper installa- tion; and air leakage controls as required by the code; and approved plans and specifications. R105.2.3 Plumbing rough-in inspection. Inspections at plumbing rough-in shall verify compliance as required by the code and approved plans and specifications as to types of insulation and corresponding R-values and protection, and required controls. R105.2.4 Mechanical rough-in inspection. Inspections at mechanical rough-in shall verify compliance as required by the code and approved plans and specifications as to installed HVAC equipment type and size, required con- trols, system insulation and corresponding R-value, system air leakage control, programmable thermostats, dampers, whole-house ventilation, and minimum fan efficiency. Exception: Systems serving multiple dwelling units shall be inspected in accordance with Section C105.2.4. R105.2.5 Final inspection. The building shall have a final inspection and shall not be occupied until approved. The final inspection shall include verification of the installa- tion of all required building systems, equipment and con- trols and their proper operation and the required number of high-efficacy lamps and fixtures. R105.3 Reinspection. A building shall be reinspected where determined necessary by the code official. R105.4 Approved inspection agencies. The code official is authorized to accept reports of third-party inspection agencies not affiliated with the building design or construction, pro- vided that such agencies are approved as to qualifications and reliability relevant to the building components and systems that they are inspecting. R105.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code. R105.6 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or instal- lation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made to achieve compliance with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the code official for inspection and testing. R105.7 Approval. After the prescribed tests and inspections indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a notice of approval shall be issued by the code official. R105.7.1 Revocation. The code official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a notice of approval issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure, premise, or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code. SECTION R106 VALIDITY R106.1 General. If a portion of this code is held to be illegal or void, such a decision shall not affect the validity of the remainder of this code. SECTION R107 REFERENCED STANDARDS R107.1 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those indicated in Chapter 5, and such codes and standards shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sec- tions R107.1.1 and R107.1.2. R107.1.1 Conflicts. Where conflicts occur between provi- sions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply. R107.1.2 Provisions in referenced codes and standards. Where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable, shall take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code or standard. R107.2 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code. R107.3 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. SECTION R108 STOP WORK ORDER R108.1 Authority. Where the code official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, the code official is authorized to issue a stop work order. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 354 of 389 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION R-6 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R108.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, to the owner’s authorized agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume. R108.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work. R108.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to a fine as set by the applicable governing authority. SECTION R109 BOARD OF APPEALS R109.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the code official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The code official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall not have a vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall ren- der all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the code official. R109.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall not have authority to waive requirements of this code. R109.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training and are not employees of the jurisdiction. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 355 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-7 CHAPTER 2 [RE] DEFINITIONS User note: About this chapter: Codes, by their very nature, are technical documents. Every word, term and punctuation mark can add to or change the meaning of a technical requirement. It is necessary to maintain a consensus on the specific meaning of each term contained in the code. Chapter 2 performs this function by stating clearly what specific terms mean for the purpose of the code. SECTION R201 GENERAL R201.1 Scope. Unless stated otherwise, the following words and terms in this code shall have the meanings indicated in this chapter. R201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural includes the singular. R201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Terms that are not defined in this code but are defined in the International Build- ing Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, International Plumb- ing Code or the International Residential Code shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those codes. R201.4 Terms not defined. Terms not defined by this chapter shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. SECTION R202 GENERAL DEFINITIONS ABOVE-GRADE WALL. A wall more than 50 percent above grade and enclosing conditioned space. This includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and skylight shafts. ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see “Readily accessible”). ADDITION. An extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area, number of stories or height of a building or structure. AIR BARRIER. One or more materials joined together in a continuous manner to restrict or prevent the passage of air through the building thermal envelope and its assemblies. AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATION. An insulation that functions as an air barrier material. ALTERATION. Any construction, retrofit or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition. Also, a change in a building, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation. ALTERATION, LEVEL 1. An alteration that includes the removal and replacement or the covering of existing materi- als, elements, equipment or fixtures using new materials, ele- ments, equipment or fixtures that serve the same purpose. ALTERATION, LEVEL 2. An alteration that includes the reconfiguration of space, the addition or elimination of any door or window, the reconfiguration or extension of any sys- tem, or the installation of any additional equipment. ALTERATION, LEVEL 3. An alteration where the work area exceeds 50 percent of the building area. ALTERATION, LEVEL 4. An alteration where the work area exceeds 50 percent of the building area, mechanical and lighting systems are substantially replaced, and where the alteration meets the criteria of substantial structural alter- ation, including fenestration replacement. APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official. APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency that is regularly engaged in conducting tests furnish- ing inspection services, or furnishing product certification, where such agency has been approved by the code official. AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for exam- ple, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see “Manual”). BASEMENT WALL. A wall 50 percent or more below grade and enclosing conditioned space. BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy, including any mechanical systems, service water heating systems and electric power and lighting systems located on the building site and support- ing the building. BUILDING SITE. a contiguous area of land that is under the ownership or control of one entity. BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floors, ceiling, roofs and any other building element assemblies that enclose conditioned space or provide a boundary between conditioned space and exempt or unconditioned space. CIRCULATING HOT WATER SYSTEM. A specifically designed water distribution system where one or more pumps are operated in the service hot water piping to circulate heated water from the water-heating equipment to fixtures and back to the water-heating equipment. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 356 of 389 DEFINITIONS R-8 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE CLIMATE ZONE. A geographical region based on climatic criteria as specified in this code. CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative. COMMERCIAL BUILDING. For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of “Residential build- ing.” CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the conditioned space. CONDITIONED SPACE. An area, room or space that is enclosed within the building thermal envelope and that is directly or indirectly heated or cooled. Spaces are indirectly heated or cooled where they communicate through openings with conditioned spaces, where they are separated from con- ditioned spaces by uninsulated walls, floors or ceilings, or where they contain uninsulated ducts, piping or other sources of heating or cooling. CONTINUOUS AIR BARRIER. A combination of materi- als and assemblies that restrict or prevent the passage of air through the building thermal envelope. CONTINUOUS INSULATION (ci). Insulating material that is continuous across all structural members without ther- mal bridges other than fasteners and service openings. It is installed on the interior or exterior, or is integral to any opaque surface, of the building envelope. CRAWL SPACE WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses a crawl space and is partially or totally below grade. CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments. DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. A water distribution system having one or more recirculation pumps that pump water from a heated water supply pipe back to the heated water source through a cold water supply pipe. DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air. The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts. DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmis- sion of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances. DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete inde- pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation. ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV). A motorized vehicle regis- tered for on-road use, powered by an electric motor that draws current from rechargeable storage that is charged by being plugged into an electrical source. ELECTRIC VEHICLE CAPABLE SPACE. A designated parking space that is provided with conduit sized for a 40- amp, 208/240-volt dedicated branch circuit from a building electrical service panel to the parking space and sufficient physical space in the same building electrical service panel to accommodate a 40-amp dual-pole circuit breaker. ELECTRIC VEHICLE READY SPACE. A parking space that is provided with one 40-amp, 208/240-volt dedicated branch circuit for electric vehicle supply equipment that is terminated at a receptacle, a junction box or electric vehicle supply equipment within the parking space. ELECTRIC VEHICLE SUPPLY EQUIPMENT (EVSE). The electrical conductors and equipment external to the elec- tric vehicle that provide a connection between an electric vehicle and a power source to provide electric vehicle charging. ELECTRIC VEHICLE SUPPLY EQUIPMENT (EVSE) INSTALLED SPACE. A parking space with electric vehicle supply equipment capable of supplying current at 40 amps at 208/240 volt. ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and standard reference design based on estimates of energy use. ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for pur- chased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges. ENERGY IMPACT OFFSET FUND. A city-approved and managed offset fund providing a payment option in lieu of complying with city programs’ renewable energy and/or off- set requirement. The fund was approved by City Council on March 7, 2018. ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building. ERI REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the rated design that meets the minimum requirements of the 2006 Interna- tional Energy Conservation Code. EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both above-grade walls and basement walls. FENESTRATION. Products classified as either vertical fen- estration or skylights. Skylights. Glass or other transparent or translucent glaz- ing material installed at a slope of less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from horizontal. Vertical fenestration. Windows that are fixed or opera- ble, opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combi- nation opaque/glazed doors composed of glass or other transparent or translucent glazing materials and installed at a slope of not less than 60 degrees (1.05 rad) from hori- zontal. FENESTRATION PRODUCT, SITE-BUILT. A fenestra- tion designed to be made up of field-glazed or field-assem- bled units using specific factory cut or otherwise factory- formed framing and glazing units. Examples of site-built fenestration include storefront systems, curtain walls and atrium roof systems. HEATED SLAB. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution sys- tem is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 357 of 389 DEFINITIONS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-9 HIGH-EFFICACY LIGHT SOURCES. Compact fluo- rescent lamps, light-emitting diode (LED) lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, other lamps with an efficacy of not less than 65 lumens per watt, or luminaires with an efficacy of not less than 45 lumens per watt. HISTORIC BUILDING. Any building or structure that is one or more of the following: 1. Listed, or certified as eligible for listing by the State Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, in the National Register of Historic Places. 2. Designated as historic under an applicable state or local law. 3. Certified as a contributing resource within a National Register-listed, state-designated or locally designated historic district. INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both. INSULATED SIDING. A type of continuous insulation with manufacturer-installed insulating material as an integral part of the cladding product having an R-value of not less than R-2. LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, approved agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of such labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING. Lighting equipment powered through a transformer such as a cable conductor, a rail conduc- tor and track lighting. MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal interven- tion (see “Automatic”). OFF-SITE SOLAR SUBSCRIPTION. A twenty-year sub- scription to a solar generation facility where the beneficial use of the electricity generated by the facility belongs to sub- scribers to the solar generation facility as authorized in §40- 2-127, C.R.S. OPAQUE DOOR. A door that is not less than 50-percent opaque in surface area. PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed build- ing used to estimate annual energy use for determining compli- ance based on total building performance. RATED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to determine the energy rating index. READILY ACCESSIBLE. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obsta- cles or to resort to portable ladders or access equipment (see “Accessible”). REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance or to cor- rect damage. REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an existing roof covering. See “Roof recover” and “Roof replacement.” RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For this code, includes detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses as well as Group R-2, R-3 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade plane, and with separate means of egress. ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment and roof deck, and can also include a thermal barrier, an ignition barrier, insula- tion or a vapor retarder. ROOF RE-COVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering. ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance. ROOF REPLACEMENT. The process of removing the existing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and installing a new roof covering. R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h • ft2 • °F/Btu) [(m2 • K)/W]. SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for pur- poses other than comfort heating. SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation that is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space. SOLAR-READY ZONE. A section or sections of the roof or building overhang designated and reserved for the future installation of a solar photovoltaic or solar thermal system. STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the pro- posed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building perfor- mance. SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL ALTERATION. An alteration in which the gravity load-carrying structural ele- ments altered within a 5-year period support more than 30 percent of the total floor area and roof area of the building or ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 358 of 389 DEFINITIONS R-10 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE structure. The areas to be counted toward the 30 percent shall include mezzanines, penthouses, and in-filled courts and shafts tributary to the altered structural elements. SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwelling with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure’s exterior walls and roof. THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned spaces. The conditioned spaces shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or conditioned by separate equipment. THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to main- tain temperature at a fixed or adjustable setpoint. U-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coeffi- cient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building compo- nent or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft2 • °F) [W/(m2 • K)]. VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space. VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space. VISIBLE TRANSMITTANCE [VT]. The ratio of visible light entering the space through the fenestration product assembly to the incident visible light, Visible Transmittance, includes the effects of glazing material and frame and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. WHOLE HOUSE MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM. An exhaust system, supply system, or combina- tion thereof that is designed to mechanically exchange indoor air with outdoor air when operating continuously or through a programmed intermittent schedule to satisfy the whole house ventilation rates. ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heat- ing or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 359 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-11 CHAPTER 3 [RE] GENERAL REQUIREMENTS User note: About this chapter: Chapter 3 covers general regulations for energy conservation features of buildings. The climate zone for a building is established by geographic location tables and figures in this chapter. SECTION R301 CLIMATE ZONES R301.1 General. This code shall apply only to projects located in Climate Zone 5B. SECTION R302 DESIGN CONDITIONS R302.1 Interior design conditions. The interior design tem- peratures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72°F (22°C) for heating and minimum of 75°F (24°C) for cooling. SECTION R303 MATERIALS, SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT R303.1 Identification. Materials, systems and equipment shall be identified in a manner that will allow a determination of compliance with the applicable provisions of this code. R303.1.1 Building thermal envelope insulation. An R- value identification mark shall be applied by the manufac- turer to each piece of building thermal envelope insulation that is 12 inches (305 mm) or greater in width. Alterna- tively, the insulation installers shall provide a certification that indicates the type, manufacturer and R-value of insu- lation installed in each element of the building thermal envelope. For blown-in or sprayed fiberglass and cellulose insulation, the initial installed thickness, settled thickness, settled R-value, installed density, coverage area and num- ber of bags installed shall be indicated on the certification. For sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation, the installed thickness of the areas covered and the R-value of the installed thickness shall be indicated on the certifica- tion. For insulated siding, the R-value shall be on a label on the product’s package and shall be indicated on the cer- tification. The insulation installer shall sign, date and post the certification in a conspicuous location on the job site. Exception: For roof insulation installed above the deck, the R-value shall be labeled as required by the material standards specified in Table 1508.2 of the International Building Code or Table R906.2 of the International Residential Code, as applicable. R303.1.1.1 Blown-in or sprayed roof and ceiling insulation. The thickness of blown-in or sprayed fiber- glass and cellulose roof and ceiling insulation shall be at not less than one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) throughout the attic space. The markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness with numbers not less than 1 inch (25 mm) in height. Each marker shall face the attic access opening. The thickness and installed R-value of sprayed polyurethane foam insulation shall be indicated on the certification provided by the insulation installer. R303.1.2 Insulation mark installation. Insulating mate- rials shall be installed such that the manufacturer’s R- value mark is readily observable at inspection. R303.1.3 Fenestration product rating. U-factors of fen- estration products such as windows, doors and skylights shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100. Exception: Where required, garage door U-factors shall be determined in accordance with either NFRC 100 or ANSI/DASMA 105. U-factors shall be determined by an accredited, inde- pendent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manu- facturer. Products lacking such a labeled U-factor shall be assigned a default U-factor from Table R303.1.3(1) or R303.1.3(2). The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and visible transmittance (VT) of glazed fenestration products such as windows, glazed doors and skylights shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200 by an accred- ited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled SHGC or VT shall be assigned a default SHGC or VT from Table R303.1.3(3). R303.1.4 Insulation product rating. The thermal resis- tance, R-value, of insulation shall be determined in accor- dance with Part 460 of US-FTC CFR Title 16 in units of h • ft2 • °F/Btu at a mean temperature of 75°F (24°C). R303.1.4.1 Insulated siding. The thermal resistance, R-value, of insulated siding shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C1363. Installation for testing shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s instruc- tions. R303.2 Installation. Materials, systems and equipment shall be installed in accordance with the Grade I insulation installa- tion requirements in RESNET/ICC 301 and the International Building Code or the International Residential Code, as applicable.>ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 360 of 389 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS R-12 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R303.2.1 Protection of exposed foundation insulation. Insulation applied to the exterior of basement walls, crawl space walls and the perimeter of slab-on-grade floors shall have a rigid, opaque and weather-resistant protective cov- ering to prevent the degradation of the insulation’s thermal performance. The protective covering shall cover the exposed exterior insulation and extend not less than 6 inches (153 mm) below grade. R303.3 Maintenance information. Maintenance instruc- tions shall be furnished for equipment and systems that require preventive maintenance. Required regular mainte- nance actions shall be clearly stated and incorporated on a readily accessible label. The label shall include the title or publication number for the operation and maintenance man- ual for that particular model and type of product. TABLE R303.1.3(2) DEFAULT OPAQUE DOOR U-FACTORS DOOR TYPE OPAQUE U-FACTOR Uninsulated Metal 1.20 Insulated Metal 0.60 Wood 0.50 Insulated, nonmetal edge, not exceeding 45% glazing, any glazing double pane 0.35 TABLE R303.1.3(3) DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGC AND VT SINGLE GLAZED DOUBLE GLAZED GLAZED BLOCKClear Tinted Clear Tinted SHGC 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 VT 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.6 TABLE R303.1.3(1) DEFAULT GLAZED WINDOW, GLASS DOOR AND SKYLIGHT U-FACTORS FRAME TYPE WINDOW AND GLASS DOOR SKYLIGHT Single pane Double pane Single Double Metal 1.20 0.80 2.00 1.30 Metal with Thermal Break 1.10 0.65 1.90 1.10 Nonmetal or Metal Clad 0.95 0.55 1.75 1.05 Glazed Block 0.60 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 361 of 389 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-13FIGURE R301.1 CLIMATE ZONESATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 362 of 389 R-14 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 363 of 389 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-15 CHAPTER 4 [RE] RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY User note: About this chapter: Chapter 4 provides requirements for the thermal envelope of a building, including minimum insulation values for walls, ceiling and floors; maximum fenestration U-factors; minimum fenestration solar heat gain coefficients; and methods for determining building assembly and a total building U-factor. A performance alternative and an energy rating alternative are also provided to allow for energy code compliance other than by the prescriptive method. SECTION R401 GENERAL R401.1 Scope. This chapter applies to residential buildings. R401.2 Compliance. New buildings less than or equal to 500 square feet of conditioned floor area shall comply with either Item 1 or Item 2 of this section. New buildings greater than 500 square feet of conditioned floor area shall comply with Item 2. 1. Sections R401 through R404 and R407. 2. The energy rating index (ERI) approach in Sections R406 and R407. R401.3 Documentation (Mandatory). R401.3.1 Certificate. A permanent certificate shall be completed by the builder or other approved party and posted on a wall in the space where the furnace is located, a utility room or an approved location inside the building. Where located on an electrical panel, the certificate shall not cover or obstruct the visibility of the circuit directory label, service disconnect label or other required labels. The certificate shall indicate the predominant R-values of insu- lation installed in or on ceilings, roofs, walls, foundation components such as slabs, basement walls, crawl space walls and floors and ducts outside conditioned spaces; U- factors of fenestration and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of fenestration, and the results from any required duct system and building envelope air leakage testing per- formed on the building. Where there is more than one value for each component, the certificate shall indicate the value covering the largest area. The certificate shall indi- cate the types and efficiencies of heating, cooling and ser- vice water heating equipment. Where a gas-fired unvented room heater, electric furnace or baseboard electric heater is installed in the residence, the certificate shall indicate “gas-fired unvented room heater,” “electric furnace” or “baseboard electric heater,” as appropriate. An efficiency shall not be indicated for gas-fired unvented room heaters, electric furnaces and electric baseboard heaters. The ERI, both with and without on-site generation, as determined in accordance with Section R406, shall be listed on the certif- icate. R401.3.2 Homeowner’s manual. The builder or owner’s agent shall provide the owner with a binder of all equip- ment and appliance manufacturers’ installation manuals, except for manuals that are required to be affixed to the equipment. These include the energy assessment report and ERI certificate. If the code official approved a com- munity solar garden subscription attributed to the property as a means to meet the requirements of this chapter, the manual shall include any requirements for a continued subscription to a community solar garden necessary to meet the requirements of this chapter. SECTION R402 BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE R402.1 General (Prescriptive). The building thermal enve- lope shall comply with the requirements of Sections R402.1.1 through R402.1.5. Exceptions: 1. The following low-energy buildings, or portions thereof, separated from the remainder of the building by building thermal envelope assemblies complying with this section shall be exempt from the building thermal envelope provisions of Section R402. 1.1. Those with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h • ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or 1.0 watt/ft2 of floor area for space-condition- ing purposes. 1.2. Those that do not contain conditioned space. 2. Log homes designed in accordance with ICC 400. R402.1.1 Vapor retarder. Wall assemblies in the build- ing thermal envelope shall comply with the vapor retarder requirements of Section R702.7 of the International Resi- dential Code or Section 1404.3 of the International Build- ing Code, as applicable. R402.1.2 Insulation and fenestration criteria. The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Table R402.1.2, based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. R402.1.3 R-value computation. Insulation material used in layers, such as framing cavity insulation or continuous insulation, shall be summed to compute the corresponding component R-value. The manufacturer’s settled R-value shall be used for blown-in insulation. Computed R-values shall not include an R-value for other building materials or air films. Where insulated siding is used for the purpose of complying with the continuous insulation requirements of Table R402.1.2, the manufacturer’s labeled R-value for the insulated siding shall be reduced by R-0.6. R402.1.4 U-factor alternative. An assembly with a U-fac- tor equal to or less than that specified in Table R402.1.4 shall be an alternative to the R-value in Table R402.1.2. > > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 364 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY R-16 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R402.1.5 Total UA alternative. Where the total building thermal envelope UA, the sum of U-factor times assembly area, is less than or equal to the total UA resulting from multiplying the U-factors in Table R402.1.4 by the same assembly area as in the proposed building, the building shall be considered to be in compliance with Table R402.1.2. The UA calculation shall be performed using a method consistent with the ASHRAE Handbook of Fun- damentals and shall include the thermal bridging effects of framing materials. In addition to UA compliance, the SHGC requirements shall be met. R402.2 Specific insulation requirements (Prescriptive). In addition to the requirements of Section R402.1, insulation shall meet the specific requirements of Sections R402.2.1 through R402.2.13. R402.2.1 Ceilings with attic spaces. Where Section R402.1.2 requires R-49 insulation in the ceiling, installing R- 38 over 100 percent of the ceiling area requiring insulation shall satisfy the requirement for R-49 insulation wherever the full height of uncompressed R-38 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section R402.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5. R402.2.2 Ceilings without attic spaces. Where Section R402.1.2 requires insulation R-values greater than R-30 in the ceiling and the design of the roof/ceiling assembly does not allow sufficient space for the required insulation, the minimum required insulation R-value for such roof/ceiling assemblies shall be R-30. Insulation shall extend over the top of the wall plate to the outer edge of such plate and shall not be compressed. This reduction of insulation from the requirements of Section R402.1.2 shall be limited to 500 square feet (46 m2) or 20 percent of the total insulated ceil- ing area, whichever is less. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section R402.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5. R402.2.3 Eave baffle. For air-permeable insulations in vented attics, a baffle shall be installed adjacent to soffit and eave vents. Baffles shall maintain an opening equal or greater than the size of the vent. The baffle shall extend over the top of the attic insulation. The baffle shall be per- mitted to be any solid material. R402.2.4 Access hatches and doors. Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces such as attics and crawl spaces shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding sur- faces. Access that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation shall be provided to all equipment. Where loose-fill insulation is installed, a wood-framed or equiva- lent baffle or retainer shall be installed to prevent the loose-fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened. The baffle or retainer shall provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R- value of the loose-fill insulation. Exception: Vertical doors providing access from condi- tioned spaces to unconditioned spaces that comply with the fenestration requirements of Table R402.1.2. > TABLE R402.1.4 EQUIVALENT U-FACTORSa a. Nonfenestration U-factors shall be obtained from measurement, calculation or an approved source. b. Mass walls shall be in accordance with Section R402.2.5. Where more than half the insulation is on the interior, the mass wall U-factors shall not exceed 0.065. FENESTRATION U-FACTOR SKYLIGHT U-FACTOR CEILING U-FACTOR FRAME WALL U-FACTOR MASS WALL U-FACTORb FLOOR U-FACTOR BASEMENT WALL U-FACTOR CRAWL SPACE WALL U-FACTOR 0.27 0.50 0.026 0.045 0.056 0.029 0.042 0.042> > > TABLE R402.1.2 INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENTa NR = Not Required. For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. a.R-values are minimums. U-factors and SHGC are maximums. Where insulation is installed in a cavity that is less than the label or design thickness of the insulation, the installed R-value of the insulation shall be not less than the R-value specified in the table. b. The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration. c. “10/13” means R-10 continuous insulation on the interior or exterior of the home or R-13 cavity insulation on the interior of the basement wall. “15/19” means R-15 continuous insulation on the interior or exterior of the home or R-19 cavity insulation at the interior of the basement wall. Alternatively, compliance with “15/19” shall be R-13 cavity insulation on the interior of the basement wall plus R-5 continuous insulation on the interior or exterior of the home. d. R-5 insulation shall be provided under the full slab area of a heated slab in addition to the required slab edge insulation R-value for slabs. as indicated in the table. The slab edge insulation for heated slabs shall not be required to extend below the slab. e. There are no SHGC requirements in the Marine Zone. f. Basement wall insulation is not required in warm-humid locations as defined by Figure R301.1. g. Alternatively, insulation sufficient to fill the framing cavity and providing not less than an R-value of R-19. h. The first value is cavity insulation, the second value is continuous insulation. Therefore, as an example, “13+5” means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 continuous insulation. i. Mass walls shall be in accordance with Section R402.2.5. The second R-value applies where more than half of the insulation is on the interior of the mass wall. FENESTRATION U-FACTORb SKYLIGHTb U-FACTOR GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGCb, e CEILING R-VALUE WOOD FRAME WALL R-VALUE MASS WALL R-VALUEi FLOOR R-VALUE BASEMENTc WALL R-VALUE SLABd R-VALUE & DEPTH CRAWL SPACEc WALL R-VALUE 0.27 0.50 0.40 49 20 or 13+5 h 13/17 30 g 15/19 10, 2 ft 15/19 > > > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 365 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-17 R402.2.5 Mass walls. Mass walls where used as a compo- nent of the building thermal envelope shall be one of the following: 1. Above-ground walls of concrete block, concrete, insulated concrete form, masonry cavity, brick but not brick veneer, adobe, compressed earth block, rammed earth, solid timber or solid logs. 2. Any wall having a heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft2 • °F (123 kJ/m2 • K). R402.2.6 Steel-frame ceilings, walls and floors. Steel- frame ceilings, walls, and floors shall comply with the insulation requirements of Table R402.2.6 or the U-factor requirements of Table R402.1.4. The calculation of the U-factor for a steel-frame envelope assembly shall use a series-parallel path calculation method. R402.2.7 Walls with partial structural sheathing. Where Section R402.1.2 requires continuous insulation on exte- rior walls and structural sheathing covers 40 percent or less of the gross area of all exterior walls, the required continu- ous insulation R-value shall be permitted to be reduced by an amount necessary, but not more than R-3 to result in a consistent total sheathing thickness on areas of the walls covered by structural sheathing. This reduction shall not apply to the U-factor alternative in Section R402.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5. R402.2.8 Floors. Floor framing-cavity insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking. Exception: As an alternative, the floor framing-cavity insulation shall be in contact with the topside of sheath- ing or continuous insulation installed on the bottom side of floor framing where combined with insulation that meets or exceeds the minimum wood frame wall R-value in Table R402.1.2 and that extends from the bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing members. R402.2.9 Basement walls. Walls associated with condi- tioned basements shall be insulated from the top of the basement wall down to 10 feet (3048 mm) below grade or to the basement floor, whichever is less. Walls associated with unconditioned basements shall comply with this requirement except where the floor overhead is insulated in accordance with Sections R402.1.2 and R402.2.8. R402.2.10 Slab-on-grade floors. Slab-on-grade floors with a floor surface less than 12 inches (305 mm) below grade shall be insulated in accordance with Table R402.1.2. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab on the outside or inside of the foundation wall. Insula- tion located below grade shall be extended the distance pro- vided in Table R402.1.2 by any combination of vertical insulation, insulation extending under the slab or insulation extending out from the building. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by not less than 10 inches (254 mm) of soil. The top edge of the insulation installed between the exterior wall and the edge of the interior slab shall be permitted to be cut at a 45-degree (0.79 rad) angle away from the exterior wall. Slab-edge insulation is not required in jurisdictions designated by the code official as having a very heavy termite infestation. R402.2.11 Crawl space walls. As an alternative to insu- lating floors over crawl spaces, crawl space walls shall be insulated provided that the crawl space is not vented to the outdoors. Crawl space wall insulation shall be perma- nently fastened to the wall and shall extend downward from the floor to the finished grade elevation and then ver- tically or horizontally for not less than an additional 24 inches (610 mm). Exposed earth in unvented crawl space foundations shall be covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder in accordance with the International Build- ing Code or International Residential Code, as applicable. Joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 inches (153 mm) and be sealed or taped. The edges of the vapor retarder shall extend not less than 6 inches (153 mm) up stem walls and shall be attached to the stem walls. TABLE R402.2.6 STEEL-FRAME CEILING, WALL AND FLOOR INSULATION R-VALUES a. The first value is cavity insulation R-value, the second value is continuous insulation R-value. Therefore, for example, “R-30+3” means R-30 cavity insulation plus R-3 continuous insulation. b. Insulation exceeding the height of the framing shall cover the framing. WOOD FRAME R-VALUE REQUIREMENT COLD-FORMED STEEL-FRAME EQUIVALENT R-VALUEa Steel Truss Ceilingsb R-30 R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5 R-38 R-49 or R-38 + 3 R-49 R-38 + 5 Steel Joist Ceilingsb R-30 R-38 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 R-49 in any framing R-38 R-49 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 or 2 × 10 Steel-Framed Wall, 16 inches on center R-13 R-13 + 4.2 or R-21 + 2.8 or R-0 + 9.3 or R-15 + 3.8 or R-21 + 3.1 R-13 + 3 R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 + 6.1 or R-15 + 5.7 or R-19 + 5.0 or R-21 + 4.7 R-20 R-0 + 14.0 or R-13 + 8.9 or R-15 + 8.5 or R-19 + 7.8 or R-19 + 6.2 or R-21 + 7.5 R-20 + 5 R-13 + 12.7 or R-15 + 12.3 or R-19 + 11.6 or R-21 + 11.3 or R-25 + 10.9 R-21 R-0 + 14.6 or R-13 + 9.5 or R-15 + 9.1 or R-19 + 8.4 or R-21 + 8.1 or R-25 + 7.7 Steel Framed Wall, 24 inches on center R-13 R-0 + 9.3 or R-13 + 3.0 or R-15 + 2.4 R-13 + 3 R-0 + 11.2 or R-13 + 4.9 or R-15 + 4.3 or R-19 + 3.5 or R-21 + 3.1 R-20 R-0 + 14.0 or R-13 + 7.7 or R-15 + 7.1 or R-19 + 6.3 or R-21 + 5.9 R-20 + 5 R-13 + 11.5 or R-15 + 10.9 or R-19 + 10.1 or R-21 + 9.7 or R-25 + 9.1 R-21 R-0 + 14.6 or R-13 + 8.3 or R-15 + 7.7 or R-19 + 6.9 or R-21 + 6.5 or R-25 + 5.9 Steel Joist Floor R-13 R-19 in 2 × 6, or R-19 + 6 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10 R-19 R-19 + 6 in 2 × 6, or R-19 + 12 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10 ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 366 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY R-18 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R402.2.12 Masonry veneer. Insulation shall not be required on the horizontal portion of a foundation that sup- ports a masonry veneer. R402.2.13 Sunroom insulation. Sunrooms enclosing con- ditioned space shall meet the insulation requirements of this code. Exception: For sunrooms with thermal isolation, and enclosing conditioned space, the following exceptions to the insulation requirements of this code shall apply: 1. The minimum ceiling insulation R-value shall be R-24. 2. The minimum wall insulation R-value shall be R- 13. Walls separating a sunroom with a thermal isolation from conditioned space shall comply with the building thermal envelope requirements of this code. R402.3 Fenestration (Prescriptive). In addition to the requirements of Section R402, fenestration shall comply with Sections R402.3.1 through R402.3.5. R402.3.1 U-factor. An area-weighted average of fenestra- tion products shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements. R402.3.2 Glazed fenestration SHGC. An area-weighted average of fenestration products more than 50-percent glazed shall be permitted to satisfy the SHGC requirements. Dynamic glazing shall be permitted to satisfy the SHGC requirements of Table R402.1.2 provided that the ratio of the higher to lower labeled SHGC is greater than or equal to 2.4, and the dynamic glazing is automatically controlled to modulate the amount of solar gain into the space in multiple steps. Dynamic glazing shall be considered separately from other fenestration, and area-weighted averaging with other fenestration that is not dynamic glazing shall be prohibited. Exception: Dynamic glazing shall not be required to comply with this section where both the lower and higher labeled SHGC comply with the requirements of Table R402.1.2. R402.3.3 Glazed fenestration exemption. Not greater than 15 square feet (1.4 m2) of glazed fenestration per dwelling unit shall be exempt from the U-factor and SHGC requirements in Section R402.1.2. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative in Section R402.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5. R402.3.4 Opaque door exemption. One side-hinged opaque door assembly not greater than 24 square feet (2.22 m2) in area shall be exempt from the U-factor requirement in Section R402.1.2. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative in Section R402.1.4 and the Total UA alternative in Section R402.1.5. R402.3.5 Sunroom fenestration. Sunrooms enclosing conditioned space shall comply with the fenestration requirements of this code. Exception: For sunrooms with thermal isolation and enclosing conditioned space, the fenestration U-factor shall not exceed 0.45 and the skylight U-factor shall not exceed 0.70. New fenestration separating the sunroom with thermal isolation from conditioned space shall comply with the building thermal envelope requirements of this code. R402.4 Air leakage (Mandatory). The building thermal envelope shall be constructed to limit air leakage in accor- dance with the requirements of Sections R402.4.1 through R402.4.5. R402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. The building ther- mal envelope shall comply with Sections R402.4.1.1 and R402.4.1.2. The sealing methods between dissimilar materi- als shall allow for differential expansion and contraction. R402.4.1.1 Installation. The components of the build- ing thermal envelope as indicated in Table R402.4.1.1 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the criteria indicated in Table R402.4.1.1, as applicable to the method of construc- tion. Where required by the code official, an approved third party shall inspect all components and verify com- pliance. R402.4.1.2 Testing. The building or dwelling unit shall be tested and verified as having an air leakage rate not exceeding three air changes per hour. Testing shall be conducted in accordance with RESNET/ICC 380, ASTM E779 or ASTM E1827 and reported at a pres- sure of 0.2 inch w.g. (50 Pascals). Where required by the code official, testing shall be conducted by an approved third party. A written report of the results of the test shall be signed by the party conducting the test and provided to the code official. Testing shall be per- formed at any time after creation of all penetrations of the building thermal envelope. During testing: 1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed, beyond the intended weatherstripping or other infiltration control measures. 2. Dampers including exhaust, intake, makeup air, backdraft and flue dampers shall be closed, but not sealed beyond intended infiltration control measures. 3. Interior doors, where installed at the time of the test, shall be open. 4. Exterior or interior terminations for continuous ventilation systems shall be sealed. 5. Heating and cooling systems, where installed at the time of the test, shall be turned off. 6. Supply and return registers, where installed at the time of the test, shall be fully open. R402.4.2 Fireplaces. New wood-burning fireplaces shall have tight-fitting flue dampers or doors, and outdoor com- bustion air. Where using tight-fitting doors on factory- built fireplaces listed and labeled in accordance with UL 127, the doors shall be tested and listed for the fireplace. R402.4.3 Fenestration air leakage. Windows, skylights and sliding glass doors shall have an air infiltration rate of not greater than 0.3 cfm per square foot (1.5 L/s/m2), and > > >>ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 367 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-19 for swinging doors, not greater than 0.5 cfm per square foot (2.6 L/s/m2), when tested in accordance with NFRC 400 or AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 by an accredited, independent laboratory and listed and labeled by the manufacturer. Exception: Site-built windows, skylights and doors. R402.4.4 Rooms containing fuel-burning appliances. Where open combustion air ducts provide combustion air to open combustion fuel-burning appliances, the appli- ances and combustion air opening shall be located outside the building thermal envelope or enclosed in a room that is isolated from inside the thermal envelope. Such rooms shall be sealed and insulated in accordance with the enve- lope requirements of Table R402.1.2, where the walls, floors and ceilings shall meet not less than the basement wall R-value requirement. The door into the room shall be fully gasketed and any water lines and ducts in the room insulated in accordance with Section R403. The combus- tion air duct shall be insulated where it passes through conditioned space to an R-value of not less than R-8. Exceptions: 1. Direct vent appliances with both intake and exhaust pipes installed continuous to the outside. 2. Fireplaces and stoves complying with Section R402.4.2 and Section R1006 of the International Residential Code. R402.4.5 Recessed lighting. Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. Recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as having an air leakage rate of not greater than 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) when tested in accordance with ASTM E283 at a pressure differential of 1.57 psf (75 Pa). Recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulked between the housing and the interior wall or ceiling covering. R402.5 Maximum fenestration U-factor and SHGC (Man- datory). The area-weighted average maximum fenestration U-factor permitted using tradeoffs from Section R402.1.5 shall be 0.48 in Climate Zones 4 and 5 and 0.75 in Climate Zones 4 through 8 for skylights. SECTION R403 SYSTEMS R403.1 Controls (Mandatory). Not less than one thermostat shall be provided for each separate heating and cooling sys- tem. R403.1.1 Programmable thermostat. The thermostat controlling the primary heating or cooling system of the dwelling unit shall be capable of controlling the heating and cooling system on a daily schedule to maintain differ- ent temperature setpoints at different times of the day. This thermostat shall include the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone tempera- tures of not less than 55°F (13°C) to not greater than 85°F (29°C). The thermostat shall be programmed initially by the manufacturer with a heating temperature setpoint of not greater than 70°F (21°C) and a cooling temperature setpoint of not less than 78°F (26°C). R403.1.2 Heat pump supplementary heat (Mandatory). Heat pumps having supplementary electric-resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplemental heat operation when the heat pump compres- sor can meet the heating load. R403.1.3 Continuously burning pilot lights. The natural gas systems and equipment listed here are not permitted to have continuously burning pilot lights: 1. Fan-type central furnaces. 2. Household cooking appliances. Exception: Household cooking appliances with- out electrical supply voltage connections where each pilot light consumes less than 150 Btu/hr. 3. Pool heaters. 4. Spa heaters. 5. Fireplaces. R403.2 Hot water boiler outdoor temperature setback. Hot water boilers that supply heat to the building through one- or two-pipe heating systems shall have an outdoor set- back control that decreases the boiler water temperature based on the outdoor temperature. R403.3 Ducts. Ducts and air handlers shall be installed in accordance with Sections R403.3.1 through R403.3.7. R403.3.1 Insulation (Prescriptive). Supply and return ducts in attics shall be insulated to an R-value of not less than R-8 for ducts 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter and larger and not less than R-6 for ducts smaller than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. Supply and return ducts in other portions of the building shall be insulated to not less than R-6 for ducts 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter and not less than R-4.2 for ducts smaller than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. Exception: Ducts or portions thereof located com- pletely inside the building thermal envelope. R403.3.2 Sealing (Mandatory). Ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with either the International Mechanical Code or Interna- tional Residential Code, as applicable. R403.3.2.1 Sealed air handler. Air handlers shall have a manufacturer’s designation for an air leakage of not greater than 2 percent of the design airflow rate when tested in accordance with ASHRAE 193. > > > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 368 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY R-20 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE TABLE R402.4.1.1 AIR BARRIER AND INSULATION INSTALLATIONa a. Inspection of log walls shall be in accordance with the provisions of ICC 400. COMPONENT AIR BARRIER CRITERIA INSULATION INSTALLATION CRITERIA General requirements A continuous air barrier shall be installed in the building envelope. The exterior thermal envelope contains a continuous air barrier. Breaks or joints in the air barrier shall be sealed. Air-permeable insulation shall not be used as a sealing material. Ceiling/attic The air barrier in any dropped ceiling or soffit shall be aligned with the insulation and any gaps in the air barrier shall be sealed. Access openings, drop down stairs or knee wall doors to unconditioned attic spaces shall be sealed. The insulation in any dropped ceiling/soffit shall be aligned with the air barrier. Walls The junction of the foundation and sill plate shall be sealed. The junction of the top plate and the top of exterior walls shall be sealed. Knee walls shall be sealed. Cavities within corners and headers of frame walls shall be insulated by completely filling the cavity with a material having a thermal resistance, R-value, of not less than R-3 per inch. Exterior thermal envelope insulation for framed walls shall be installed in substantial contact and continuous alignment with the air barrier. Windows, skylights and doors The space between framing and skylights, and the jambs of windows and doors, shall be sealed.— Rim joists Rim joists shall include the air barrier.Rim joists shall be insulated. Floors, including cantilevered floors and floors above garages The air barrier shall be installed at any exposed edge of insulation. Floor framing cavity insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of subfloor decking. Alternatively, floor framing cavity insulation shall be in contact with the top side of sheathing, or continuous insulation installed on the underside of floor framing; and shall extend from the bottom to the top of all perimeter floor framing members. Crawl space walls Exposed earth in unvented crawl spaces shall be covered with a Class I vapor retarder with overlapping joints taped. Crawl space insulation, where provided instead of floor insulation, shall be permanently attached to the walls. Shafts, penetrations Duct shafts, utility penetrations, and flue shafts opening to exterior or unconditioned space shall be sealed. — Narrow cavities — Batts to be installed in narrow cavities shall be cut to fit or narrow cavities shall be filled with insulation that on installation readily conforms to the available cavity space. Garage separation Air sealing shall be provided between the garage and conditioned spaces.— Recessed lighting Recessed light fixtures installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to the finished surface. Recessed light fixtures installed in the building thermal envelope shall be air tight and IC rated. Plumbing and wiring — In exterior walls, batt insulation shall be cut neatly to fit around wiring and plumbing, or insulation, that on installation readily conforms to available space, shall extend behind piping and wiring. Shower/tub on exterior wall The air barrier installed at exterior walls adjacent to showers and tubs shall separate the wall from the shower or tub. Exterior walls adjacent to showers and tubs shall be insulated. Electrical/phone box on exterior walls The air barrier shall be installed behind electrical and communication boxes. Alternatively, air-sealed boxes shall be installed. — HVAC register boots HVAC supply and return register boots that penetrate building thermal envelope shall be sealed to the subfloor, wall covering or ceiling penetrated by the boot. — Concealed sprinklers Where required to be sealed, concealed fire sprinklers shall only be sealed in a manner that is recommended by the manufacturer. Caulking or other adhesive sealants shall not be used to fill voids between fire sprinkler cover plates and walls or ceilings. — ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 369 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-21 R403.3.3 Duct testing (Mandatory). Ducts shall be pres- sure tested to determine air leakage by one of the follow- ing methods: 1. Rough-in test: Total leakage shall be measured with a pressure differential of 0.1 inch w.g. (25 Pa) across the system, including the manufacturer’s air handler enclosure if installed at the time of the test. Registers shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test. 2. Postconstruction test: Total leakage shall be mea- sured with a pressure differential of 0.1 inch w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the man- ufacturer’s air handler enclosure. Registers shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test. Exception: A duct air-leakage test shall not be required where the ducts and air handlers are located entirely within the building thermal envelope. A written report of the results of the test shall be signed by the party conducting the test and provided to the code official. R403.3.4 Duct leakage (Prescriptive). The total leakage of the ducts, where measured in accordance with Section R403.3.3, shall be as follows: 1. Rough-in test: The total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cubic feet per minute (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area where the air handler is installed at the time of the test. Where the air handler is not installed at the time of the test, the total leakage shall be less than or equal to 3 cubic feet per minute (85 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area. 2. Postconstruction test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cubic feet per minute (113.3 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area. R403.3.5 Building cavities (Mandatory). Building fram- ing cavities shall not be used as ducts or plenums. R403.3.6 Ducts buried within ceiling insulation. Where supply and return air ducts are partially or completely bur- ied in ceiling insulation, such ducts shall comply with all of the following: 1. The supply and return ducts shall have an insulation R-value not less than R-8. 2. At all points along each duct, the sum of the ceiling insulation R-value against and above the top of the duct, and against and below the bottom of the duct, shall be not less than R-19, excluding the R-value of the duct insulation. R403.3.6.1 Effective R-value of deeply buried ducts. Where using a simulated energy performance analysis, sections of ducts that are: installed in accordance with Section R403.3.6; located directly on, or within 5.5 inches (140 mm) of the ceiling; surrounded with blown-in attic insulation having an R-value of R-30 or greater and located such that the top of the duct is not less than 3.5 inches (89 mm) below the top of the insu- lation, shall be considered as having an effective duct insulation R-value of R-25. R403.3.7 Ducts located in conditioned space. For ducts to be considered as inside a conditioned space, such ducts shall comply with either of the following: 1. The duct system shall be located completely within the continuous air barrier and within the building thermal envelope. 2. The ducts shall be buried within ceiling insulation in accordance with Section R403.3.6 and all of the fol- lowing conditions shall exist: 2.1. The air handler is located completely within the continuous air barrier and within the building thermal envelope. 2.2. The duct leakage, as measured either by a rough-in test of the ducts or a post-construc- tion total system leakage test to outside the building thermal envelope in accordance with Section R403.3.4, is less than or equal to 1.5 cubic feet per minute (42.5 L/min) per 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area served by the duct system. 2.3. The ceiling insulation R-value installed against and above the insulated duct is greater than or equal to the proposed ceiling insulation R-value, less the R-value of the insulation on the duct. R403.4 Mechanical system piping insulation (Manda- tory). Mechanical system piping capable of carrying fluids greater than 105°F (41°C) or less than 55°F (13°C) shall be insulated to an R-value of not less than R-3. R403.4.1 Protection of piping insulation. Piping insula- tion exposed to weather shall be protected from damage, including that caused by sunlight, moisture, equipment maintenance and wind. The protection shall provide shielding from solar radiation that can cause degradation of the material. Adhesive tape shall be prohibited. R403.5 Service hot water systems. Energy conservation measures for service hot water systems shall be in accordance with Sections R403.5.1 through R403.5.4. R403.5.1 Heated water circulation and temperature maintenance systems (Mandatory). Heated water circu- lation systems shall be in accordance with Section R403.5.1.1. Heat trace temperature maintenance systems shall be in accordance with Section R403.5.1.2. Automatic controls, temperature sensors and pumps shall be accessi- ble. Manual controls shall be readily accessible. R403.5.1.1 Circulation systems. Heated water circula- tion systems shall be provided with a circulation pump. The system return pipe shall be a dedicated return pipe or a cold water supply pipe. Gravity and thermo- syphon circulation systems shall be prohibited. Con- trols for circulating hot water system pumps shall start the pump based on the identification of a demand for hot water within the occupancy. The controls shall automatically turn off the pump when the water in the circulation loop is at the desired temperature and when there is no demand for hot water. > > ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 370 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY R-22 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R403.5.1.2 Heat trace systems. Electric heat trace sys- tems shall comply with IEEE 515.1 or UL 515. Con- trols for such systems shall automatically adjust the energy input to the heat tracing to maintain the desired water temperature in the piping in accordance with the times when heated water is used in the occupancy. R403.5.2 Demand recirculation water systems. Demand recirculation water systems shall have controls that com- ply with both of the following: 1. The controls shall start the pump upon receiving a signal from the action of a user of a fixture or appli- ance, sensing the presence of a user of a fixture or sensing the flow of hot or tempered water to a fix- ture fitting or appliance. 2. The controls shall limit the temperature of the water entering the cold water piping to not greater than 104ºF (40ºC). R403.5.3 Hot water pipe insulation (Prescriptive). Insu- lation for hot water piping with a thermal resistance, R- value, of not less than R-3 shall be applied to the following: 1. Piping 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) and larger in nominal diameter. 2. Piping serving more than one dwelling unit. 3. Piping located outside the conditioned space. 4. Piping from the water heater to a distribution mani- fold. 5. Piping located under a floor slab. 6. Buried piping. 7. Supply and return piping in recirculation systems other than demand recirculation systems. R403.5.4 Drain water heat recovery units. Drain water heat recovery units shall comply with CSA B55.2. Drain water heat recovery units shall be tested in accordance with CSA B55.1. Potable water-side pressure loss of drain water heat recovery units shall be less than 3 psi (20.7 kPa) for individual units connected to one or two showers. Potable water-side pressure loss of drain water heat recov- ery units shall be less than 2 psi (13.8 kPa) for individual units connected to three or more showers. R403.6 Mechanical ventilation (Mandatory). The building shall be provided with ventilation that complies with the requirements of the International Residential Code or Inter- national Mechanical Code, as applicable, or with other approved means of ventilation. Outdoor air intakes and exhausts shall have automatic or gravity dampers that close when the ventilation system is not operating. R403.6.1 Whole-house mechanical ventilation system fan efficacy. Fans used to provide whole-house mechani- cal ventilation shall meet the efficacy requirements of Table R403.6.1. Exception: Where an air handler that is integral to tested and listed HVAC equipment is used to provide whole- house mechanical ventilation, the air handler shall be powered by an electronically commutated motor. R403.7 Equipment sizing and efficiency rating (Manda- tory). Heating and cooling equipment shall be sized in accor- dance with ACCA Manual S based on building loads calculated in accordance with ACCA Manual J or other approved heating and cooling calculation methodologies. New or replacement heating and cooling equipment shall have an efficiency rating equal to or greater than the mini- mum required by federal law for the geographic location where the equipment is installed. R403.8 Systems serving multiple dwelling units (Manda- tory). Systems serving multiple dwelling units shall comply with Sections C403 and C404 of the International Energy Conservation Code—Commercial Provisions instead of Sec- tion R403. R403.9 Snow melt and ice system controls (Mandatory). Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy ser- vice to the building, shall comply with Sections R403.9.1 and R403.9.2. R403.9.1 Controls. Snow melt and ice systems shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the sys- tem when the pavement temperature is greater than 50°F (10°C) and precipitation is not falling, and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is greater than 40°F (4.8°C). R403.9.2 Renewable energy offset. Energy use by snow and ice melt systems shall be offset by on-site renewable energy generation equipment designed to provide 34,425 BTUs per square foot of installed ice melt system per year. Plans shall be submitted that detail the type, size and loca- tion of the on-site renewable energy generation equip- ment. Note: A separate building permit is required for on-site renewable energy generation equipment. R403.10 Pools and permanent spa energy consumption (Mandatory). The energy consumption of pools and perma- nent spas shall be in accordance with Sections R403.10.1 through R403.10.3. R403.10.1 Heaters. The electric power to heaters shall be controlled by a readily accessible on-off switch that is an integral part of the heater mounted on the exterior of the heater, or external to and within 3 feet (914 mm) of the heater. Operation of such switch shall not change the set- ting of the heater thermostat. Such switches shall be in addition to a circuit breaker for the power to the heater. Heated pools shall be heated by solar thermal or other equipment that does not rely directly or indirectly on the burning of fossil fuels or shall have their energy use offset by on-site renewable energy generation equipment equiva- lent to the energy use of the swimming pool. Exceptions: 1. Unheated pools. 2. Pools having less than 200 square feet (18.6 m 2) of water surface area are exempt from the requirements to provide renewable energy. ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 371 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE R-23 R403.10.2 Time switches. Time switches or other control methods that can automatically turn off and on according to a preset schedule shall be installed for heaters and pump motors. Heaters and pump motors that have built-in time switches shall be in compliance with this section. Exceptions: 1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation. 2. Pumps that operate solar- and waste-heat-recov- ery pool heating systems. R403.10.3 Covers. Outdoor heated pools and outdoor per- manent spas shall be provided with a vapor-retardant cover or other approved vapor-retardant means. Exception: Where more than 75 percent of the energy for heating, computed over an operation season of not less than three calendar months, is from a heat pump or an on-site renewable energy system, covers or other vapor-retardant means shall not be required. R403.10.4 Filters. Swimming pool filters shall be car- tridge-type filters. R403.10.5 Pumps. Swimming pool pumps shall be multi- speed pumps. R403.10.6 Load calculations. For the purpose of calculat- ing the energy use of swimming pools, the following are assumed: 1. Swimming pool season. 2. Outdoor pools: 3 months. 3. Indoor pools: 12 months. 4. Pool heating temperature: 82°F (28°C) or less. 5. On-site renewable energy requirements. 6. 29,000 BTUs per square foot of pool surface area per year. Note: This section is not intended to limit the season or temperature of swimming pools. R403.11 Portable spas (Mandatory). The energy consump- tion of electric-powered portable spas shall be controlled by the requirements of APSP 14. R403.12 Residential pools and permanent residential spas. Residential swimming pools and permanent residential spas that are accessory to detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses three stories or less in height above grade plane and that are available only to the house- hold and its guests shall be in accordance with APSP 15. SECTION R404 ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS R404.1 Lighting equipment (Mandatory). Not less than 90 percent of the permanently installed lighting fixtures shall contain only high-efficacy light sources. R404.1.1 Lighting equipment (Mandatory). Fuel gas lighting systems shall not have continuously burning pilot lights. R404.1.2 Building grounds lighting efficacy. Connected exterior lighting for Group R-2, R-3 and R-4 buildings shall comply with Section C405.5 of this code. Exceptions: 1. Solar-powered lamps not connected to any elec- trical service. 2. Luminaires controlled by a motion sensor. R404.2 Electric vehicle (EV) charging for new construc- tion. The building shall be provided with electric vehicle (EV) charging in accordance with this section and the National Electrical Code (NFPA 70). Where parking spaces are added or modified without an increase in building size, only the new parking spaces are subject to this requirement. The number of parking spaces can be determined by actual spaces provided or consistent with Boulder’s Municipal Code, Title 9: Land Use Code, Chapter 9: Development Stan- dards, 9-9-6: Parking Standards. R404.2.1 One- and two-family dwellings and town- houses. Each dwelling unit with a dedicated attached or detached garage shall be provided with at least one electric vehicle ready space. The branch circuit shall be identified as “EV Ready” in the service panel or subpanel directory, and the termination location shall be marked as “EV Ready.” R404.2.2 Group-R occupancies. Group-R occupancies with three or more dwelling units and/or sleeping units shall be provided with electric vehicle charging in accor- dance with Table R4042.2. Calculations for the number of spaces shall be rounded up to the nearest whole number. TABLE R404.2.2 R404.2.3 Identification. Construction documents shall designate all EV capable spaces, EV ready spaces and elec- tric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installed spaces and indicate the locations of conduit and termination points serving them. The circuits or spaces reserved for the cir- cuits for EV capable spaces, EV ready spaces and EVSE installed spaces shall be clearly identified in the panel or subpanel directory. The conduit for EV capable spaces shall be clearly identified at both the panel or subpanel and the termination point at the parking space. R404.2.4 Accessible parking. Where new EVSE installed spaces and/or new EV ready spaces and new accessible parking are both provided, parking facilities shall be designed so that at least one accessible parking space shall be EV ready or EVSE installed. NUMBER OF EV READY SPACES NUMBER OF EV CAPABLE SPACES NUMBER OF EVSE INSTALLED SPACES 1–25 spaces 1 None None > 25 spaces 10% of spaces 40% of spaces 5% of spaces (minimum one dual port charging station) ATTACHMENT C Agenda Item 5C Page 372 of 389 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY R-24 2020 CITY OF BOULDER ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE SECTION R405 RESERVED SE