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General Design Guidelines for Boulder's Historic Districts and Individual LandmarksGENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOULDER'S HISTORIC DISTRICTS AND INDIVIDUAL LANDMARKS CITY OF BOULDER LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD JULY 2003 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Landmarks Preservation Advisory Board ( I 998 - 2003) Kathy Amold Sharon Rosall Leslie Durgin Leland Rucker Lisa Egger Rory 5alance Michael Holleran Kent Stutsman Consultant Nancy Lyons, Preservation Parinership City of Boulder Staff ' A number of current and former city employees contributed to this project, including Ruth McHeyser, Deon Wolfenbarger, Neil Holthouser, Laza Ramsey, and Bohdy Hedgcock. Photos and Graphics Bohdy Hedgcock, Robin Madel & Matt Russell - City of Boulder Winter & Company Carnegie Branch Library for Local History Denver Public Library - Western History Collection Funding This project was sponsored by the City of Boulder Landmarks Advisory Board and has been financed in part with Federal funds from the National Historic Preservation Act, admuustered by the National Park Service, U.S. Departrnent of the lnterior and for the Colorado Historical Society. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Departrnent of the Interior or the Society, nor does the mention of trade names or commercial products constitute an endorsement or recommendation by the Department of the Interior or the Society. This program receives Federal funds from the National Park Service. Regulations of the U.S. Departrnent of the Interior stricUy prohibit unlawful discrimination in departmental Federally assisted programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, age or handicap. Any person who believes he or she has been discruninated against in any program, activity, or facility operated by a recipient of Federal assistance should write to: D'uector, Equal Opporiunity Program, U.S. Department of the Interior,1849 C Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20240. CITY OF BOULDER IANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD CONTENTS a ~_ ~ - ; . ;. _ I . INTRODUCTION 5 1.1 Historic Preservation Program 6 1.2 Purpose of the Design Guidelines 8 1.3 A History of Boulder 10 1.4 Architectural Styles In Boulder 13 1.5 Review Process 18 2. SITE DESIGN 21 21 Building Alignment, Orientation, and Spacing 22 2.2 Streetscape and iandscaping 23 2.3 Alleys 24 2.4 Parking, Driveways 25 2.5 Sidewalks 26 2.6 Fences 27 3. ALTERATIONS 29 3.1 Roofs, Skylights, and Solar Panels 30 3.2 Roof Decks and Balconies 31 3.3 Decks 32 3.4 Porches 33 3.5 Dormers 34 3.6 Exterior Materials: Walls, Siding, and Masonry 35 3.7 Windows, Storm Windows, and Shutters 35 3.8 Doors and Storm Do~rs 38 4. ADDITIONS TO HISTORIC STRUCTURES 39 4.1 Protection of Historic Structures and Sites 41 4.2 Distinction from Historic Structures 41 4.3 CompafibIlity with Historic Structures 42 4.4 CompatibIlity with Historic Site and Setting 42 4.5 Key BuIlding Elements 43 5. ADDITIONS TO NON-HISTORIC STRUCTURES 45 6. NEW PRIMARY STRUCTURES 47 61 Distinc6on from Historic Structures 48 6.2 Site and Setting 48 6.3 Mass and Scale 49 6.4 Materials 50 6.5 Key Building Elements 50 7. GARAGES & OTHER ACCESSORY STRUCTURES 53 7.1 Existing Historic Accessory Structures 54 7.2 New Accessory Structures 54 'µ~= - 8. MISCELLANEOUS 57 ~ ~ _:~~<~~ ~_ `~~ 81 Paint and Paint Colors 58 •-* 8.2 Energy Efficiency 59 , ' ~:? : .-- , ~t . 8.3 Mechanical and Utility FacIlities 59 . 8.4 Signs 60 ` 8.5 Lighting 61 ~ ~ _ ` ~•~~ 8.6 Artwork 61 ~ 8.7 Public Impiovements 62 ~ `;.~ ~ . , _ ' ' ~ _ ;' . ~. _ `' 8.8 Americans with Disabilifies Act 62 .`- - 9. DEFINITIONS 65 ~ ~ _`'-~ .~ ~.~:K... - ~ INTRODUCTION CITY OF BOULDER LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD I. ' INTRODUCTION I.I ' Historic Preservation in Boulc~~° The early 1970's sa~v an increase in the demolition of existing buildings ~~ith no thought as to their historical or architectural value to Boulder's history. Among thosF molished ~ras Central School, the first school to have a`, :duating class in the Colorado Territory. Today, at the comer of Walnut and l~u~ is a plaqu~, embedded in rock, commemorating the school. Out of the school's destruction rose the demand for a legal mechanism for evaluating historic sites. In 1974, the Boulder Landmarks Ordinance was passed. The ordinance sets out the procedures ~ for designation, design review, and the appointment and powers of the Landmarks Preservation Advisory Board (LPAB). The purpose of the historic preservation program as stated in the Ordinance is as follows: Over I 25 properties have ~a) 77te purpose of this clutpter is to prornot~ the public heat' : been designated as IocaJ safeh~, and welfare hy protecting, enhancing, and perpehcatc~ig hicildings, sites, and areas of tl~e ci.. rentiniscent of pnst erezs, landmarks, along with ~~ents, and persons important in i; .. state, or nationaI these historic districu: histon~ or proz~iding significant exa»tples of ardiitect~iral styles of the past. It is also f{~e Xnsrpose of tliis cluipter tn Floral Park 1977 dt~~eiop and mnintain appropriate settings and environments Chautauqua 1978 for suc)t httildings, sites, and area~ to enhnnce pro~erty z~alcses, Mapleton 1982 staMlize neighborhovds, promote tourist trade and interest, West Pearl 1994 and foster knou~ledge of tlie city's tiz~ing lierifr~ge. Chamberlain I 995 (b) The cihj cocsncil does not intend by t)tis cliapter to presen~e Downtown 1999 ez~en~ oId Ensilding in the cih~ but instead to draw a reasonahle Grandview 2000 halance hetzneen pnz~ate property rights arid tlie ptehlic interest Hillside 2001 in preseming tlte city's acitural, ]zistnnc, ai~d ardtitectural l~eritage hy ensuring tliat dernolition of huildings and A complete listing of struch~res i»iportant to that herifage will he carefisliy weighed zuith otlier alternatiz~es and tltat nlteratiorts to st~cle biiildings individual landmarks is und struch~res nnd netv construction zc~ill respect tlie clu~racter available on the city's of each such setting, nof En~ imitating surrounding stnich~res, website: tn~t I~nJ being contpnfible witlr them. www.ci.boulder.co.us/ Landmarks Preservation Advisory Boazd Mission: buildingservices/ To probect, enhance, and perpetuabe buildings, sibes, and ar: ~f ti~e historicpres/ city reminiscent of past eras, events, and persons important in local, boulderlandmarks.htmi state or national history or provide significant examples of architechiral styles of the past .. .. aLso ... tn _: _~ velop and maintain appropriate settings and environments for such buildings, sitaees, and areas to enhance property values, stabilize neighborhoocls, promobe tc~urist trade and interest, and foster knowledge of the city's living heritage. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES CITY OF BOULDER LOCAL HISTORIG DISTRIGTS (Z~ --- .--- ~ ~, ~ ._ -- - . ~~ ' ' ' Mapleton r ~±~- - ~ ~C=.._- __r- '4 ~ ~ _ ~ ~ _- .~ ~ ~t~ ~ Y ~i- " - _ ~~' ~y ~f . ~ - ~~°~ 'y,--- Downtown ,~ r ~~- West Pearl t -- ~= Grandview Terrace ~ - ~--r ~- ~ :~ Chamberlain ~ :.._: , Hillside ` -, ~x _~---= `_' ~ ~ ! = ~ - r : - h I I ,~ ~~ ~ :1 ~,. _ - I F ' ~ ' ,; ~ ~ -r - ~ ~ ~ I , ~- - ~ i ;,, = ~ ; ` ~ _ = Floral Park _ ' , ~ ~.._, W~~~, i ~ .. _ : _.: ~~, ~ ~" ' _ ~ ` ~ :~: - ~' ~--~ ~ d =':~a ; - ~ : ` '~ . . , E ~_, ~ ~~ ~~ , ,~ ~~~ :=:a s.~,. ~ ~_~,s~ ~.., ~ .,. . I ,-l J~ ~'r ~_1 ' ' _ - ~,. Chautauqua , _ ~~' ~~ ~ ~ j ~` ,;., -~' r--~ it. ~~~ f ?,r,' ~ 02003 City of Boul~er. Colorado INTRODUCTION 7 i.~ ~ ~'\~ - ~- ~ =- i - _. ~ i -.~~ Survey sheets like these document Boulder's historic resources. Purpose of the Design Guidelines The intent of the design revieti• process is to ensure d~at proposed alterations of Landmark properties will not adversely affect or destroy their historic character or architectural integrity and that all changes are consistent with the spirit and purpose of the Landmark Preservation Ordinance. The Landmarks Board adopted the Secretnn~ of tlte Interior's Standarais for Reluzhilitation as the basis for guidance on rehabilitation design for historic properties.' These guidelines expand those Standards and bring focus to Boulder's ow~n historic context and resources. The purpose of the design guidelines is to facilitate both the application and approval of alterations proposed for design review by 1) providing the owners of historic properties sc~:~ie assistance in making decisions about maintenance and improvements, and 2) providing the Landmarks Board with a frame~vork for evaluation of proposed improvements. The guidelines reflect the Landmarks Board's philosophy that underlies all its decisions: to encourage the preservaHon and careful treatment of the cit5~ s historicallv significant resources, ~~hile recognizing the need for continuing adaptation and improvements to these resour:es. The C~rternl Design Guidelines serve as the guiding document for present and future residential historic distr-icts and individual landmarks, supplemented bv distr-ict-specific guidelines ~, ilere those have been adopted. The distr-ict-specific guidelines are available from the Plannulg Department. Call a Preservation Planner at (303) 441-3270 for more information. For inciividually landmarked conunercial buildings and for the Do~•r-tow~n Historic District, refer to the Downtown Design Guidelines. Before you begin to formulate plans for any changes to your building, (ind out whether it is considered individually significant, contributing, contr-ibuting-restorable, or non-contributing. T~ information will help you to better understand these guidelines as they apply to your building. You can find this information on historic surveys completed for all buildings in historic districts and for landmark structures. Surveys are available from the Planning I~ Adopted by the Landmarks Board as administrative regulations, I I/7/ 1990 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES Department at 1739 Broadway and at the Camegie Branch Library for Local History,1125 Pine Street, Boulder. It should be noted that the status of buildings can change over time, and not all surveys are up to date. The determuiation of contributing or non- contributing sG~tus is ultimately made by the Landmazks Board in consultation with staff. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation I. A property shall be used for ia historit purpose or be placed in a new use that requires minimal change to the defining tharatteristics of the building and iu site and environment. 2. The historic character o( a property shall be repined and preserved. The removal o( historic materials or alteration of features and spaces that characterize a properry shall be avoided. 3. Each property shall be recognized as a physical record of ia time, place, and use. Changes chat create a false sense of historical development, suth as adding conjectura) features or archiiettural elementz from other buildings, shall not be undertaken. 4. Most properties change over time; those changes that have atquired historic signifitance in their own right shall be rewined and preserved. 5. Distinttive (eatures, Flnishes, and construaion techniques or examples of creftsmanship that charatterize a property shall be preserved. 6. Deceriorated historit features shall be repaired rather than replaced. Where the severity of deterioration requires replacement of a disanctive feature, the new feature shall match the old in design, color, te~cture, and other visual qualities and, where possible, materials. Replacement of missing (eatures shall be subswnciated by documentary, physital, or piaorial evidence. 7. Chemical or physical treatments, such as sandblasting, that cause damage to historit materiais shall not be used. The surface cleaning of sVUCtures, if appropriate, shall be undertaken using the gendest means possible. 8. Signifitant archeological resources affected by a project shall be protetted and preserved. I( such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures shall be undettaken. 9. New additions, ex[erior alterations, or related new conscruction shall not desttoy historic materials that cha2cterize the property. The new work shali be differentiated from the old and shall be compatible wkh the massing, size, scale, and architectural teatures to protea the historic integriq of the properry and its environment. 10. New additions and adjacent or related new conscrvction shall be undertaken in such a manner that if removed in the future, the essential form and integriry of the historic properry and iu environment would be unimpaired. A searchable database of some information from the survey sheeu, along with recent photos (2002 - 2003) of individual landmarks and buildings within Boulder's local historic disuicts is now available on the city's website. You may also retrieve infor•mation by selecting properties from a map of Boulder's historic properties. www.ci.boulder.co.us/ buildingservices/ historicpres/LandmarksJ historic.htrnl INTRODUCTION The definitions below help to explain the different categories of significance: Local Landmark Buildings: Those buildings that are officially designated as city of Boulder local landmarks. These buildings have a special character and historical, architectural, or aesthetic interest or value in Boulder's local history. ^ Individually Significant Buildings: Those buildings that are considered individually eligible for the National Register of Historic Places or for local landmark designation. Contributing Buildings: Those buildings built during the district's period of significance that exist in comparatively original condition, or that have been appropriately restored, and clearly contribute to the historic significance of the district. Such buildings may have compatible additions. Contributing-Restorable Buildings: Those buildings built during the district's period of significance that have original material that has been covered, or buildings that have experienced some alteration, but that still convey some sense of history. These buildings would more strongly contribute, however, if they were restored. Such buildings may have less compatible additions. • NornContributing Buitdings: Those buildings built during the district's period of significance that have been altered to such an extent that historic information is not interpretable and restoration is not possible. This includes buildings erected outside the period of significance that are not individually significant. Significant Newer Buildings: Those buildings that have not yet achieved historic significance but have achieved architectural significance as excellent examples of their period. 10 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES I.3 A History of Boutder T~ze Boulder valle~~ was first the home of American Indians, primarily the Southern Arapaho tribe that maintained a village near Haystack Mountain. Utes, Cheyennes, Comanches, and Sioux were occasional visitors to the area. Gold seekers established the first non-native settlement in BouIder Counh~ on October 17,18~8 at Red Rocks near the entrance to Boulder Canvon. Less than a vear later, on Februarv 10, 18~9, the Boulder Citv Town Company was organized bv A.A. Brookfield, fortv-four lots Hrere laid out at a purchase price of ~1,000 each; a price that was later lowered in order to attract more residents Part of the Nebraska Territory until February 29, 1861, ~n~hen the U.S. Congress created the Territory of Colorado, Boulder City grew slowly. It developed as - a supply base for miners going into the mountains in search of gold and silver. Boulder City residents provided miners with equipment, agricultural -_ products, housing and transport services, and ~~~ .~:~ ~:, " • ~:~.y ~..~~ gambling and drinking establishments. ~:"•; : = ,= Competition among Boulder County settlements for °- ~`'~ ne~• residents and businesses was intense. As a mining supply towrn, Boulder residents were more -~" settled than in the mining camps. Economic stability ~vas a necessih~ and residents encouraged the establishment of railroad service, hospital and school buildings, and a stable town government. Boulder's first schoolhouse was built in 1860 at the southwest comer of Walnut and 15th Street, the first in the territorv. Also in 1860 a group of Boulder residents began lobbying to have the Universih~ located in Boulder. By 1874 Boulder 1-.ad won the designation, secured a donated 44.9-acre site and raised $15,000 to match a similar grant by the state legislature. Construction of Old Main signaled the opening of the University with classrooms, offices, an auditorium and the President's living quarters all located there. Transportation was improved in 1873 with railroad service coming to Boulder. Gradually tracks were built to provide service to Golden and Denver and to the mining camps to the ~vest. In 1890, the railroad depot was mnstructed on Water Street (no~~ Canyon Boulevard) and 14th Street. , . ~~~ :~-; ~ . --' ~ ~ • ~~5• :..:•~~ ~i~- , .'`~'•~,..: ~ ~ . . • .~~~ _ ~ _..,., , ~.~`~ ' _ . ~ ~-. .__ ~ . . .. . .•~~rb-~:~~ - -. ~ . . .~ ' . .. _. ` A ` ~ - ,.: ~~ ~ Bird's Eye View of Boulder Ciry, 1876 Carnegie Bronch f.ibrory for Local History, Boulder Historical Society Collection INTRODUCTION Cih~ government was formalized in N~vember 1871, ~ti~heil the town of Boulder ~vas incorporated. Designation of Boulder as the counh• seat occurred in 1867 and led to the construction of the first courthouse at its present site in 1883. It bumed to the ground in 1932 and w~as replaced by~ the current courthouse in 1934. Amenities and health services were developed, even in periods of little growth. The first Post Office was established in 1860; a hospital ~~as built in 1873; 1874 saw the arrival of the telegraph, a water system and the first bank. The initial residential area was located in what is now~ downtown and in some parts of the Goss/Grove, Whittier and Mapleton Hill neighborhoods. As commercial expansion took over do~Tntowrn housulg, the surrounding neighborhoods remained primarily residential areas. At the turn of the centurS~ growth of the University led to the development of University Hill. One mark of elegance for residents was the flagstone side~~alks, first installed during the 1880's. The first private school in Boulder, Mt. St. Gertrude Academy, was opened in 1892. Boulder, by then ;~,~ ,,,~. ,,: accessible to visitors by railroad, was known as a . '~ : s. r _ ;. :~ }~ , `: ~ ~~~::•. community with a prosperous economy, a .~ ~ `'~ ~ * ~ ` ~' ` comprehensive educational system, and well- maintained residential neighborhoods. It was no ~;~ ;,~ ~~, i~; ~,~._ ~ ;~,' wonder that the railroad recommended Boulder as a ~? k- site for a Chautau ua in 1897. Boulder residents =:~'k, ~f •_ ~,f. ~.3 q ~.~.°,~ ~,,, ,,y~' ~; ,.~s- passed a bond issue to buy the land, and the now :.t~ `.. ,~' ~;' :~r. familiar Chautauqua Park is listed both on the ~' ~1 >~x '=.~ National Register and as a locally designated ' _ -___` ~ _''~ landmark. View of the Flatirons and Boulder. (920 Denver Public library - Western History gy 1905 the economy ~vas f,7ltering and Boulder counted heavily Collection on tourism to boost its fortunes; however, Boulder had no first class hotel to attract summer visitors and group meetings. By 1906, a subscription drive had raised money to begin construction. The first event at the new Hotel Boulderado was a reception for Boulderites on December 30,1908. The hotel opened to the public for business on January 1,1909. Tourism continued to dominate the Boulder economy for the next forty years. Each summer shopkeepers, transport firms, and lodging managers eagerly awaited the influx of Chautauqua residents (primarily from Texas) and other visitors. By World ~Z GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 4Var II, when tourism declined, d1e Universitv had unknowingly provided another opportunit~~ for growth. With the location of the U.S. Navy's Japanese language school at CU young men a~1d women from around the country became acquainted with the city and liked it. Follo~~ing World War II many of these trainees returned as students, professionals and business people, joining veterans attending the University on the G.I. Bill. Boulder's population had not increased significantly since the 1920's. The 1920 census showed 11,006 residents while the 1940 count was 12,958. After the first influx of new residents in the late 1940's, the count soared to 20,000 in 19~0. New residents meant both new opportunities and new challenges. Although jobs were needed, townspeople wanted to preserve the beautiful natural setting and amenities developed over the years. By 1950, Boulder leaders were actively recruiting new "clean" industry and improved transportation; securing a new highway, the Boulder-Denver Turnpike; and the National Bureau of Standards in 1952. Other research and development industries soon followed. The housing shortage and need for additional business and public buildings attracted young and talented architects. New subdivisions were planned including the Highland Park-Martin Acres neighborhood located on the historic Martin Farm and the North Boulder developments from Balsam north, originally part of the Tyler Farm. New neighborhoods brought the city's first two shopping centers, North Broadway and Basemar. With the completed turnpike to downtown Denver, Boulder continued to expand. From 1950 to 1972 tl~e population grew from 20,000 to 72,000. With the purchase of thousands of acres of open space beguuung in 1967, the adoption of the Boulder Valley Comprehensive Plan in 1970, passage of the building height restriction ordinance in 1972, and the residential growth management ordinance in 1977, Boulder began a period of infill and re-use of i~ past architectura~ development that continues to the present. The Historic Preservation Code was passed in September 1974. The ordinance is instrumental in preserving significant portions of our past while encouraging rehabilitation of historic buildings. INTRODUCTION Boulder-Denver Turnpike, 1952 Carnegie Branch Library (or Loca! History, Boulder Historica! Society Coflection 13 I.4 Architectural Styles in Boulder Understanding the stvlistic trends, the design intent, and the traditional use of building materials is important to the evaluation of a structure"s historic integriri~ and consequentl~~ to rehabilitation design. 4Vhile a large portron of Boulder's historic residential properties are properh~ identified as "vernacular", thev also include examples of a broad range of architectural sh~les that reflect the evolution of Colorado architecture dating from the 1880's. The following stvles are found in Boulder. The descriptions are excerpted from a 1983 publication of the Colorado Historical Society, A Guide tn Cnlnrndn Ardiitecture. Vernacular Wood Frame (late 1860-present) Bv far the most common stvle of architecture, Vernacular Wood Frame structures have been built throughout Colorado since 1860. The Vernacular is an indigenous style generally constructed with locally available ma~erials according to traditional building practice. They are simple in form and detail and generallV void of ornamentation. These simple, modest homes are divided into four types according to floor plan and roof shape: the Gabled "L", the Front Gable, the Hipped Gable, and the Side Gable. These buildings are wood frame construction and are usually sided w~ith clapboard or wood shingles or a combination of the hvo. Vernacular Masonry (late 1860-present) Vernacular I~fasonr`~ is another verv common form of architecture found all over Colorado and dates from the late 1860's. Although not as common as Vernacular ~'ood structures, these unpretentious building are numerous enough to warrant a separate category. The}' are generally composed of brick, stone, or concrete block and are similar in massing to their wood counterparts. As with Vernacular Wood structures, these buildings are simple in detail and are designated accordi~.., to roof shape anu floor plan into four categories: the Gabled "L", the Front Gable, the Hipped Box, and the Side Gable. Italianate ( I 870- I 9 I 0) Like many Victorian styles, the Italianate emphasized vertical proportions and richlv decorative detailing. It was found on residential, commercial, and institutional structures throughout Colorado from about 1870 up until the turn of the century and is either wood or masonrv construction. The Italianate style is characterized by a low pitched, hip roof, wide overhangs, bracketed cornice, a variety of fenestration (usually very tall, 14 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES Vernacular Wood Frame Greenman House Mapleton Avenue Vernacular Masonry John Day House I 9`h Street Italianate Austin House Pine Street thin, double-hung, one-over-one winnows), molded ~•indow surrounds, and occasionallv a cupola or balustraded balconv. Simple Italianate structures have a hipped roof, bracketed eaves, and molded surrounds. A more elaborate or High Style example ma~~ feature arcaded porches, corner quoins, towers, and ornate detailing. Second Empire ( I 870- I 9 I 0) The Second Empire style is most easily identified by the use of a Mansard roof form, a double-pitched roof with a steep lower slope. The roof is usually pierced with dormer windows allo~~ing light to this second or third floor. Decorative elements on the facades include triangular pediments over windows and porches and pilasters and columns at building corners. Queen Anne ( I 880- I 9 I 0) Queen Anne is perhaps the most ornate style of the Victorian Period evident in Colorado, and was popular between 1880 and 1910. The style varies from highly decorative commercial examples to more restrained version found in many residential neighborhoods. General characteristics include a vertical orientation, asvmmetrical massing, corner towers and bays, prominent decorative porches, projecting gables, and contrasling materials. First stories are often brick or stone w~ith wood frame upper stories finishecl ~~ith wood shingles or clapboards. Roof forms are often complex tiTith gabled or hip dormers and tower elements. Wide front or wrap-around porches are typically found on front and side elevations with elaborate trim and turned posts. The degree of ornamentation usually distinguishes the High Style from the vernacular. Ornamentation is emphasized on a High Style Queen Anne through the use of scalloped and painted shingles in the gable ends, and decorative bargeboards, sunburst detailir~g, and turned spindles on porches and balconies. The corner tower is prominent, but not universally present. The Vernacular Queen Anne is generally less ornate, but usually features the shingled gables, asymmetrical massing and some decorative detailing. The vernacular examples have enough decoration to dishnguish them from the categories that are stricdy vernacular. INTRODUCTION I 5 Second Empire Chauncey Stokes House Pme Street Queen Anne McAllister House Pine Street Queen Mne Temple-Bowron House Pine Street Edwardian Vernacular ( I 900- I 920) Edwardian Vernacular structures are basicall~• Post-Victorian residences similar to the Queen Anne style in form and massing, but lacking ornamentation. Sometimes called "Princess Anne," these buildings feature multi-gabled roofs, asymmetrical massing, simple surfaces, and occasionall~~ wrap- around porches, short tow~ers, and some classical details. Lamb House Spruce Street Terrace Johnson-Betasso Terrace Pearl Street 16 Terrace ( I 880- I 920) The Terrace is considered to be somew~hat unique in Colorado and dates from the late 1880's through 1920. These structures are basically one or t-wo-story brick building with a flat roof and corbelled cornice. The style is evident in a few single-family homes, but most common as duplexes or larger multi-family homes. Many have individual porches at each entrance. While the most common cornice treatment is brick corbelling, occasionally a separate comice w~ith brackets or parapets at the roofline are evident. Stylistic elements such as Richardsonian arches or Italianate bracketed cornices are used occasionally, but the basic flat-roofed. Rectangular form predominates. Foursquare ( I 900- I 930) One of the most commonly found styles in Colorado after 1900, the Foursquare is easily recognized by its square plan and overall simplicity. The majority of these homes were built during the first three decades of the 20~ century. The tvpical Foursquare is a two-story, hipped roof structure with central front dormer, minimal decoration, broad overhanging eaves with brackets or modillions, classical frieze with dentils, and a porch with hipped roof supported bu simple, Doric columns or square posts. Occasionally, a Foursquare will feature a shaped gable or will be considerably larger with more elaborate ornamentation, but, in each case, the basic square plan is predominant. Classic Cottage ( I 9 I 0- I 930) The Classic Cottage is basically a one-story version of the Foursquare. It features an elongated hipped roof with central front dormer, a front porch with thick porch posts or round, simplified Doric colunuls supporting the porch roof. Populaz between 1910 and 1930, the style was most commonly used in residential architecture, although occasionally it was used for schoolhouses, train depots, or small institutional buildings. Building materials were almost always masonry, particularly brick, with a few rare hame examples. Ornamentation is generally limited to window surrounds and flared eaves on the dormer. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES Edwardian Vemacular Foursquare Mayall-Pickett House Highland Avenue Classic Cottage Mapleton Avenue Colonial Revival ( I 900- I 930) Classical or Colonial Revival buildings constr~ucted in the early twentieth centurv generally have classical detailing. Buildings in this style vary widely in size, may be of wood or masonry construction, and have details such as pediments, dentiled cornices and multi-paned windows. Front doors are usually accented with pediments or fanlights and porches are typically small ~rith slender columns. Roof forms can be hipped or gabled, but are usually simple in massing. Mission ( I 900- I 930) The Mission stvle is most easily identified by the curvilinear shaped gable and simplicitv of form. Also characteristic is a stucco or plaster finish, arcades, tile roof, and, occasionally, arched windows. There is usuallv a small round window or round ornament Iocated in the ~enter of the shaped gable. Towers and iron balconies are evident on larger buildings. Tudor Revival ( I 9 I 0- I 930) The most dominant features of the Tudor Revival style are the half-timbering that covers the upper story, and the very steeply pitched roof. The exterior is textured, using brick, stone, or stucco, and, together with the timbering, give the house a picturesque composition. Constructed in Colorado during the 1910s and 1920s, these homes also featured gabled or hipped roofs covered with tile, slate, or shake shingles, and decorated chimney detailing. Windows are generally mullioned casements, ~vith an occasional bay window. Mediterranean ( I 920- I 930) The key to distinguishing the Mediterranean style is the tile roof and restrained ornamentation (as opposed to the elaborate details on a Spanish Colonial Revival structure). Built in Colorado during the 1920's, these structures are generally stucco or brick, often painted white to contrast the brightly colored roof tiles. Roofs are low-pitched gable or flat with a parapet on smaller homes; they are low pitched hipped on some larger homes. Another characteristic feature is the extension of a side or front wall to form an arcaded entrance or porch. Windows are sometimes casements, framed by wooden or wrought iron grills or small second story balconies. The Mediterranean style was used for churches, schools, and residences, both on a grand scale and on more modest homes. The heavy tile roof is generally the dominant characteristic. INTRODUCTION 17 Colonial Revival Henrietta Somers House Baseline Road Mission Wahlstrom Mission(Terrace 19`" Street Tudor Revival Ekeley House I I `" Street Mediterranean David H. Holmes House I I `h Street Bungalow ( I 920- I 940) The Bungalo~* style incorporates a wide range of stvles trom Craftsman to Prairie and Mission style buildings. Often categorized as modest one or one and one half-stor~• buildings, defining features include large covered porches, lo~- overhanging roof forms and large scale building elements. Porch columns tend to be squared and tapered and often sit on pedestals. Bungalows can be wood or masonry, but share these common elements. 18 Modern ( I 920 - present) Architecture associated with the Modern movement is identified by an emphasis on design that was clearly of the Machine Age, with standardization of parts, absence of non- functional decoration, and structural "honesty" as hallmarks. Flat roofs and smooth wall surfaces were favored. Both the Modernistic style (1920 - 40) and the International style (1~~'~ - present) are products of trus more austere modernism. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES Bungalow 6th Street Modern Thornton House I 3`" Street I .5 Review Process What is Subject to Review? The Boulder Revised Code's Historic Preservation Ordinance (10-13-18, B.R.C.,1981) ouflines the process and criteria for reviewing changes to individual landmarks and buildings in historic districts. Any alteration to the exterior of a building or site in a locally designated historic district or on a Landmark site requires a Landmark Alteration Certificate. Items such as changing the paint color, major landscaping projects and the addition of storm windows do not require a building permit, but they do require a Landmark Alteration Certificate. What is the Process for Review? There are three levels of review. StaB Level Review: The following alterations can usually be reviewed within a few days by calling a city Preservation Planner at 441-3270: re-roofing, paint, landscaping, and reaz or side yard fences lower than 5 feet in height with a minunum of 1" spacing between the pickets. For projects in downtown, staff may also review signs, awnings and railings. If such a proposal cleazly meets the criteria ouflined by the preservation code (see sidebar), a Preservation Planner will issue a Landmark Alteration Certificate, and you can commence your project. (You will also need a fence permit for fences and a building permit for re-roofing prior to beginning any work, however). Landmarks Design Review Committee: All other projects will be reviewed by the Landmarks Design Review Committee, which meets weekly and consists of rivo members of the Landmarks Board and one member of the city Planning Department (a city Preservation Planner). Call a Preservation Planner to schedule your review with the Committee. The meetings are relatively informal, and you are encouraged to bring your proposal early in the design process for a concepiual review. As the project becomes finalized, the Committee determines whether it meets the guidelines set forth in this document and in the Boulder Historic Preservation Code. If it does, the Committee will issue an Alteration Certificate, and you can commence with your project after getting the necessary permits. If the vote of the Committee is divided, the application goes forward for review by the five-member Landmarks Board at a public hearing unless you choose to withdraw the application for revision and resubmittal. INTRODUCTION Section 10-13-18 ofthe Boulder Revised Code establishes criteria for the approval of Landmark Alteration Certificates: I. The proposed work preserves, enharxes, or restores and does not damage or destroy the exterior architectural features of the landmark or the subjxt property within an historic district; 2. The proposed work does not adversely affecc che special cha2tter or special historical, architectural, or aesthetic interest or value of the landmark and iu site or the distric~ 3. The architxtural sryle, arrangement, texture, color, arrangemeM of color, and materials used on existing and proposed structures are compatible with the character of the existing landmark and iu site or the historic distritt; and 4. ~th respect to a proposal to demolish a building in an historic district, the proposed new construttion to replace the building meea requirements 2 and 3 above. The complete historic preservation ordinance is available online at: www.ci.boulder.co.us/ cao/brc/ I 0- I 3.html 19 Incentives for • Landmarks Board Public Hearing: In addition to projects Landmarking referred to the Board by the Design Review Committee, the ~11 Landmarks Board reviews all demolition and necv construction applications. Sheds under 60 square feet in As a way to encourage size and one-story single car garages under 340 square feet landmark designation of are exceptions, and can be reviewed by the Design Review the cit~s eligible historic Committee. Landmarks Board public hearings are held resources, the city and monthly, and agendas are published in the newspaper 10 state offer a variety of days in advance. Decisions are based on the majority vote incentives to property of the five-member Board and standards in the Code. owners including: Call Up by City Councii • Srate income wx credit for The decision of the Landmarks Boazd is subject to call up by the 20% of approved City Council. If a majority of Council votes to call up the rehabilitation costs (up to Board's decision, it is re-considered at a subsequent City $50,000 per properry) for CouncIl public hearing. If council does not call it up, the Iocal landmarks and Boazd's decision is final. contributing buildings within historic districts i~~y. P~yt R~r~ts and C~mp6anoewitl~ Gly Codes Please note that obtaining a Landmazk Alteration Certificate ~ Federal Investment Tax does not include review of your project for all city Credit for National Regiscer propercies used requirements. In addition to meeting the guidelines, design and (or commercial purposes building plans must meet all requirements of the City of Boulder Revised Code, including, without limitation, the Land • Eligibility tor Colorado Use and Struchxre Regulations of Tides 9 and 10, B.R.C. 1981. Historical Fund grants The land use regulations include limitations on building setbacks from property lines, maximum building hetghts, and ~ The waiver of sales cax on minimum solar access requirements. Building, fire, mechanical construction materials at ~d plumbing requirements are covered in the Structure section the time of building permit of these regulations. The sign code includes limitations on the application size and placement of signs. Please contact the Development Information Office in the Planning Department at 441-3290 with • The pecential for questions regarding the Land Use Regulations. For direct exemptions or rariances to questions regarding the building requirements, cal] a variety of building code Development d Inspection Services at 441-3280. and zoning requirements. Submittal Requirements For complete informadon The information you submit with your applicafion is the only on these benefits coMad a description the Landmarks Design Review Committee will have Preservation Planner by of your design. It therefore should illustrate, as precisely as calling (303) 441 ~}293. possible, what you have in mind. For further information or to schedule a review by the Landmarks Design Review Committee, please contact the Planning Department,1739 Broadway, Suite 300, (303) 441-4293. 20 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES The following are required for review: I. Application. 2. Photographs. Show all the views of the existing building and at least a portion of the neighboring buildings. 3. Scaled Site Plan. A site plan shows a view of your property from above. Show the property boundaries, existing buildings, significant trees and landscape features, and your proposed changes. Include a north arrow and the location of adjacent buildings, streets and alleys. 4. Elevations. An elevation is a scaled drawing of the front, rear or side of a building. Illustrate elevations of all relevant views of the alteration at the same scale to which the floor plans are drawn. Accurately label them, and include the existing building with as much detail as necessary to show how the old and the new relate to each other. 5. Floor Plans. Include floor plans drawn at a scale of not less than 1/8" = 1'0". Include a north arrow and show the existing building and how your alteration relates to it. It should be complete enough to show any exterior stairs, porches, decks, etc., and should include a roof plan. 6. Materials. List the visible exterior materials and describe them as fully as possible. Samples of these materials are always helpful. 7. Color. If your plans include paint or stain, describe the color and include a sample of the colors. A good way to show the color scheme is to color one or moie of the elevations. 8. Models. For new buildings or for proposals that alter the scale and/or mass of the original building, a scaled model may be required. Note that models need not be expensive: a sunple massing model can be made by tracing each elevation onM cardboard, gluing all sides together, and adding roofs and appurtenances such as dormers. INTRODUCTION 21 PRESERVATION APPROACHES & APPROPRtATE TECHNIQUES INAPPROPRIATE techniques for roofs techniques for roofs Identifying, retaining, and preserving roofs that are important in defining the overall historic character of the building. Protecting and maintaining a roof by cleaning the gutters and downspouts and replacing deteriorated flashing. Stabilizing deteriorated or damaged roofs as a preliminary measure, when necessary, prior to undertaking appropriate preservation work. Repairing a roof by rein(orcing the historic materials. Repairs may generally include the limixed replacement in kind--or with compatible substitute material--of extensively deteriorated or missing ieatures. Replazing in kind a roof feature, such az a dormer or cupola that is too deteriorated to repair - if the overall form and detailing are still evident - using the physical evidence as a model to reproduce the feature. Recreating the documented design of exterior features such az the roof shape and coverings. 22 While every historic project is different, the Secretary of the Interior has outlined four basic approaches to responsible preservation practices. Determining which approach is most appropriate for any project requires considering a number of factors, including the building`s historical significance and its existing physical condition. • Preservation places a high premium on the retention of all historic fabric through conservation, maintenance and repair. Rehabilitation emphasizes the retention and repair of historic materials, but more latitude is provided for replacement because it is assumed the property is more deteriorated prior to work. • Restoration focuses on the retention of materials from the most signi(icant time in a property's history, while permitting the removal of materials from other periods. • Reconstruction establishes limited opportunities to re-create a non- surviving site, landscape, building, structure, or object in all new materials. The Secretary of the Interio~'s website ouflines these approaches and suggests recommended techniques for a variety of common building materials and elements. An example of appropriate and inappropriate techniques for roofs is provided in the sidebars. Additional information is available from preservation staff and the Secretary's website at: www.cr. nps.gov/h ps/tps/standgu id e/i nd ex. htm Altering the roof and roofing materials which are important in defining the overall historic character of the building so that, as a result, the characcer is diminished. Failing to stabilize a deteriorated or damaged roof until additional work is undertaken, thus allowing fuKher damage to occur to the historic building. Replacing historic roofing material inscead of repairing or replacing only the deteriorated material. Failing to reuse intact slate or tile when only the roofing substrate needs replacement. Replacing an entire roof feature such az a cupola or dormer wfien limited replacement of deteriorated and missing parts is appropriate. Applying paint or other coatings to roofing material which has been historically uncoated. Introducing a new roof feature chat is incompatible in size, scale, material and color. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES SITE DESIGN CITY OF BOULDER LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD 2. Z.~ ..~ 2.1.1/2.1.7 The marked building is built outside the range of typical sethacks and occupies a much larger percentage of the back yard area than tyoical. 2.1.2 In areas characterized by vertically proportioned facades, buildings with a horizontal emphasis are inappropriate. SITE DESIGN Site design includes a varieh• of character-defining elements of our historic districts and buildings. lndividual structures are located ti~ithin a frame~vork of streets and public spaces that set the context for the neighborhood. How~ structures occup~~ their site, in terms of alignment, orientation, and spacing, creates much of the context of the neighborhood. In combination ~~ith public and private w~alks, fences, tree lawns, landscaping, and retaining walls, the site design features help to define individual sites and the relationship between public and private space in a neighborhood. Building Alignment, Orientation, and Spacing Tlie pattern of setbacks is an important element in defining neiglthorliood c)u~racter. A front ~ard setback serUes as a trnnsitionaI space between tlte public sidewalk and the private building entn~. lVlien repented al~•~ the street, :~:~~~se yards enlinnce the durracter of the area. The rela:~~• •!y uniforrn alignnient of building fronts, as well as sinrilar spacing i~~tzveen pnman~ bctiidings, contrihutes fo a sense of visual continuih~. Traditionall~, t{te primnry entrance of a building,fnced tlte street and, depending on the architectisral style of the house, wns often sheltered by a one-ston~ porclt. Tliis featiere prat~ided an additional transition from tlie ~ubiic to tlte private space and lielped estr~blislt a sense of scczle to tf:e neighborhoo~i. 77ie pri~tinry stn~cture generall~ "sfepped down" fo one ston~ at tlie rear of the iot. 77tis, and s»taller accessory stnsctures aiong the alley, Jielped fra~tte tlie rear yard. GUIDELINES I Locate structures within the range of alignments seen traditionally in the area, maintaining traditional setbacks at the front, side and rear of the property. .2 Building proportions should respect traditional patterns in the district. For example, many areas are characterized by relatively nanow lots and vertically proportioned front facades, taller than they are wide. In such an area, it would be inappropriate to introduce horizontally proportioned front facades. 24 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES .3 Orient the priman' building entrance to the street. .4 Preserve the original location of the main entn~ and ti~alk. .5 A new~ porch may encroach into the existing alignment only if it is designed according to the guidelines and if it is appropriate to the architectural st~~le of the house. .G In neighborhoods with alleys, garages should be located at the rear of the lot and accessed from the alley. 7 Preserve a backvard area between the house and the garage, maintaining the general proportion of built mass to open space found within the area. 2.2 Streetscape and Landscape 77ie oz~erall cltaracter of the historic disfricts is defined hy rnore thnn tlie huildings. Landscape feansres nf the streetscape, such as the pattern of street trees and planting strips befzveen tlie sidewalk nnd tlie ci~rh, fonn a sigm~ficant purt of t)u liistoric dtaracter of an area. Sirriilarly, trnditional landscnpe designs lielp to unifi~ t/ie district z~isuaII~. Latuns cmd lou~ plantings define npen spaces befzveen the street nnd the houses. Traditionally, feza front yard fences or lnndscaping rliaterials obscured the aieiu of the buiiding from the str•eet. 77iose traditional patterns sliould be mrtintained as tlte districts continue to ec~olz~e. GUIDELINES I Maintain the established spacing pattern of street trees. .2 Preserve street trees whenever possible. .3 When a tree must be removed, or where there is a gap in the rhvthm of street trees, install new street tre~s in locations thaYcontinue to express the established rhythm. .4 Maintain the tree-planting strip as a lawn area. The planting strip (the area between the curb or street and the sidewalk) is traditionally simple, consisting of grass or low ground cover along with regularly spaced street trees. Appropriate: ^ Grass or low ground cover and trees. Inappropriate: ^ Extensive areas of hard surface ^ Elevated planting borders and bushes SITE DESIGN 25 2.1.3 Traditionally, the primary building entrance faced the street. The lack o( a front entrance on this home disrupts the characcer of the street. 2.2.4 Grass, low ground cover, and evenly spaced street trees are appropriate for the area between the street and the sidewalk. • Edging materials such as timber, railroad ties or masonry, except ~n~here there is historic precedent. 2.3 .5 Provide a front yard that is landscaped in a traditional manner with traditional materials. ^ Avoid replacing sod with concrete or am~ hard surface. ^ Edge areas ~vith natural materials such as stone. ^ Locate planting beds in traditional areas such as around foundations and along walkwavs. ^ The use of railroad ties in landscaping is a recent design approach that is not permitted. .6 Avoid landscaping that has the potential for damaging a historic structure, such as climbing iW o~ ~ees planted too close to a building. .7 Where existing retaining w~alls are important to the character of the site they should be preserved and incorporated into new landscape features. ^ Tall, plain concrete retaining walls are inappropriate. ^ Regrading and the introduction of ner~~ retairiing ~~alls is inappropriate. Alleys TITe alIe~s in historic districts u~~re traditionnIly used for secondan~ access to tlie }iocsses, for deliz~enes, nnd ns storage places for horses and buggies, mid later, for cars. A t~ierc~ of tlie backyards fro»t tlie alIei/s u~as maintained. Wliile today's nlleys l~az~e ez~olz~ed into use as pedestrinn pnths for jogging, hic~~cling and dog walking, the~~ srill contrih~ite to the histonc clrnracter of the neighborhood. Tliei~ are typicnlly rninincally pnz~ed. Along the alle~s are histonc accesson~ huildings of vario~~s shapes and sizes in~Ie~ding harns, chicken coops, slieds and s»taI! garages. T7tis varieh~ contributes to tlie genernl feeIing of liiinran scale in tjie alle~s. GUIDELINES I Maintain ::?ley access for parking and retain the character of alleys as clearly secondarv access to properties. .2 Retain and preserve the variety and character found in the existing historic accessory buildings along the alleys. .3 The use of historically proportioned materials for building new accessory buildings contributes to the human scale of 26 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES z.2a Retaining walls are cypically stone or brick. Plain concrete is inappropriate. 2.3.2 Typical alleys are unpaved and characterized by a variety of smali-scale accessory structures and access to parking. the alleys. For example, narrower lap siding and smaller brick are appropriate. .4 Structures that were constructed after the period of significance but are stiIl more than 50 years old and contribute to the variety and character of the alleyw~ay should be retained. .5 Maintain adequate spacing beiween accessory buildings so that the view of the main house is not obscured, and the alley does not evolve into a tunnel-like passage. .6 Generally, paving alleys in historic districts alters the historic character and is inappropriate. ^ If paving is necessary, a paving material that preserves the utilitarian character of the alley is appropriate. ^ The preferred surface is a permeable, soft-edged material such as recycled asphalt, that will control drainage and dust. ^ In problem areas with persistent potholes and/or drainage problems, solutions such as regrading and adding pea gravel should be used. .7 Lighting in alleys should be low wattage and focused downward. See also, Section 8.4 Ligliting. 2.4 Parking and Driveways Histnricall~, priz~ate parkirig was lintited to tJie rear of tlze Iot witlt access from the aIIe~. There are instances where curb cuts have been added in tl~e front ~ards, httt these are generall~ Iater alferations and do not represent traditional parking patterns. GUIDELINES I Maintain the traditional pattern of parking at the rear of the lot. .2 Access to parking should be from the alleys whenever possible. .3 Parking in the front yard is inappropriate. .4 New curb cuts from the street are inappropriate. When adding a garage or significantly altering an existing garage on the alley any front curb cut should be vacated and closed. ALLEY ~.._.._.._.._..~.._.._.._.._..i i~ i i i i i STREET 2.4.1 / 2.4.2 Parking should be provided at the rear of the lot and accessed by an alley whenever oossible. SITE DESIGN 27 The visual impact of parking for multi-familv and commercial uses should be minimized. Common approaches include separating parking into small clusters, screening w~ith buildings or landscaping, and the use of small accessory structures. 2.5 .6 Historically~ appropriate pa~~ing materials, such as flagstone or brick, can be used to visuallv break up larger parking areas. .7 Paving driveways or garage access areas with asphalt or concrete gives a modern look and is generally inappropriate, particularly ~vhen adjacent to unpaved allevs. Flagstone or brick wheel strips are the preferred alternative. Sidewalks Mnni/ nf Boulder's older neighborhoods ioere onginnlly paz~ed with flagstone or aggregate concrete. T{iese ono nal wailauui~ maferials are i~riportnnt elements and contrihute to t)te historic chnracter nf the neighborhood. Tlie traditional patterit of zval~zoays ~erpendia~Iar from the puhIic sidezoalk to t)ze front porches or rnain etttries of tlre Itouses provides unih~ tn the streetscape. New sidezvaiks niust rneet the A»iericans zritli DisaFn~lities Act reqi~irer~ients. GUIDELINES Retain and preserve original sideti~alk materials ~•here they exist. If replacement of a deteriorated section is necessary, match the original section or element in location, pattern, spacing, dimensions, materials and color. ^ Replace flagstone rvith flagstone. ^ Replace concrete ~•ith concrete. However, if the block- face is predominantly paved ~~ith flagstone, replacing concrete portions with flagstone is appropriate. .2 New walkways should be designed to be compatible in location, pattern, spacing, dimensions, materials and color with exishng walkK~ays that contribute to the overall historic character of the area. ^ Walk design should be simple and traditional, reflecting the neighborhood and period of cimstruction. ^ Flagstone or traditional aggregate concrete is encouraged. 28 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 2.4.7 This new garage is accessed by fiagstone wheel strips 2.5.1 Typical sidewalks are concrete or flagstone and simple in design. .3 Provide a w~alk~vav from the street to the priman~ front entrance of the building. The walkw=ay should generall~• be perpendicular to the sidewalk. 2.6 Fences 77te appeara~zce of t)te Icot~se front t}te sidewalk, street, and alIe~ contrihutes to an area's charrrcter. Histoncalty, fences were not crn~:mon in Botsldel•. WJiere thei~ existed t}iey were z?en~ open, lozu, and used to delineate spnce ratlter tl~an to create zc~alled-off priz~acy areas. Rear nnd side yard,fences were Encilt low enough so neighbors coecId taIk to eac1T other oi~er tltem. 77ie fences could be easil~ seen throtcgh and were haiilt of zooz~en wire (not cliain-Iink), wrought iron, or painted nr opaqise stair~ed wood pickets. Elaborate wroisglit iran and cast iron fences u>ere h~picaily found onl~ on lots with large or grand )tontes. GUIDELINES I Retain and preserve historic fences that contribute to the historic character of the site or district ~~henever possible. Repair deteriorated fence components rather than replace them. .2 Where fences were not traditionally found in the front yard and where the streetscape character is defined by open front vards, the introduction of new fences in the front yard is inappropriate. .3 Introduce compatible new fences of traditional materials only in locations and configurations that are characteristic of the historic district. New fencing should reflect the character of historic fences in height, openness, materials, and finish. .4 Generally, historic fences were constructed of ~vrought iron, wood pickets, or woven wire with an open appearance and a scale that related to the main building. Cedar stockade fences or block walls are inappropriate. .5 Generally, historic wood fences were painted or opaque stained. Transparent stains and unfinished wood are generally inappropriate. The side of the fence facing the street, alley, and/or sidewalk must be finished. .6 Front and rear fences should have some degree of openness and spacing of slats so that the main structure on 2.6.2 Many of the historic districts are characterized by open front yards. Adding new front yard fences in such areas is Qenerallv inaD~rooriate. SITE DESIGN 29 2.6.4 Wrought iron and cast iron fences were typically found only on lou with large or grand homes. the site is visible from the street or allev• Solid wood fencing along the rear of a lot obscures much of the irregularitv and variation that defines the essential character of an alle~~ and creates an inappropriate "tunnel" effect. Rear and side yard fences belo~ti~ ~ feet in height with a minimum of 1" spacing between the pickets can be reviewed at staff level. ~~enness. 7 Where appropriate, fences in the front yard should be no more than 36 inches high. This low height should be maintained along the side yard as far as necessar~~ to maintain an unobstructed view of the building's main architectural features, at least to the front elevadon of the house and/or porch. At that point, the fence may become gradually higher and less open. .8 Side yard fences ~n~ere typically located behind the main house, not in the front yard. Where side yard fences do extend into the front yard, they should be low~ and open with a gradual transition in height tor~~ard the rear vard. The portion of the side fence that extends bevond the front elevation of the building should not exceed a ma~cimum of 36 inches in height. 30 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 2.6.6 This front yard fence is inappropnate for boch iu height and lack of 2.6.7 This is an appropriately open and low front yard fence. 2.6.8 This side yard fence gradually transitions from the rear to the front. ALTERATIONS CITY OF BOULDER ~ LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD 3. 3.1 TYPICAL ROOF FORMS .~ ~ ! HIPPED ~ GABLE .---- -~ +~~~__~~^~ ~ , `\ ~ ~~~~ SHED Winter & Company 32 ALTE RATI O N S The difference between "alteratiori' and "addition" (section 4) is in the magnitude of change to the original structure. Typically, an alteration is on a smaller scale than an addition. It usually involves elements such as adding dormers, decks, and ~n~indows. An addition usually means adding more square footage and/or external walls. As with an addition, an alteration should preserve and complement the historic character of the structure. It should not replicate but should be distinguishable from and simpler in d•_ ~ign than any historic element. For example, an added ti-i~ldow would not have the elegantly carved frames of a historic ~~indow~. In general, simpler designs are the most successful. Roofs, Skylights, and Solar Panels 77ze roof is one of the priman~ ciutracter-defining features of a ltistoric 6uiIding, and the repetition of sirnilar roof h~pes creates part nf the z~isual consistenn~ tltat defines a l~istoric area. AIterations ~~ additions fo roofs rnust be given careful consideration to ensa~re tJuit the~ do nof conTpromise the integrit~ of tlze Itistoric stnscture. T~pical roof sllapes are gnbled or hi~red. Slied roofs sometimes occur on historic additions nnd accessory stn~ctures. Buildings within a district rna~ hnz~e a comHinativn of tl~ese roof hjpes. GUIDELINES I Retain and preserve the original roof form of a historic structure. • Maintain the roof form, slope, height, and orientalion to the street. ^ Preserve the original depth of the overhang along the eaves. ^ Any alterations to a roof should be compatible with ~• form, pitch, plate height and massing of the histori. roof. ^ Raising the roof to accommodate a full or partial upper story addition is inappropriate - consider the addition of a dormer instead. .2 Preserve the character of the original roofing and its details. ^ Althou~h historical accuracy in roofing mat~. :als is not requireu ::,empt to preserve the type, unit scale, and GENERAL DESIGN GUIDEIINES texture of the original roofing. In some circumstances, the roofing material is an important architectural feature that should be preserved. For example, metal r~ofs should remain metal; tiled roofs should remain tiled. Boulder has an ordinance that requires the phasing out ~vood shingle roofs. Dimensional, composition shingles are an appropriate replacement. Avoid removing historically important roofing or ti~ood trim that is in salvageable condition. Retain and repair roof detailing such as brackets, cornices, parapets, bargeboards and gable-end shingles. .3 Skylights that are installed on a historic roof should be as unobtrusive as possible and not visible from a public street, Flat skylights that blend with the roof are most appropriate. Sculptural or bubble-type skylights are not appropriate. Also see Guideline 8.3.4. .4 Minimize the visual impact of solar collectors. Also see Guideline 8.3.4. • The use of energy-efficient and energy-conserving materials is encouraged, but they should not compromise the historic integrity of the building. ^ Solar collectors should not alter the existing profile of the roof nor be highly visible, particularly from the front of the house. They should be mounted flush on rear-facing roofs, or placed on the ground in an inconspicuous location. .5 Roof appurtenances such as sw~amp coolers, TV antennas, and satellite dishes should be installed so that they are not visible from the street and do not damage or obscure historic features. Also see Guideline 8.3.4. 3.2 Roof Decks and Balconies Roof decks are deck areas above the first floor tlu~t are contained completely or partially in a roof mass. Balconies are railed or halacstraded platfornis tliat project from tlze bicilding. Second story roof decks or halconies are cluiracteristic of anIy a few architectural sh~les fot~nd in Boulder. Tltey rnay be compatible additions, however, if Iocated on the rear and if tliey are integrated into the primary sfntch{re. Second story roof decks or balconies are nat appropriate for free-standing accessory buildings and garages. Any decks or balconies aboz~e the second story are inarpropriate unless based on historic precedent. ALTERATIONS 33 3.1.3 Bubble-rype skylights are inappropriate, especially when visible from the street. 3.1.5 Mechanical equipment, such as coolen, should not be visible from the screet. GUIDELINES 3.3 I Locate roof decks or balconies on the rear, not on the front, of the building. Front roof decks or balconies are appropriate onlv if recreating a documented historic element. .2 Integrate the roof deck or balcony into the structure either by setting it into the building or by incorporating it into the roof structure. .3 Avoid cantilevered projections from the building, and use appropriately scaled brackets or supports. .4 While current code requirements must be met, ne~n~ railings should be as close as possible to historic heights. In addition, sensitive design may give the appearance of the lower railing heights found on historic structures. Decks Decks are modern expressions of pordtes tluit were not found on historic huiIdings. Great care needs to be taken in designing decks to fit into the ltistoric cluzrncter of t)ie liouse. The design elenTents »tust respect tlie Itistoric clu2racter as to size, materials, railing detail, intntsion into spaces befzcTeen huildings, and mnterials. Because decks are not fraditionally foitnd on historic struchsres, tlie~ should he avoided or their appearance shouid be rninimized. Decks shoulr~ be su6ordinc~te to tlie Itouse in ternts of scale nr~d detailirig. GUIDELINES For second storv decks, see 3.2 Roof Decks nnd Balconies. I First floor decks are inappropriate in the front of a house. Locate a first floor deck to the rear of a building. .2 While current code requirements must be met, new railings should be as close as possible to historic heights. In addition, sensitive design ma~ ;ive the appearance of the lower railing heights found oi1 historic structures. .3 Unpainted redwood is inappropriate; decks should be painted or stained to match the existing building. .4 Materials with a synthetic look and/or feel should be avoided. 34 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 3.2.2 This rear roof deck is appropriately integrated into the roof. 3.4 Porches Frnnt porche~ nrt a cnntmon and important z~isieal eiement of mmt~ historic hr~ilding sri~les. 77u parch roaf is genernll~~ sup~orted hy freestanding coli~rnns or bi/ cnlumns resting on a ntasonn~ zva(l. Wand rnilingti are ancltored widi mnsonn~ or u~ood hah~strades. A porch is generalli~ open tvitli tlte facade of t)ie lzot~se plairrli~ z~isible. GUIDELINES I Original porches should be preserved. .2 Deteriorated original porches and porch elements, such as railings, balusters and columns, should be repaired or replaced, follo~~ing recognized preservation methods so that the character of the porch is not compromised. .3 I~Iaintain the height, detail and spacing of the original balustrade if replacing, extending or adding balustrades. .4 Enclosing a front porch negativelv impacts the visual character of both the individual house and the streetscape and is inappropriate. .5 If a rear or side porch is to be enclosed, the following guidelines apply: ^ I~~Iaintain the sense of openness, scale, proportion, and separation from the structure of the house. The enclosure should not obscure the main architectural details of the porch or house. ^ Keep the design and materials as simple as possible rather than trying to match the building facade. .6 Rebuilding a missing original front porch is encouraged if evidence of the original porch can be documented. 7 The introduction of new porches that were not present historically is inappropriate on individual landmarks and buildings that are contributing to a historic district. .8 Porches on new buildings or on non-contributing buildings should be compatible with the architecture of the building, incorporating traditional scale and proportions ti~ith updated design details. .9 Large, two-story tall porches are inappropriate for front facades unless present historically. ALTERATIONS 35 Front porches are key character- defining features of both individual buildings and the streetscape. 3.5 ~ Dormers Dor»ters are traditionnl roof eletttents thnt eiHier extend fhe space e~nder fhe nu2in roof or serne as decoratiz~e eleritents tn t)ie ntain roof. T12ey generall~ follotU the pitcli and fo»?t of the ~riain roof a~Id are aItva~s secondan/ to the main ronf rnassing. Tlie introdiictiorz of dornters mai~ dra~rraticaIly clutnge flie hi~iIding's appenrar2ce, nrid therefore mat~ not be apprnpnate in all cirnsmstnnces. GUIDELINES I Existing dormers are important character-defining features of a building and should be preserved, particularl~= those that are most visible from the str~eet. .2 Deteriorated elements should be repaired or replaced, following recognized preservation methods. .3 Existing dormers should not be enlarged or altered in any way that changes their secondary relationship to the main roof. .4 The size, scale, and style of new dormers should be compatible with existing dormers on the structure. The form of roof dormers should be compatible with the main roof form. .5 Dormer windows should be similar in proportion to first and second floor ~~indow~s but smaller. .b New dormers must be subordinate to the main roof in terms of mass, scale and height. Not~~ithstanding the fact that one large dormer may give the greatest usable space within the roof form, smaller dormers are usually the most appropriate. Often two small dormers are more appropriate than one large dormer. 7 Dormer ridgelines must be lower than the main roof. 36 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 3.5.4 Dormer forms should match roof forms: e.g. gabled roofs should have gabled dormers and hipped roofs should have hipped dormers. 3.5.6 / 3.5.7 The size of these dormers overwhelms the main roof and the ridgelines are even with, rather than below, the main roof. 3.6 Exterior Materials: Walls, Siding, and Masonry Brick, storte, horizontai zuood-lapped siding, sheccn, and wood slringles are crnnmorz finish »iaterials foitnd in historic districts and on histnric stn~ctures. Oz~er tlie years, the ~riaterinls used in residential constri~ction have nnt changed dranuztically, hut the scale of materials l~as become Iarger. Narrower lap sidirtg, s»ialler hrick and sliingles use~~ aIone or in vnrious conthinntions nften disfingiiish older )iomes fi•orri nezrel• ones. Brick and stone ntasonr-i~ toere traditionail~ left nahn•al u~liile wood surfaces were painted. GUIDELINES . I Original historic finish materials should be preserved and repaired. ^ Unpainted masonry surfaces, particularly those with historical significance, should not be painted. ^ When feasible, remove newer materials that have been applied over historic finishes and that have not achieved historic significance in their own right. Removal of non-historic materials such as stucco or permastone must be tested to assure that the original material will not be damaged in the process. ^ When repairing masonry use appropriate mortar, i.e., one that is softer than the surrounding masonry. .2 New~ finish materials should be compatible w•ith, but not seek to replicate, original finish materials. ^ Use materials that are similar in scale, proportion, texture and finish to those used historically. ^ Use authentic materials - materials made to look like other materials, such as concrete that is scored to look like brick, are not appropriate. 3.7 Windows, Storm Windows, and Shutters Windows, tJce elements tluit surround tliern, and tlteir relationsliip to one another are one of the rnost important character-defining elements of a lzistoric structure and slzoacld be presen~ed. InTproper or insensitiz~e treatment of t12e windows on a historic structure cnn seriousIy detract from its architectural character. Windows on facades z~isihle front public streets, particularly the front fa~ade, are especially important. Reparr of historic windows is always preferred tivithin a rehabilrtation project. Replacement should be considered only as a last resort. ALTERATIONS Historic materials such as wood siding, stone, brick and dimensiona! shingles help establish human scale. 37 GUIDELINES Protection of Historic Windows .1 Retain and preserve existing historic ~~indo~ti~s, including their functional and decorative features, such as frames, sashes, muntins, sills, heads, moldings, surrounds and hardware. Because windows near the front fa4ade are particularlv critical to the character of historic buildings, their protection may supercede the protection of historic windows elsew~here. In some cases, it may be appropriate to use windoti~ elements from rear or side elevations to repair those on the front. .2 Preserve original window locations; do not move windows from their historic placement. .3 Repair rather than replace the functional and decorative features of original windows through recognized preservation methods. If replacement of a feature is necessary, replace only the deteriorated feature in kind rather than the entire unit, matching the materials, design and dimensions of the original. Window Replacement .4 If window sashes are too deteriorated to repair but the windoti~ frames are salvageable, then sashes only should be replaced to match the original. Such custom-sized replacement sash systems are available from several major window manufacturers. .5 If repair is not feasible, and the window must be replaced, match the existing window in terms of size, materials, method of operation and detailing. .6 The window opening itself should be carefully preserved. It should not be made Larger or smaller to accommodate a differendy sized w•indow. 3.7.8 True-divided light windows have indrvidual panes of glass separated by muntins. While some high-qualiry simulated-dYvided light wlndows may be acceptable as replacements in some cases, true-divided light windows are mon appropriate. .7 Replacing a w~ood window with a wood ~~indow is most appropriate; however, other materials may be considered if the operation, dimensic>n, profile and finish are similar. .8 If a window that is divided into several panes of glass must be replaced, a similar true-divided-light ~•indow~ that matches the dimensions, profile and detailing of the original is most appropriate. High quality simulated- divided-light windows may be allowed if the}' maintain 38 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES the muntin size of the original ~~indo~~. Snap-in muntins or other inauthentic architectural details are inappropriate. .9 Historic steel windows are character-definulg features on some buildings in historic districts. Because windows manufactured from other materiaLs generally cannot match the thin profiles of steel, replacement may not be appropriate. Windows in New Construction 10 Windows in additions and new structures should reflect the window patterns and proportions of the existing structure and the district and utilize similar materials. For elevations visible from public streets, the relationship of solids to voids should alsa be compatible. I I Windows should be trimmed with materials similar in scale, proportion, finish, and character to those used traditionally. I 2 Openings should indicate floor levels, and should not occur between floors. I 3 Symmetry or asymmetry~ of openings should be maintained. 14 Odd window shapes such as octagons, triangles, and diamonds are generally inappropriate. Shutters and Storm Windows . I 5 Use shutters only if appropriate to the style of the house. 16 Reintroducing missing shutters is encouraged if evidence of the original shutters can be documented. 17 While shutters need not be operable, they should be sized to maintain the appearance of operability. I 8 Improving the energy efficiency of older windows can often be addressed through simple repairs. Storm windows or interior energy panels are alternatives to window replacement. Wood storm windows are preferred. Metal storm windows may be appropriate if the frames match the proportions and profile of the original windows and if the frames are anodized or painted so that raK~ metal is not visible. Interior installation is preferred. 3.7.10 / 3.7.14 The relationship between the amount of window and wail in this home is out of proportion with traditional designs. The odd shaped windows at the roof peak are also incompatible with historic nariPrnc ALTERATIONS 39 3.8 Doors and Storm Doors Front donrs artd prif~tan/ entrances are rrmo-i~ t)te most i~ttportnnt elements nf liistoric huildings. Tlie originnl stze arid prnportion of a front doar, flrc detaiIs of the door, the door surround, and the placement o~the door a11 contr-iEnste to the character of the entrance. GUIDELINES . I Retain and preserve all original doors and door openings. .2 Retain and preserve the functional, proportional and decorative features of a primary entrance. These features include the door and its frame, sill, head, jamb, moldings, and any flanking windows. .3 Historic hardware, hinges, locksets, and knobs are door features that are significant and should be preserved. .4 Repair damaged original doors and door asstmblies w•henever possible following recognized preservation methods. .5 If an original door must be replaced, the replacement door should match the original as closely as possible. If documentation of the original door is not available, then the appearance of the replacement door should be based on original doors on similar historic structures. .6 Replace wood doors ~vith c~~ood doors. Although good svnthetic materials are available, the use of historic materials is recommended. 3.8.5 The modern detailing on this door would be inappropriate for most homes in Boulder's historic districts. 7 If energy conservation and heat loss are a concern, consider using a storm door instead of repIacing a historic entry door. Generally, w•ood storm doors are most appropriate. A metal storm door may be appropriate if it is simple in design and if the frame is anodized or painted so that raw metal is obscured. .8 Doors in additions and new structures should reflect the proportions (height and width) of doors in the existing structure and/or the district. .9 Doors should be trimmed ~-ith materials similar in scale, proportion, finish, and character to those used traditionally. 40 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES An appropriate door in terms of size, proportion and detailing. ADDITIONS TO HISTORIC STRUCTURES CITY OF BOULDER LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD 4. ADDITIONS TO HISTORIC STRUCTURES This section applies to buildings that are individual landmarks or are within a historic district and have been identified as Contributing, Contributing-Restorable, or Significant Ne~~er. (see p. 7 and Glossary). Additions to non-historic structures are considered in Section 5. ~~Ihile the guidelines in this section do not specifically appl~* to those properties, they do represent design principles that should be considered in any addition. 42 It is normal for buildings to evolve over time as additional space is needed or uses are accommodated. New additions rvithin the historic districts are appropri~:. . long as t: ~ do not destroy historic features, materials, a: patial relat~~ ~tlships that are significant to the original building and site. They also must be distinguishable from the historic architecture. New additions should not compromise the integrity of the original structure or site, whether through direct destruction of historic features and materials or indirecdy through their location, size, height or scale. Additions should be compatible with, but discernible from, the historic architecture. When the original design is duplicated the addition is indistinguishable and the historic evolution of the building becomes unclear. Conversely, when design elements contrast too strongly ~vith the original structure the addition will appear visually incompatible. The appropriate location of an addition to an existing building will depend on the character of the existing building and its site, adjacent buildings, and the area as a whole. While ever•. ,-te is unique, generally additions are most appropriate at the rear of the structure. The addition .should be designed and located so that significant site features, including mature trees, are not lost. An addition should not overpower the site or dramahcally alter its historic character, and shoi:' _i be subordinate to the existing structure. The primary focus in reviewing additions will be on aspects of new construction that are visible from public streets. The guidelin~ = will be applied most stringendy to these publicly visible areas. More flexibility will be allowed for rear elevations and other areas largely screened from public view. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 4. I Protection of Historic Structures and Sites Tlte printan~ rnncern of the Lan~~rnarks Board in ret~ieznirtg addition~ t0 II2St0)"iC Sl'111CfllYE'S i5 t]IE' ~1'OfC'Cf10Y1 Of f~IQ ExIStIYtg StYllCfilPL' cznd the CJICIlYlCteY Of tI1E' site and dish-ict. GUIDELINES 1 Construct new additions so that there is the least possible loss of historic fabric and so that the character-defining features of the historic building are not destr~oyed, damaged, or obscured. .2 New additions should be constructed so that they may be removed in the future w~ithout damaging the historic structure. .3 It is not appropriate to construct an addition that will detract from the overall historic character of the principal building and/or the site, or if it will require the removal of significant building elements or site features. 4.2 Distinction from Historic Structures AII r~c~r~itions shoc~ld be discernihle from the historic stnechtre. lMten tlre o~7ginal design is displicated tlze l~istoric ez~olution of tlte huilding becomes unclear. Instead, additions sliould be corripatihle zuitli tlze Jiistoric ardzitecncre ht~t clearl~ recogni<able as nezc~ cnnstruction. GUIDELINES Distinguish an addition from the historic structure, but maintain visual continuity between the two. One common method is to step the addition back and/or set it in slightly from the historic structure. Every project is different and successful designs may incorporate a variety or approaches. .2 Do not direcdy copy historic elements. Instead, interpret historic elements in simpler ways in the addition. .3 Additions should be simpler in detail than the original structure. An addition that exhibits a more ornate style or implies an earlier period of architecture than that of the original is inappropriate. .4 The architectural stvle of additions should not imitate the ADDITIONS TO HISTORIC STRUCTURES _.._. ._ ._.., i i ! ~ i i i i `~ i ~~~ <3~ ,! , ~ ~.. ~' 2r,y ~ ~ ~` ~ ,, ' ~ ~s.: ~ ' d x~ ~~ ~ ~ ,~+'t+"`i r 2 '~ ~ ~~,.. '~ : I ~~ 3 k~ I ^ ~~ , ~ ~ ~~~4 ~ :~ i ~ -~ i i i i STREET 4.2.1 Additions can be distinguished from the original building by being set in. allowing the corners of the historic building to be visible. 43 4.2.2 The upper photo shows a historic window. The lower photo shows a simplified interpretation of the design on an addition to the home. historic stvle but must be compatible with it. Contemporary sh~le additions are possible, but r~ .~uire the utrnost attention to these guidelines ~, ;~~ successful. The use of two distinct historic styles, such as adding Tudor-style half-timbering to a Classic Cottage, is inappropriate. 4.3 Compatibility with Historic Structures Introducing neu~ constncction tluit contrasts sharply u~it)r an existing hisfonc structcsre or site detracts frorn the z~isual continuih/ tJuit marks our historic districts. V1/liile additions should be distingi~islrnhle frnm Nie historic stn~cture, t1ie~ rnust nof contrast so sluirpl~ as to detrnct frora the originaI b~cilding and/or the site. Additinns should never oz~en~~helm historic stnectures or the site, in mass, scale or detailing. GUIDELINES I An addition should be subordinate to the historic building, limited in size and scale so that it does not diminish or visually overpor~~er the building. 44 4.4 .2 Design an addition to be compatible with the historic building in mass, scale, materials and color. For elevat~ •~s visible from public streets, the relationship of solids to voids in the exterior walls should also be compatible. .3 Adding a~ ~~al or full story to the historic portion of a historic buiiaing is rarely appropriate. .4 Reflect the original s}'mmetrv or asymmetry of the historic building. .5 Preserve the vertical and horizontal proportion of a building's mass. Compatibility with Historic Site and Setting Additions should 6e designed and (ocated so tluit significant site features, including rnahcre trees, are not lost or ohscured. 77te size of the additinn shotsld not averpower the site or drarnarically alter ifs histonc clu~rac fer. GUIDELINES I Design new additions so that the overall character of ~:1e GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 4.3.4 ~ 4.3.5 T- ,~tion, while subordinate to the r ouilding, skews the building's orig~nai symmetry and vertical proportion. 4.5 site, site topograpllt~, character-defining site features and trees are retained. .2 Locate ne~n~ additions on an inconspicuous elevation of the historic building, generally the rear one. Locating an addition to the front oF a structure is inappropriate because it obscures the historic facade of a building. .3 Respect the established orientation of the original building and typical alignments in the area. .4 Preserve a backvard area between the house and the garage, maintaining the general proportion of built mass to open space found w~ithin the area. See Guideline 2.1.1. Key Building Elements Roofs, porches, dormers, zi~indaws and doors nre some of tJte mast irnportant charncter-defining elements of any building. As suclt, tltey reqttire e.rtra atteritinrt fo assiire tluzt t)ie~ contplirtient tlte Jtistoric arcltitect~cre. In additiort to tl~e guidelines heloiv, refer also to Section 3.0 AIterations for reiated suggestions. GUIDELINES Roofs .1 I~Iaintain the dominant roofline and orientation of the roof form to the street. .2 Rooflines on additions should be lower than and secondary to the roofline of the original building. .3 The existing roof form, pitch, eave depth, and materials should be used for all additions. Dormers .4 If consistent with the architectural style of a historic structure and appropriately sized and located, dormers may be an appropriate way to utilize upper story space. Windows .5 Maintain the proportion, general style, and symmetry or asymmetry of the existing window patterns. .6 Use window shapes that are found on the historic structure. Do not introduce odd-shaped windows such as octagonal, triangular, or diamond-shaped. ADDITIONS TO HISTORIC STRUCTURES 4.5.1 The roof form of an addition should generally be the same as the form of the original roof. 45 4.1. I / 4.4.2 A series of inappropriate additions to this historic building have completely obscured the front fa4ade and destroyed historic fabric. .7 Do not add divided light ~vindo~vs to structures that historically did not have divided light windo~ti~s. 46 .8 Use materials and construction similar to historic windows. Do not use snap-in mullions. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES ADDITIONS TO NON-HISTORIC STRUCTURES CITY OF BOULDER LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD 5. ADDITIONS TO NON-HISTORIC STRUCTURES IN HISTORIC DISTRICTS 48 This section contains guidelines for additions to buildings that have been determined to be non-contributing to a historic district. Non-Contributing buildings include those that, although constructed during the district's period of significance, have been altered to such an extent that the historic integrih~ is lost and restoration is not possible. Buildings constructed outside the period of significance and that are not individually signif~ .~nt (Individual Landmarks or Significant Newer) are also cc~nsidered Non-Contributing. In general, the guidelines for additions to non-contributing buildings are more flexible than those for historic buildings, with the exception of site design guidelines (Section 2.0 Site Design) and the respect for the mass and scale of !~~ ~ district. Projects will be evaluated based on these issues ... ~.i the overall impact on the character of the district. While non-contributing buildings are not required to follow the guidelines in Section 4.0 Additions to Histonc Stntchires, such projects may benefit from the design principles suggested by them. For substantial alterations to a non-historic building, see Section 6.0 New Struchsres. Substantial alterations are those that would require issuance of a demolition permit if the building were over 50 years of age. GUIDELINES I Follow the guidelines in Section 2.0 Site Design .2 It is not appropriate to construct an addition that will detract from the overall historic character of the district by overwhelming existing buildings in mass and scale. .3 Alterations to non-contributing buildings built in a recognizable architectural style should preserve and respect that style. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES NEW PRIMARY STRUCTURES CITY OF BOULDER LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD 6. ~~ NEW PRIMARY STRUCTURES 6.1 New construction should be a product of its o`vn time. Create compatible contemporary interpretations of historic elements. 50 6.2 New construction «~ithin a historic district can enhance the existing district character if the proposed design and its siting reflect an understanding of and a compatibilih~ ~vith the distinctive character of the district. While new construction should fit into the historic character of the district or site, it should not replicate historic styles. Instead, new buildings should relate to the fundamental characteristics of the historic district or landmark site while also conveying a contemporary style. Nerv buildings should not overshadow existing historic structures. Fundamental characteristics to be considered in designing compatible new structures include: site and setting, building size and proportions, materials, and the placement and style of doors and windows. The primary focus in reviewing new structures will be on aspects that are visible from public streets. The guidelines will be applied most stringendy to these publicly visible areas. More flexibilih~ ~~ill be allowed for rear elevations and other areas largely screened from public vie~~. Distinction from Historic Structures The replication of histonc ardiitech~re in neu~ constn~ction is inappropriate, as it can create a false histaric cnntext and hlur the distinction betu~een old and new buildings. Wltile new stn~chsres must he compatible zuitl~ tl~e historic context, the~ must also be recognizable ns neu~ construction. GUIDELINES .2 Interpretations of historic styles may be appropriate if they are distinguishable as new. Site and Setting New struch~res s)zould be designed and located so tluzt significant site features, inciuding rnature trees, are not lost or obsn~red. 772e size of the new stncch~res should not averpower t{ze site or dramaticaIly alter its historic cliaracter. Buildings witltin liistoric districts generaIly display a consistency in setback, orientation, spacing and distance GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 6.1.1 A contemporary interpretation of a historic element. betu~een ndjucent huildings. 77terefore, the contpatibilih~ of prnposed nett~ cc»z~tructiori will be rE~z~iezved to ensi~re tliat these ele»ients are mni~itaine~t. GUIDELINES 1 Conform to the design guidelines found in Section 2.0 Site Desi~n, regarding site and setting in developing a proposed site plan. .2 Design new construction so that the overall character of the site, site topography, character-defining site features and trees are retained. .3 Site new~ construction to be compatible with surrounding buildings that contribute to the overall character of the historic district in terms of setback, orientation, spacing, and distance from adjacent buildings. .4 New consiruction should not be significandy different from contributing historic buildings in the district in terms of the proportion of built mass to open space on the individual site. See Guideline 21.1. .5 Ne~T primary structures should serve as a guide for new accessory structures on the site. Conform to the design guicielines found in Section 7.0 Neu? Garages and Otlter Accessnry Strc{chsres. 6.3 Mass and Scale In considering the overalI compntibility of nezv construction, its lieiglit, form, nrassing, size and scaIe will all be reviewed. The overaIl proportion of t12e building's front fa~ade is especiall~ important to consider since it zvill have the rrtost ittipact on the streetscape. While new constn~ction tends to be larger than liistonc buildin~s, reflecting the needs and desires of tlTe modern hameowner, new structures shouId not be so out-of-scale with tl2e surrounding buildings as to Ioont oz~er tlient. GUIDELINES . I Design new buildings to be compatible with surrounding buildings that contribute to the overall character of the historic district in terms of height, size, scale, massing, and proportions. NEW PRIMARY STRUCTURES 51 6.2.2 / 6.3.2 The marked building is built outside the range of typical setbacks, occupies a much larger percentage of the lot than rypical, and is generally out of scale with surrounding buildings. 2 The mass and scale of new~ construction should respect neighboring buildings and the streetscape as a~.~hole. 52 6.4 6.5 .3 Historic heights and widths as ~~ell as their ratios should be maintained. The proportions of the front fa~ade are particularly important and should be compaHble to those of surrounding historic buildings. .4 A nerv house constructed behind an existing historic house should be of lesser mass and scale than the original struchire. Materials GUIDELINES I Materials should be similar in scale, proportion, texture, finish, and color to those found on nearby historic structures. .2 Maintain a human scale by avoiding large, featureless surfaces and by using traditionally sized building components and materials. Key Building Elements Roofs, pordzes, dormers, windows and doors are so»te of the most i»tportant charncter-defining eIements of ant~ huilding. As sudt, they rec~uire extrn attention to assure t{urt tltey campliment the historir ardiitech~re. In addition to tlie gi~ideIines heloic~, refer also to Section 3.0 Alterations for related sc~ggestions. GUIDELINES I Design the spacing, placement, scale, orientation, proportion, and size of w~indow and door openings in new structures to be compatible with the surrounding buildings that contribute to the historic district, ~vhile reflecting the underlving desi~n of the new building. .2 Select windows and doors for new structures that are compatible in material, subdivision, proportion, pattern and detail with the ~-indows and doors of surrounding buildings that contribute to the historic district. .3 New structures should use a roof form found in the district GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES or on dze landmark site. .4 Porches should be compatible in massing and details to historic porches in the district, and should be appropriate to the style of the house. .5 Dormers should be secondary to the main roof and should be lower than the roofline. Oversized dormers are ulappropriate. NEW PRIMARY STRUCTURES 53 GARAGES & OTHER ACCESSORY STRUCTURES CITY OF BOULDER LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD 7 GARAGES & OTHER ACCESSQRY STRUCTURES 7.1 7.2 Accessor}~ structures include barns, sheds, garages, and outbt:ildings. Originally accesson~ structures were used for storage of equipment, animals, or carriages. Generally, these structures have been adapted for the storage of cars. In most cases, accessory~ buildings were located to the rear of the lot and accessed by alleys. They were subordinate in size a~.~i detailing to the primary house. Over time thev have emerge .:~s important elements of many lots and alleys in the district. Efforts should be made to protect the eclectic character of alleys. Both additions to existing accessory buildings and new accessory buildings will be evaluated in terms of how~ they affect the historic character of the individual site and the district as a whole. In the past, larger accessory structures have been allowed than may be appropriate today. Existing Historic Accessory Structures A pnman~ concern of tJ~e Landmarks Board in reviewing proposed du~nges in historic districts is the protection of existirtg historic accesson~ structures and the cl~aracter of the site nnd ~istrict. I Retain and preserve garages and accessory buildings that contribute to the overall historic character of the individual building site or the district. .2 Retain and preserve the character-defining materials, features, and architectural details of historic garage< .~nd accessory buildings, including roofs, exterior materi~i~s, windows, and doors. New Accessory Buildings New accessory bu rngs should follow the cl~uracter and pattern of historic accessory scructures. W1iile t)rey s)r ~~eid take design cues from tl~e primary structure, they rnust be subordinate to the primary structure in size, »rassing, and detailing. Aliey huildings should rnaintain a scale that is pleasant to walk along and cornfortable for pedestrians. Location and Orientation I It is inappropriate to introduce a new garage or accesson- building if doing so will detract from the overall historic 54 GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES character of the principal building and the site, or if it ~ti~ill ALLEY require removal of a significant historic building element ~ or site feature, such as a mature tree. !~ ~ ~ I I I .2 Ne~~ garages and accessory buildings should generally be ~ i i located at the rear of the lot, respecting the traditional ! ! Y ~ relationship of such buildings to the primary structure and ~ ~ I~ ~ the site. i ~ ~~.~,,,.., i I ,~.s a~ fi a ~ I ~ u, '" I ~; .3 Maintain adequate spacing between accessory buildings so i ~~~~P~S'- i~_ }~~x~~ ~ i , alleys do not evolve into tunnel-like passageways. i ~~~~`' ;~ i~ti~~ =x ! i r,~~ n~x ~ I `'` ,*~ I .4 Preserve a back ard area between the house and the i ~~ ~ i "1~j~~ ~ Y accessory buildings, maintaining the general proportion of j i i .._.._.._.._.._:._.._.._.._.._. built mass to open space found within the area. STREET 7.2.2 Mass and Scale Parking should be provided at the rear .5 New accessory structures should take design cues from the of the lot and accessed by an alley whenever possible. primary structure on the site, but be subordinate to it in terms of size and massing. .6 New garages for single-family residences should generally _~s~`-~L be one story tall and shelter no more than two cars. In ~~ ,~ ~~ ,; ~3~ some cases, a two-car garage may be inappropriate. ~'~ ~~~ > P~~ _ ~~< ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~" .7 Roof form and pitch should be complimentary to the primary structure. 7.2.5 / ~.2.~ Garages should be subordinate to the primary structure and be complimentary Materials and Detailing in terms of room form and pitch. .8 Accessory structures should be simpler in design and detail than the primary building. .9 Materials for new garages and accessory structures should be compatible with those found on the primary structure and in the district. Vinyl siding and prefabricated structures are inappropriate. .10 Windows, like all elements of accessory struciures, should be simpler in detailing and smaller in scale than similar elements on primary structures. See Sections 3.7 and 4.5 for additional direction. . I I If consistent with the architectural style and appropriately sized and located, dormers may be an appropriate way to increase storage space in garages. See Section 3.5 and 4.5 for additional direction. GARAGES & OTHER ACCESSORY STRUCTURES 55 .12 Garage doors should be consistent ~vith the historic scale and materials of traditional accesson~ structures. Wood is the most appropriate material, and two smaller doors mav be more appropriate than one large door. 56 I 3 It is inappropriate to introduce features or details to a garage or an accessory building in an attempt to create a false historical appearance. 14 Carports are inappropriate in districts where their form has no historic precedent. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES ~ ~ ~ W Z J J W V ~ ~ ~ W ~ J ~ O m ~ 0 ~ u 8. 8.~ MISCELLANEOUS Paint and Paint Colors [M~en renovating a hisfonc huilding, first consider assing t)te origircal coIor scheme. 77ie original paint can often he discot~ered hi~ careficl analysis of samples of original materials. If it is not possihle to discertt onginal paint colars, a color scheme shouId be based on historic precedent tvitliin t)te area. T)te »iultiple, bright cnlors t{sed rn San Frnncisco, for instance, were not uscd in Boulder. 58 Historicall~, paint colors were »iore n:uted tones flwn tliose used toda~ because they depended upon a far more Iimited source of pigments. Most wood-clad huildings were painted entirely, generaily unth one base color and one or fzuv additional accent colors on details and trirn, For masonn~ structures, the natural color of tlie brick or stone was dorninant; paint was a~lied fo wood trim elements around doors and unndows and in gable ends. As a practical matter, it is suggested tliat quart sa»tples of the color scheme shouId be applied to a section of tnsilding as a test hefore making final seleetion. A color on a 1" x 1" paint d~ip will look diffcrcnt on a whole house. GUIDELINES I Preserve and protect original exterior building surfaces and site features that were painted by maintaining a sound paint film on them. .2 Original materials such as brick and stone that are unpainted should not be painted. .3 When repainting, select paint colors appropriate to the historic building and district. When possible, recreate historic paint schemes based on samples of original materials. ^ When selecting paint schemes, a good rule of thumb is to use a single body color with a lighter and/or brighter accent color. ^ Historic paint colors in Boulder are conservative, emphasizing muted shades or tones rather than pure hues. New paint colors should not be bright or garish. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 8.2 Energy Efficienry Energy conservation is a growing concern for qroperty owners today. In the historic districts it ts imqOrtant to ensure that such concerns are addressed in wa~s that do not damage or diminish the hisforic character of the building, site or district. In histonc districts, a variety of energy-conserving site and building features illustrate the sensi6ility of an earlier era to climate and energy efficiency. Thoughtfully located shade trees buffer residences and sidewaiks from the summer sun. Projecring porches provide shaded outdoor space and lessen the impact of the harsh sunlight on the building's interior. Operable windows and shutters allow occupants to control the introduchon of sunlight and breezes within the buildings. An understanding of how such histonc features enhance energy efficiency is cnrical to maximizing the energy efficiency of historic buildings. GUIDELINES I Retain and preserve the inherent energy-conserving features of historic buildings and their sites, including shade trees, porches, and operable windows, transoms, shutters and blinds. .2 Increase the thermal efficiency of historic buildings by observing traditional practices, such as weather-stripping and caulking, and by introducing appropriate energy- efficient features, such as storm windows and doors. See Guidelines 3.7.18 and 3.8.7 for additional direction. 3 Replace deteriorated or missing wooden blinds and shutters with matching new units sized to fit the opening. See Guideline 3.7.16 for additional direction. 8.3 Mechanical and Utility Facilities GUIDELINES 1 If a new mechanical system is needed, install it so that it causes the least amount of alteration to the building's exterior faSades, materials, and site features. .2 Loca~ new meclti~nical equipment and utilities, including t~tmg and air conditionmg units~ in the most iiuonspicuous area, usually alang a build'mg's rear facade. Screen Hiem from view. MISCELLANEOUS 59 .3 Where possible, locate portable window air-conditioning units on rear facades or inconspicuous side facades. Consider noise impacts to neighbors when selecting sites. 60 8.4 .4 It is not appropriate to install ventilators, solar collectors, antennas, skylights, satellite dishes or other mechanical equipment in locations that compromise character- defining roofs, or on roof slopes that are prominenfly visible from the street. .5 Minimize the visual unpacts of trash storage and service areas by screening them from the street. Signs A sign typically serves two funcrions: to attract attention and to convey information. Signs designed for a historic buiiding should not detract from important design features of the building. All new signs should be developed with the overall context of the 6uilding and district in mind. GUIDELINES I Retain and preserve existing historic signs that contribute to the overall historic character of the buIlding or the district .2 New signs should be compatible in material, size, color, scale, and character with the building. .3 Signs should be subordinate to the overall building composition and in scale with the fa~ade. .4 Locate a sign on a building so that it emphasizes design elements of the fasade itself. In no case should a sign obscure or damage architectural details or features. .5 Simple letter styles and ~raphic designs are most appropriate. .6 A hanging entry~vay sign may be located on a porch, or d'uecfly above the steps leading to the primary entrance of a structure. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES 8.5 Lighting Tradihonally, site hghting was very limited in residenkal districts. Whi1e today there is ri~pically a need for more lighting and higher levels of illumination, both building lighting and site lighhng should respect the quality of ligliting that characterizes histonc residential districts. When selecring specific fixtures and locations, it is also important to consider the impact of site lighting on adjacent properties. GUIDELINES i Retain and preserve exterior lighting fixtures that contribute to the overall historic character of a building, site or district. .2 It is inappropriate to introduce or eliminate exterior lighting fixiures if doing so will detract from the overall historic character of the building, site, or streetscape. .3 Lighting should be functional - not just decorative. .4 Lighting in alleys should be low wattage and focused downward. .5 It is inappropriate to illuminate the facades of houses in residential districts. 8.6 Artwork Artwork includes, urithout limitatians, paintings and sculptures, whether attached ta a builcling or freestanding. GUIDELINES .I Retain and preserve artcvork that contributes ta the overall historic character of a building, site or district. .2 Artwork should be subordinate to the overall building. .3 Artwork should not obscure or damage building elements or detaiLs. For instance, a mural should not cover windows. .4 Artcvork should not permanenfly alter the building or site, such as paint on unpainted masonry. .5 Artwork should not detract from the historic character of MISCELLANEOUS 61 the building, site or district, nor should it confuse the public regarding the period of significance of the building or district through anachroriistic images or details. 8.7 $.$ ~ Public Improvements Public tmprwement features such as street lighring, street and alle~ pavtng, tree planting, parks, and sidewalks all contribute to the historic chnracter of a historic district or site. Any public imprauement undertaken by the City of Boulder slmil be reviewed by the I?esign Reoiew Committee of the Landmarks Preservation Advisory Board. See Sections 2.3 Alleys and 2.5 Sidewalks for additional direction. GUIDELINES I Any public improvement should maintain and reinforce the character of the historic district. Americans with Disabilities Act Places of public accommodahon are required to provide access to their seroices and programs under prooisions of the Americans with Disain'IiHes Act. In the case of histonc buildings, some pravision for using alternatiae measures exists if the property is histoncally or architecturally significant enough to ment such treatment. When changes to a building or site are necessaty, careful considerarion must be given to how the clwnges can be inrorporated unthout campromising the integnty of the historic building, its character- defining features, or its site. GUIDELINES Provide barrier-free access that promotes independence for the disabled to the highest degree practicable, while preserving significant'.ustoric features. 62 .2 The appearance of accessibility ramps or elevators should not significanfly detract from the historic character of the structure. .3 If the addition of accessibility improvements negatively impacts significant historic elements, these improvements should be designed to be reversible. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES DEFINITIONS CITY OF BOULDER LANDMARKS PRESERVATION ADVISORY BOARD 9. DEFINITIONS Alignment The a~ngement of objects along a straight line. 66 Balcony A railed projecting platform found above ground level on a building. Arch A structure built to support the weight above an opening. A true arch is curved. It consists of wedge-shaped stones or bricks called voussoirs (vu-swar'), put together to make a curved bridge which spans the opening. Baluster A short, upright column or urn-shape~.: support of a railing. Balustrade A row of balusters and the railing coru ; :Zg them. Used as a stair rail and also above the cornice on the outside of a building. Bargeboard A projecting board, often decorated, that acts as trim to cover the ends of the structure ~~here a pitched roof overhangs a gable. Bracket A supporting member for a projecting element or shelf, sometimes in the shape of an inverted L and sometimes as a solid piece or a triangular truss. Cantilever A projecting beam, girder or other structural member supported only at one end; used to support a balcony, cornice, extended eaves or any other extension to a building or structure. Column A slender u~,right structure, generally consisting of a cylindrical shaft, base, capital, and pillar: It is usually a supporting or ornamental member in a building. Contributing Buildings Those buildings built during the district's period of significance that exist in comparatively original condition, or that have been appropriately restored, and clearly contribute to the historic significance of the district. Such buildings ma}' have compatible additions. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES Contributing-Restorable Buildings Those buildings built during the district's period of significance that have original material that has been covered, or buildings that have experienced some alteration, but that still convey some sense of history. These buildings would more strongly contribute, however, if they were restored. Such buildings may have less compatible additions. Cornice A projection at the top of a wall or the top course or molding of a wall when it serves as a crowning member. Deck An uncovered platform, usually with wood decking and railings, that extends hom out from the main face of a building. Dormer A window set upright in a sloping roof. The term is also used to refer to the roofed projection in which this window is set. Eave The underside of a sloping roof projecting beyond the wall of a building. Elevation A mechanically accurate, "head-on" drawing of a face of a building or object, without any allowance for the effect of the laws of perspective. Any measurement on an elevation is in a fixed proportion, or scale, to the corresponding measurement of the real building. Facade The hont or principal face of a building, or any side of a building that faces a street or other open space. Gable Building ends above eave level of a pitched or gambrel roof. In the case of a pitched roof this takes the form of an angle. The term is also used sometimes to refer to the whole end wall. Historic Context An organizing structure for interpreting history that groups information about historic properties that share a common theme, common geographical area, and a common time period. GLOSSARY OFTERMS 67 The development of historic contexts is a foundation for decisions about the planning, identification, evaluation, registration, and treat- ment of historic properties, based upon compazative historic significance. 68 Historic Integrity The degree to which a building has retained its original elements. Human Scale Human scale refers to the relationship between the dimensions of a building, street, streetscape or outdoor space to the average dimensions of a human body. Individually Sign~cant Buildings Those buildings that are considered individually eligible for the National Register of Historic Places or for local landmark designation. These buildings have a special character and historical, architectural, or aesthetic interest or value in Boulder's local history. Interior Energy Panel Interior energy panels are single pane glass panels affixed to the interior of historic windows in order to reduce conductive heat loss and prevent the infiltration of cold air from outdoors. They are an option for increasing energy efficiency without full window replacement Landmarks Board The City of Boulder's Landmarks Board consists of five volunteer city residents appointed by the City Council to consider applications and make recommendations to Council for landmazk and historic district designations and to review proposed exterior alterations to Landmarks or within landmark districts. Landmarks Board Design Review Committee A Committee that consists of two members of the Landmarks Board and one member of the Planning Department staff and meets weekly to review alteration certificate app&cations. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES Molding A decorative band or strip of materiai with a constant profile or section designed to cast interesting shadows. Generally used in cornices and trun around window and door openings. Mullion A large vertical member separating two casements; the vertical bar between coupled windows or multiple windows; the central vertical member of a double-door opening. Muntin One of the thin strips of wood used for holding panes of glass within a window; also call munnion, bar, sash bar, munton bar. Also, the central vertical member oF a door. Non-Contributing Buildings: Those buildings bufft during the districYs period of significance that have been altered to such an extent that original historic elements are not interpretable, and restoration is not possible, also buildings erected outside the period of significance that are not individually significant. Parapet A low wall or protective railing; often used around a balcony or balconet, or along the edge of a roof. Period of Significance The time period during which the majority of contributing buildings in a historic district were constructed. The period of significance is generally established by the designating ordinance for a district. Pitch The slope of a building element, typically expressed as the ratio of vertical rise i~er horizontal run, e.g,. a 3/12 pitch indicates a rise of 3" for every 12" of horizontal run. Plate Height The distance between the foundation or the topmost horizontal piece of framing at the top of a wall and where the next floor framing begins or where the roof form starts. Post A piece of wood, metal, etc., usually long and square or cylindrical, set upright to support a building, sign, gate, etc.; pillaz; pole. GLOSSARY OFTERMS 69 Protection The act or process of applying measures designed to affect the physical condition of a property be defending or guarding it from deterioration, loss or attack or to cover or shield the property from danger of injury. In, the case ol buildings and structures, such treatrnent is generally of a temporary nature and anticipates future historic preservation treatrnent; in the case of archaeological sites, the protective measure may be temporary or permanent. Roof The top covering of a building. Some types: Gable roof has a pitched roof with ridge and vertical ends. Gambrel roof is a variation of a gable roof, each side of which has a shallower slope above a steeper one. Hip roof has sloped ends instead of vertical ends. Shed roof (lean-to) has one slope only and is built against a higher wall. Jerkin-head (clipped gable or hipped gable) is similaz to gable but with the end clipped. Sash A window component: see window parts. Siding The narrow horizontal or vertical wood boards that form the outer face of the walls in a traditional wood frame house. Horizontal wood siding is also referred to as clapboards. The term "siding" is also more loosely used to describe any material that can be applied to the outside of a building as a finish. 70 Sill The lowest horizontal member in a frame or opening for e window, door, or framed wall or paztition. Simulated Divided Light Window Windows that have muntins affixed to the inside and outside of the panes of glass to simulate the look of a true divided light window. Soffit The underside of a structural part, as of a beam, arch, etc. GENERAL DESIGN GUIDELINES True Divided Light Window Windows that use muntins to form multiple individual panes of glass in the sash. Vernacular Buildings in indigenous styles conshvcted from locally available materials following traditional building practice and pattems and not architect-designed. Visual Continuity A sense of unity or belonging together exhibited by elements of the built environment because of similarities among them. Window Parts The moving units of a window aze known as Sashes and move within the fixed Frame. The Sash may consist of one large Pane of glass or may be subdivided into smaller panes by thin members called Muntins or Glazing Bars. Sometimes in nineteenth-century houses windows were arranged side-by-side and divided by heavy vertical wood members called Mullions. Head Jamb D~.1 Interior Casing Upper Sash Parting Stop Check Rail Lower Sash Stool Apron Sill GLOSSARY OFTERMS moultl Stop ~r Stop Jamb 71