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Parks & Recreation Advisory Board Retreat NCARPubhc Review Copy ~Q No+ ~~~ `" ~ PARKS AND RECREATION ADVISORY BOARD RETREAT NCAR 1850 Table Mesa Drive Saturday, May 5, 2001 8:30 a.m. -12:30 p.m. AGENDA 8:30 a.m. I. Ground Rules and Operating Agreements Pubhc comment will not be heud dunng th~s meetmg Opportumry for pubhc commen[ on pazk and recreanon needs m the commumty will be provided dunng Cmzen Pamc~pauon at the May 21, 2001 Pazks and Recreanon Adv~sory Boazd meehng For further mfomtahon please call (303) 413-7242 r~ Lr... o^ 1r.~ Materials that follow will be discussed at the retreat. .r- `~... ~ r,.. PRAB Procedural Rules PROCEDURAL RULES OF THE ~~ PARKS AND RECREATION ADVLSORY BOARD OF THE ~y CITY OF BOULDER, COLORADO Adopted on Apri18,1996 Pursuant to the provision of Secuon 159 of the Charter of the Ciry of Boulder and Sechon 2-3-1, B.R.C. 1981, the Pazks and Recreat~on Advisory Boazd of the City of Boulder adopts the followmg rules govemmg the general conduct of its busmess. In handhng routme busmess the Boazd may, by general consent, use more mformal procedure than that set forth m these rules. Any rule may be suspended at any time by an~rmative vote of four members of the Boazd taken at a meeung open to the public I. SCOPE OF RULES A. PROCEDURES GOVERNED These rules govern the procedures of the Pazks and Recreadon Advisory Boazd of the City of Boulder, Colorado, with respect to all matters entrusted to the Boazd by the Ciry Charter, the Ciry Council, or by ordmance or resoluuon of the City of Boulder. These matters mclude, but aze not hmited to, recommendat~ons to City Council concemmg disposal of pazk land, expenditures or ,~ ~ appropnat~ons from the Permanent Pazks and Recreation Fund, grant or demal of any hcense or pernut in or on park lands, protecuon and mamtenance of pazk lands, the parks and recreat~on proposed budget, and any addit~onal pazks and recreauon matters upon wtuch our Board's advice or approval is requested. Sec. 162 and 163 of the Charter of the City of Boulder address more specifically the bmding nature of the Pazks and Recreauon Advisory Boazd's recommendat~on regazding disposal and acquisition oF pazk properues. B EFFECTNE DA'I'E. These mles shall take effect on July 24, 2000, and thereafter all pnor rules or regulauons of the Boazd m conflict therewith shall be repealed and of no fiuther force or effect. A copy of these rules shall be placed on file m the central file of the Ciry and shall be avazlable to the public ~'"'" W.r H~PRAB~Board Pohc~es~Proc_Rules wpd Rev 7/00 II.OFFICERS OF THE BOARD A. OFF[CERS The Boazd shall select a Chazr and a Vice Chair from among its ~ .r., members to serve for one yeaz. The Duector or the Duector's designee shall be Secretary to the Boazd. B. DU'I'IES OF THE CHAIR. The Chau is respons~ble for conduchng the Boazd's meetmgs in an orderly and fazr manner and assunng that mmority opmion may be expressed and that the ma~onty is allowed to rule The Chair shall decide all pomts of order or issues of procedure unless otherwise directed by a ma~onty of the Boazd m session at that ume. The Chair shall determme items to be placed on the agenda of any regulaz meeung after consultauon with the Duector. C. DUTIES OF Tf~ VICE CHAIR The Vice Chair shall preside m the absence of the Chair and shall assume all the duues of the Chazr. In the event that both the Chair and the Vice Chair aze absent at a meet~ng, an acung Chazr shall be selected by a ma~onry vote of those members present at the meeung. D. DU'TIES OF Tf~ PARKS AND RECREAITON DIIZECTOR. The Puks and RecreaUOn Duector or designee shall serve as Secretary to the Board and shall be the ~ regulaz techmcal advisor of the Boazd and shall present all agenda rtems to the Boazd, ~` and shall generally supervise the clencal work of the Boazd. The Secretary shall prepare the Agenda, keep or cause to be kept a full and true record of all meehngs of the Boazd; shall be the custodian of all documents and wntten materials belongmg to the Boazd, and shall issue notices of ineet~ngs and calls for special meet~ngs as previously provided E. NOMINATIONS AND ELECTIONS. Nommahons for Chazr and Vice Chair aze made each year at the first meeting followmg City Council appointments to the Boazd. The Chazr will be elected pnor to nommaUOns for Vice Chair. Nommauons aze made orally. No second is required, but the consent of the nonunee shall have been obtained m advance. Any person so nommated may withdraw lus or her name from nommanon. Sdence by a noaunee shall be mterpreted as acceptance of candidacy A monon shall be made and seconded to close the nommauons and acted upon as any mohon The vohng is accomphshed by the raismg of hands unless there is only one nommation and a unanimous vote for the candidate. The names shall be ~" 2 H~PRAB~Board Pohcies~Proc_Rules wpd Rev 7/00 called m alphabehcal order or reverse alphabeacal order depending upon a fltp of a ~""' com by the Secretary, who shall thereafter altemate the order for all further election ~~rr ballots dunng the same meeting. The fust candidate for each position receivmg four or more votes is elected. In case a vacancy shall occur m any of the offices, an elecGOn to fill the vacancy may be held at the next regulaz meeting. CONDUCT OF BOARD MEETINGS A. REGiILAR MEETING The regulaz meeung shall be held monthly at a publicized time and place. Additional meeungs to be scheduled are boazd tours, study sessions and subcommittee meetings. Any meeting involvmg three or more boazd members must be pubhcized m advance. B. SPECIAL MEETINGS. Special meetmgs may be called at any time by three members of the Boazd. Tlus is done by subnuarng a wntten request to the Duector staung the reason for the special meet~ng at least 48 hours m advance of the proposed .,~, meeting. The Duector will notify the Board members, giving them the 24hour not~ce required m the Charter and will provide as much pubhc nohce as practicable under the cucumstances. C OUORUM A quorum shall be four members of the Boazd. AGENDA The pnnted agenda is distnbuted to Boazd members no later than four days precedmg the Boazd meetmgs, whether regulaz, special or contumed meet~ngs. Notice shall be given of all agenda items by publication of the title or a general descnpuon thereof m the Boulder Daily Camera on the weekend precedmg the Boazd meehng. Nohce shall not be necessary when items aze adopted by emergency. A ma~onty of the Boazd present at a meetmg by moaon and vote may determme that an rtem qualifies as an emergency. Items for the Boazd agenda may be submitted by Boazd members, City Council members, the City Manager's office, department heads of the City and by citizens ^~""" Items to be considered must be submitted m wntmg to the office of the Director by noon Monday ~..- H~PRAB~Board Policies~Proc_Rules wpd Rev 7/00 no later than two weeks pnor to the regular meeting. The Chau~ shall deternune the items to be placed on the Agenda of any regular meeung after consultation with the Duector. The Agendas of ~ special meetmgs shall be set by those members of the Boazd calhng the meeung. Additionally, by ~ concurrence of four or more members of the Board, the Boazd may direct preparat~on of a matter for the Agenda or may request staff [o expend substan6al ume on any matter The Cha~r sets the order of the Agenda, wtvch shall generally be as follows. I. APPROVAL OF TF~ AGENDA. (6.00 p m.). Items will generally not be added but may be added or deleted with the consent of the Chair. II APPROVAL OF MINUTES Mmutes of the prev~ous meetmg must either be read and approved or approved as made available beforehand. Opportumry must be grven m erther case to correct the mmutes before approval, and the approval is then as corrected III. CTTIZEN PARTICIPATION. The Boazd's ;oal is to start Ciuzen Participauon at 6.05 p.m. sharp In any event CiUZen Participation will not be closed pnor to 6.15 p.m. Tlus portion of the meetmg is provided for ciUZens to commumcate ideas or concems to the Boazd regardmg pazks and recreation issues wluch aze not related to Items for Action. IV. ITEMS FROM THE DIltECTOR V. TI'EMS FROM Tf~ BOARD ~ ~ VI. 1TEMS FOR ACTION VII. RECESS. At any ume dunng the Agenda, the Chair may declaze a recess unt~l a specified time VIII. I'fEMS FOR DISCUSSION/INFORMATION No final decision may be made under tlus item, or under A or B below unul after an allowance for citizen parUCipat~on is made. Proposed decisions aze announced by the Chazr pnor to openmg Ciuzen Participauon to allow for pubhc testimony, boazd quest~ons, staff response, boazd mot~on, consideration and debate and an mformed fmal deasion. IX. UPCOMING BOARD MEETINGS AND DATES - X. NEXT BOARD MEETING XI. ADJOURNMENT The Board's goal is that all meeungs be ad~oumed by 10:30 p.m. An agenda check w~ll be conducted at or abou[ 10 p m., and generally, absent a deadline wluch the Boazd cannot affect, no new substantial item will be addressed after 10:30 p.m. ~°~, 4 H~PRAB~Board Pohc~es\Proc_Rules wpd Rev 7/00 III. RULES OF SPEAKING ~"^ A. To obtam the floor, a Boazd member or staff inember shall address the Chatr ~ B To assign the floor, the Chazr recogmzes by calling out the person's name. Only one person may have the floor at a t~me. A person shall not speak wlule another has the floor. The Chazr generally next recogmzes the person who first asks for the floor after it has been relinquished. C Dunng crtizen pazucipatton orpubhc heanngs, members of the public aze recognzed by the Chazr No person shall make a presentauon (not mcludmg Boazd questions) of more than three nunutes, unless grven permission by the Chair before begmmng to speak. D. Each speaker is requested to direct remarks to the Boazd acuon wkuch is bemg requested. The Chau~ shall have the authonry to mterrupt any speaker digressmg from the sub~ect and may ask that points already presented not be repeated. IV. PROCEDURE IN HANDLING MOTIONS A. A Boazd member, after obtazning the floor, makes a motion (If long or involved, it ~ ,,,ew,~ should be m wnung). The Boazd member may state reasons bnefly before makmg the motion; but may argue the mouon only after it has been seconded; and havmg spoken once may not speak again until everyone who wishes to be heazd has had the opportunity to speak, except to answer questions asked by other Boazd members. Havmg made a motion, a Boazd member may neither speak agaznst rt nor vote agunst it. B Another Board member seconds the mouon. All motions require a second, to mdicate that more than one member is mterested discussmg the quesAon. The seconder does not, however, have to favor the motion in order to second rt, and may both speak and vote agunst it. If there is no second, the Chau shall not recogmze the mohon • ~ C The Cha~r states the mot~on and asks for discussion. D General debate and discussion follow, if desired. Boazd members and the Duector, when wislung to speak, shall follow the rules of speakmg oudined above. The ,,.~ speaker's position on the mohon should be stated duecdy: "I favor tlus mot~on ~~.. 5 H~PRAB~Board Pohcies~Proc_Rules wpd Rev 7/00 because :', "I am opposed to the modon because. ", etc. Remazks should be addressed to the Chair ~+, E. The Chair restates the motion and puts the question. Negat~ve as well as affirmat~ve ~ votes aze taken. 1. ff the Cha~r is m doubt of the result of a voice vote, the Chair may call for razsmg of hands or a roll call vote. 2. If any Boazd member is m doubt of the result of a voice vote, the Boazd member may obtun a vote by razsmg of hands or by roll call by callmg for rt (without need to be recogmzed by the Chau) 3. In case of a t~e vote, the mohon is lost. F. The Chur announces ttte resulL The mot~on is not completed until the result ~s announced. V. VOTING Votmg ultimately decides all questions. A roll call vote is requued for any matter relatmg to the acqmsrtion or disposal of land and the adopUon of the Capital Improvements Program budget. For other items, the Boazd may use any one of the followmg ways of vohng. A. Voice Vote. All m favor say "aye", and all opposed say "no". The Chazr rules on ^' ...r' whether the "ayes" or the "nos" predommate, and the queshon is so decided. B Razsme of Hands. All m favor razse their hands, and then all opposed ruse their hands The Chair decides wkuch predommates and notes dissents for the record. C. Roll Call. The Secretary calls the roll of the Boazd members, and each member present votes "aye" and "no" as each name ~s called. The roll is called m alphabehcal order, wrth the following special provis~on• on the first roll call vote for the meet~ng, the Secretary shall begm with the first name on the hst; on the second vote, the Secretary shall begm with the second and end with the first; and so on, conunuing thus to rotate the order. Ttus rotanon shall contmue from meetmg to meetmg. VI. STUDY SESSIONS Matenals for study sessions generally will be made avulable to the Boazd and the public at least ten days before the date of the srudy session Notice will be grven as for other Boazd meeangs. Wntten comments received by staff pnor to study sessions will be forwazded to all Boazd members ,..~ 6 H~PRAB~Board Pohc~es~Proc_Rules wpd Rev 7/00 at the study session Teshmony of pecsons other than staff is no[ permitted at study sessions unless ,~ ~ a ma~ority of inembers present vote to suspend tlus rule. The Boazd shall grve direchon to staff at study sessions for the presentation of acaon ~tems at future regulaz Boazd meeungs. In regazd to pubhc notice and mmutes of the study session, they shall be handled m the same manner as regulaz meeangs. VII. PARLIAMENTARY PROCEDURE Except as otherwise provtded herem, all matters of procedure are govemed by RobeR's Rules of Order Newly Revised (1981) ~ ~ H~PRAB~Board PohaeslProc_Rules wpd Rev 7/00 City Council Procedural Rules ,,,,, TITLE 2 GOVERNMENT ORGAIVIZAT'ION `"° Chapter 1 City Council' `Adopted by Ordmance No. 4662. Derived from Ordinance No. 3345 2-1-1 Legislative Intent. The purpose of ttus chapter is to prescnbe the procedures and duties of the City Council of the Ciry of Boulder, Colorado 2-1-2 Council Meetings The cuy council shall hold two regular meetmgs m each calendaz month of each yeaz on the first and third Tuesdays of each month commencmg at 6:00 p.m. m the City Council Chambers of the Mumcipal Buildmg, 1777 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado The counc~l may by mohon prescnbe a different date, trme, or place for such regular meetmgs m any month, but no such modon affects the ume, date, or place for regulazly scheduled meeungs of the council m any other month Ordinance No. 4816 (1984). Appendix Council Procedure (see followmg page for appendix) ~Adopted by Ordmance No 4662, denved from Ordmance No. 3345 '°~" APPENDIX ~b.. - COUNCIL PROCEDURE Adopted February 21, 1984 (by Council moaon only) Amended. September 1984 Amended• Mazch 1988 Amended. May 1990 Amended May 1992 Amended February 1994 Amended February 1996 Amended: Mazch 1999 COUNCIL PROCEDURE This procedure is mtended to govem the actions of the city council m the general conduct of its busmess and to serve as a reference m setthng pazhamentary disputes. In handlmg routme busmess, the council may by general consent use a more mformal procedure than that set forth m "'"" tkus procedure y..,, This procedure may be suspended at any hme by vote of five counctl members or of two-thirds of the council members present, whichever is the greater. "1 ~ CONDUCT OF COUNCIL MEETINGS I. Presiding Officer: Mayor The mayor, as chair of the council, is responsible for conductmg its meeungs in an orderly and democraUc manner and assunng that mmonty opmion may be expressed and that the ma~onry is allowed to rule. At the same time, the mayor retams all of the prerogahves of a duly elected council member: The mayor may make and second mohons and take part m d~scussions and must vote on all matters not mvolvmg the mayoi s personal financial mterest or the mayor's offic~al conduct. II. Agenda A. Notice. The pnnted agenda is generally distnbuted to council members no later than the Thursday precedmg the council meehngs, whether regulaz, special, or contmued meehngs. Items will generally not be added, but may be added or deleted with the consent of the mayor. Whenever practicable, notice shall be given of all agenda items by pubhcauon of the trtle or a general descnption thereof in the Boulder Daily Camera on the weekend precedmg the council meehng However, fulure to give such notice shall not mvalidate any acUOn taken by the council, and such provision shall not apply at all to rtems adopted by emergency B Council Agenda Committee (CAC). Items are placed on the agenda by the staff, with ~ the approval of the members of an agenda committee m attendance at a meetmg called by Ihe mayor to rev~ew the agenda, wtuch normally takes place m the manager's office on Monday afternoons. In addition to the mayor and the deputy mayor, the council designates a third council member for six to seven weeks at a time (dependmg on the council meeung cycle) to serve on the agenda commrttee. A sign-up list is circulated to council members, from altemaring ends of the council table each time rt is circulated, unhl all hme blocks are filled for that hme penod Replacements aze sol~cited from all remammg council members whenever an agenda committee member cannot attend a meehng If more council members wish to attend than there aze vacanc~es, the mayor makes the appointment Meetings of the agenda committee aze open to the pubhc and the press/media, but aze not advertised. No more than four council members may attend an agenda comrruttee meetmg at any ume ""Drop-ms"" should notify the mayor m advance whenever possible Presence of staff inembers at agenda committee meetings is sub~ect to the discreuon of the c~ty manager. C Quarterly Agenda Review Before the begmmng of each calendaz quarter, the agenda cotntm[tee holds an agenda review to rev~ew the successes and the diffiwlhes of the council m dealing with agenda items dunng the preceding calendar quarter and to schedule agenda items for the next calendar quarter, when such items aze known in z '"~"~ ~ advance The agenda committee reports on its quarterly agenda review to the council as a ~ whole. D. CAC Mission Representmg the views of the enhre city council, the agenda committee: 1) sets the agenda for council meehngs and study sess~ons, 2) comments on wntten agenda matenals to assure that all reasonable questions anticipated from the public and any member of the council aze answered, 3) acts as a soundmg board for staff, 4) mforms the crty council and staff of emergmg issues, 5) requests that staff supply mformation to the council conceming emerging issues, and 6) discusses correspondence, faxes, and e-mad to the mayor and the crty council and responses to Cihzen Participac~on The agenda committee assigns the responsibility for draftmg and signmg such responses. Responses aze placed in a bmder m the council office, so that council members can be assured that c~uzens" concerns have been addressed. But mdividual council members may respond as well, at their discretion 7) The agenda committee determmes when boazds and commissions should be requested to address the council concernmg their dehberations, and when matters should be referred back to a boazd or commission before council acUOn is scheduled. Generally, rt is expected that boazds and commissions with an adop[ed mission statement that mcludes a certam area of concern will be added to advise council about any agenda ~tem deahng wrth that azea of concern 8) The agenda committee also estabhshes check pomts for council mput on importan[ staff pro~ects. 9) Agenda committee minutes aze made avulable to Ihe council on the moming followmg [he day of the agenda committee meeung whenever possible, by e-mazl, faJC, or dehvery, as requested by each council member Recommendahons and mformation aze segregated m the tmnutes. The approved preliirunary agenda hst is attached. ~,_ E. CAC Ground Rules (1) No Decisions. The agenda committee should not make a""decision"" on anythmg except for specific decisions relatmg to the council agenda and assignment of correspondence for a response. (2) No References. Agenda committee members should avoid reference to the meetmg m debate, as by statements such as ""This was discussed m the agenda comm~ttee meet~ng,"" or ""We dealt with that quesuon m the agenda committee meeUng."" Above all, there should be no reference to any `"`decision"" havmg been made by the agenda committee (3) CAC Communications with Council If, as a result of an agenda committee meehng, the committee deternunes that it is necessary to contact the remazmng council members to convey mformat~on or to obtain advice about proposed staff action, staff should contact each available council member Council members, mcludmg agenda comnuttee members, generally should not be mvolved m such commumcadons But flvs does not restnct any counc~l member from contacting other council members and conveymg any informahon or requesung any advice or action. Agenda committee and other council members may use a telephone (or e-mazl or fax) tree to commumcate with other council members about any matter, but such process should not subst~tute for staff action as set forth above, and is sub~ect to the ""open meetmg"" requirements of state law (24-6-402(2)(d)(IIn, C.R S), ~ ...~ concemmg the use of e-mul, wluch requues use of the hoUme for any commumcahon mvolvmg more than two council members (4) CAC to Focus on Council Concems Rather than Personal Point of View. It is not appropnate for agenda commrttee members [o use the agenda committee meetmg to advance their own political agenda or point of view This is conceded to be difficult to avoid, especially when three council members aze discussmg an upcommg decision, but it is essential (5) CAC Not to Indicate Council Support Pnor to approval by the council, the agenda comm~ttee and staff aze prohibited from mdicaung any city commrtment to city sponsorslup or support of an event or to city support for a development proposal. (6) Questions to CAC Counc~l members aze urged to send questions, comments and suggeshons to the members of the agenda comm~ttee pnor to its meetmg The agenda committee will endeavor to discuss all such quesUOns, comments and suggestions at rts meeUng. (7) Postponement of Issues. It is acceptable for members of the ciry council to ask for postponement of issues to accommodate a bnef absence, when the rescheduhng will not mconvemence other council members and the mdrndual council member has a sigmficant mterest m the part~cular issue bemg decided. However, no council member has ,,,,,, a nght to requue such a change, and the decision of the CAC is generally treated as final, ~ although the council is, as always, the final decision maker. F. Consent Items, Urgent Items, Time Budget, and Order of Agenda. The agenda committee designates potential consent items, so that they can be dealt with m a summary fashion. Although consent items aze separately listed on the agenda, the mayor asks for any ob~echon from the city council, and, heanng none, declazes the consent agenda approved. The agenda committee also des~gnates urgent ~tems, for wluch delay is not possible or madvisable, so that the council can deal with such items pnor to ad~ournment The agenda committee sets the order of the agenda, wluch shall be generally as follows• 1 Call to Order and Roll Call. Meetmgs are generally called to order at 6 00 p.m. sharp 2 Citizen Participation. (Three-mmute hmit per person, on a first-come-first-served basis). Cmzen Puvcipanon is a time set aside for ciuzens to address the council concemmg city busmess not otherwise on the agenda for pubhc hearing. The council's goal is to begm Citizen Participauon at 6:00 p m. and end at 6•45 p.m. or after fifteen persons have teshfied, whichever is longer. Citizen Parucipation lasts forty-five mmutes or such lesser ume as is required to accommodate all persons signmg up to speak. When CiUZen Participauon is closed pnor to all persons signed up having an opportumty to speak, such persons are accommodated, if possible, after the last pubhc heanng item on the agenda or given pnonty at the next Citizen Part~cipauon penod, usually two weeks .""* later The council reviews Ciuzen Participation and assures that an appropnate response r^ is given if the council feels that a response is required, usually immediately followmg the "~.- Citizen Participation penod Staff and council responses aze discouraged at the meeung, except for referral to the staff for further analyses and reports and ultimate council decisions on a future agenda. 3. Minutes Mmutes of previous meehngs aze approved as made avazlable beforehand, and as conected by the ciry clerk, m response to council suggestions, m the discretion of the clerk. Ttus procedure should not be used to alter remazks to express a more considered pomt of view. Such remazks should be made under item 6, Mayor and Members of Council. A moUOn to approve the mmutes ~s deemed to mclude such correchons, as well as any corrections made at the meetmg. 4 Matters from the City Manager No final dec~sion may be made under ttus item, or items 6,Mayor and Members of Council, or 7, Pubhc Comment, until after an opportunrty for public comment, as provided m item 8, Decisions on MoUOns, proposed decisions are announced by the mayor pnor to item 8, Dec~sions on Mohons, to allow for public testimony, council quesuons, staff response, counc~l mohon, considerarion and debate, and an mformed final decision. 5. Matters from the City Attorney. 6. Mayor and Members of Council. At this pomt, any council member may place before the council matters wtuch are no[ mcluded m the formal agenda. Tlus item is generally ~`"" limi[ed to responses to Ci6zen Participahon, appomtments to boazds and commissions, `~ sharing of mformaUOn, and requests for advice concemmg matters pending before other bodies, call-ups, requests for staff work and requests for scheduling future agenda items. Matters requinng a formal council vote, such as mouons to sponsor an event or to allocate funds, aze normally placed on the agenda through the regulaz agenda rev~ew process, rather than dealt with under ttus item. 7. Public Comment. Pnor to counc~l decisions on motions, an opportunity shall be given for pubhc comment on such motions. The rules aze the same as for Cit~zen Partic~pauon, but wrth a fifteen-tmnute total limit. TFus ume may be extended at the mayor's discret~on. 8 Decisions on Motions. Final decisions on items discussed under items 5, Matters from the City Attorney, 6, Mayor and Members of Council, and 7, Publ~c Comment 9 Other Business. Expected substanhal pubhc comment items are generally placed first on the agenda, but cnucal short items may be placed first when deemed appropnate by the agenda committee. 10 First Readings. Although generally calendared last on the agenda, the city manager may request that a part~culaz first readmg be scheduled eazlier on the agenda when staff/council mteracrion on the item is important on first readmg See Sechon V, Frocedures m Handhng Ordmances, Resoluhons and Important Mohons, subsecaon C, ~ First Reading """y 11. Adjoumment. The council's goal is that all meetmgs be ad~ourned by 10:30 p.m. An __.. agenda check will be conducted at or about 10 00 p m, and no later than at the end of the first item fimshed after 10 00 p.m. Generally, absent a deadhne wtuch the counc~l cannot affect, no new substantial item will be addressed after 10:30 p.m. No new item shall be mtroduced after 10 30 p.m. unless a ma~onty of the council members m attendance at that hme agree. All council meeungs shall be adjoumed at or before 11 00 p m. Items not completed pnor to ad~oumment will generally be taken up at a special meeting at 6:00 p.m on the followmg Tuesday evemng. III. Rules of Speaking A. Mayor Directs Meeting. To obtun the floor, a counc~l member or staff inember addresses the mayor B Assignment of Floor To assign the floor, the mayor recogmzes by callmg out the person"s name. Only one person may have the floor at a time. A person shall not speak wtule another has the floor The mayor generally next recogmzes the person who first asks for the floor after it has been reLnquished. C. Three-Minute Rule. Dunng Cit~zen Participation or public heanngs, members of the pubhc aze recognized by the mayor. No person shall make a presentaUOn (no[ including council questions) longer than three mmutes, unless given permtssion by the mayor before begmmng to speak. ~ ..r D Pooling of Time. Speakers will not generally be pernutted to ""pool"" their ume. Pernussion may be granted if the mayor deternunes that substanhal time can be saved thereby and issues better addressed m order to facihtate pubhc participauon and council decision makmg. Speakers desiring to ""pool"" their t~me will not be granted the full pooled total, but a proportion detemuned by the mayor, m hght of the complexrty of the issues to be addressed and the pro~ected hme saved from the poohng. Normally, pooled time will not be granted unless at least three persons request it, all of whom otherwise would have tesufied All persons wistung to pool the~r t~me must be present at the meeang m order for the mayor to recogmze pooled hme. Five cmnutes is the standazd for pooled time, and no pooled t~me presentation will be permrtted to exceed ten mmutes total. E. Proponents Proponents of an agenda item, especially m a quasi ~ud~cial proceedmg, may request addiaonal ame, as reasonably required to present the~r case. In response, the mayor may des~gnate a longer time penod for proponents, generally not to exceed fifteen mmutes and to occur immediately upon the opemng of the public heanng, m order to give the public an opportunity to respond. Addiuonal support for proponents' posihons should come from mdividual witnesses. F No Personal Attacks All counc~l members, staff inembers, and members of the public -~*,. aze requested to direct their remazks to the council action that they aze requestmg !"' Speakers engagmg m personal attacks may be mterrupted by the mayor ~ G. Outline of Decisions. The staff and the mayor attempt to focus discussion of agenda items in accordance wrth the matenals, which should contazn a proposed outhne of dec~sions. H. Two-Minute Staff Presentations Staff presentahons aze generally hmited to a two- minute summary of packet matenal and issues for council decision New mformahon, lazge graphics, and any presentaUOn authonzed by council aze excephons to this rule I. Minimize Debates Prior to Public Hearings Council members mmimize debate pnor to pubhc heanngs and use the period pnor to pubhc heanngs to ask questions for clanficahon rather than to lecture, give speeches, score debahng pants or ask rhetoncal queshons The mayor may mtervene to avoid extended debate pnor to pubhc heanngs. J Motions to Table. Tabhng mohons aze generally discussed before they aze made, m order to allow for a reasonable amount of council discussion pnor to malung a non- debatable mouon. K Eady Warning Process Council members give eazly warnmg to the mayor and the city manager whenever substantial opposihon is anticipated to an agenda item, so that an appropnate staff and council response can be prepazed ~ L. Rotation of Questions. Quest~ons aze rotated so that, to the extent pracucable, ..,,, different council members are given the lead on each agenda ~tem and quesuons aze grouped by sub~ect matter whenever it is practicable to do so. M. Mayor May Intervene The mayor may mtervene m counc~l debate m order to determine whether council wishes to postpone council acuon when more informauon or staff work appeazs warranted to facilitate a council decision N No Surprises. Counc~l members will make every effort not to surpnse each other by bnngmg up sometlvng new at a meetmg, and rather will give nouce of their mtenUOn to do so as soon as prachcal before the meehng. IV. Procedure in Handling Motions A Making a Motion A council member, after obtazmng the floor, makes a motion. (If long or mvolved, it should be m wnting.) The council member may state reasons bnefly before makmg the mouon; but may azgue the motion only after it has been seconded; and havmg spoken once may not speak agam until everyone who wishes to be heard has had the opportunity to speak, except to answer questions asked by other council members Havmg made a morion, a council member may neither speak agamst it nor vote against it. B. Seconding a Motion. Another council member seconds the motion. All mouons require a second, to mdicate that more than one member is mterested m discussmg the Ar"^ ~ question. The seconder does not, however, have to favor the motion m order to second it, and may both speak and vote agamst rt. If there is no second, the mayor shall not ~'"\ recogmze the motion -- C. Stating the Motion The mayor states the motion and asks for discussion. D. Debate. General debate and discussion follow, if desired Council members, the city manager, or the city attomey, when wishmg to speak, follow the rules of speakmg outlmed above. The speaker's position on the mohon should be stated directly: `"`I favor this motion because .,"' `"`I am opposed to tlus because ,"" etc Remazks should be addressed to the mayor. E Question The mayor restates the motion and puts the queshon. NegaUve as well as affirmative votes aze taken 1 If the mayor is m doubt of the result of a voice vote, the mayor may call for raismg of hands or a roll call vote 2 If any council member is m doubt of the result of a voice vote, the council member may obtam a vote by razsmg of hands or by roll call by calhng for rt (without need to be recogmzed by the mayor) 3 In case of a tie vote, the motion is lost F. Result. The mayor announces the result. The motion is not completed until the result is announced. ''"'"A ~ V. Procedure in Handling Ordinances, Resolutions and Important Motions A. Two Readings. All ordmances requue at least two readmgs, smce the city charter requires ten days' advance publication m final form. The agenda committee may require sim~laz publ~cahon of complex or impoRant motions and resoluhons, m order to assure mformed c~tizen participahon B Notice All documents dehvered to counc~l members' residences pnor to any meehng shall be deemed to have been received and read, unless a council member mdicates to the contrary dunng considerahon of the matter In the event that a council member has not recerved and read the document m quesuon, the mayor shall detemune an appropnate course of achon, which may consist of an explanation of the substance of the dceument by a person fazruhaz wrth its contents, or a recess Abstentions are not pernutted by the ciry charter under these cirwmstances. C. First Reading. On first readmg, the clerk reads the title or the general descnption of the item set forth on the agenda, and the council has an opportumty to ask quesuons of the staff Whenever prachcable, council members ask first readmg questions m wnting or by e-mazl to "hodme"" m advance of the meetmg Noon on the day followmg the meetmg is the cutoff ame. Any remaznmg questions are asked at the meenng. Complex questions ~"^~ aze sub~ect to the ""rule of five"" for mformahon and reseazch requests set forth m '`p' Secuon VIII, Reseazch and Study Sessions, Subsechon A, Informahon/Reseazch ~ Requests/Rule of Three. The mayor then requests an appropnate motion. However phrased, an affirmative mohon is construed as one to order the item pubhshed. Unless otherwise stated in the motion, all pubhcation shall be by tide only. The mayor then states the quest~on, followed by proposal of amendments, if any, restates the quest~on if necessary, and puts the question to a vote. After the conclusion of the vote, the mayor declazes the item to have been ordered published or to have been re~ected for publicat~on Pubhcat~on does not constIIU[e substantive approval of an item D Second Reading. On second reading, the clerk reads the hde or the general descript~on of the item set forth on the agenda, followed by the staff presentahon, and then the council has an opportumry to ask queshons of the staf£ Thereafter, the mayor opens a public heanng and supervises the public heanng If any counc~l member wishes, queshons may be asked oF persons tesUfymg. Council may consider a response to public tesUmony at the meet~ng, and the agenda committee may consider a response the followmg week, but the normal response is in the council members" actions on the agenda. The mayor then requests an appropnate mohon The motion should be one to adopt the ordmance, and, however phrased, an affirmaUve motion shall be so construed Unless otherwise stated m the moaon, all pubhcahon shall be by Ude only. The mayor then states the quesUon, followed by discussion by the counc~l, the city manager and the city attorney and dialogue with staff m response to queshons razsed by the council, followed by debate, proposal of amendments, if any, and considerauon thereof m the form of motions. After debate, the mayor restates the queshon and requests that the clerk '""` conduct a roll call vote. After the conclusion of the roll call vote, the mayor declazes the ordmance adopted or defeated. E. Resolutions. Resoluuons are handled m the same manner as the second reading of an ordinance, except that the vote need not be by roll call F. Emergencies. Ordmances may be passed by emergency on first or second readmg, upon appropnate findmgs of urgency and need In the event of passage by emergency on first readmg, the first readmg is handled m the same manner as the second readmg of an ordinance, and the second readmg is omrtted. G Amendments Non-emergency ordinances which are amended m substance rather than m form on second readmg aze republished m the same form ongmally pubhshed (either m full or by tide only), as amended, and voted on agazn at a third reading, without further staff presentaUOn or public heanng. The council retazns the discretion to set a public heanng on tlurd readmg by ma~onty vote The same procedure apphes to later substantive amendments as well. VI. Voting Voang ulUmately decides all quesnons. The council may use any one of the following ways of voting: ~ A Voice Vote All m favor say ""aye; "' and all opposed say ""no."" The mayor rules on _ whether the ""ayes"" or the ""nos"" predonunate, and the queshon is so decided B. Raising of Hands. All m favor razse their hands, and then all opposed raise their hands. The mayor decides which side predormnates and notes dissents for the record. C. Roll Call The clerk calls the roll of the council members, and each member present votes ""aye"° or ""no"" as each name ~s called The roll is called m alphabetical order, with the followmg spec~al provis~on On the first roll call vote the clerk shall begm wrth the first name on the hst; on the second vote, the clerk shall begm with the second and end wrth the first, and so on, conhnumg thus to rotate the order Th~s rotation shall contmue from meetmg to meeting VII. Nominations and Elections A Nominations. Nommations for mayor and achng mayor (generally referred to as deputy mayor) aze made orally. No second is required, but the consent of the nommee should have been obtamed m advance. Any person so noctunated may at th~s time withdraw lus or her name from nonunation. Silence by the nommee shall be mterpreted as acceptance of candidacy. B. Order of Vote. A mohon then is made and seconded to close the nonunauons and acted on as any mouon. The votmg is accomphshed by raismg of hands unless there is ,,,,~ only one nommahon and a unanimous vote for the candidate. The names shall be called ,,, in alphabetical order or reverse alphabet~cal order depending upon a flip of a com by the clerk, who shall thereafter alternate the order for all further election ballots dunng the same meeUng. C. Ballots. If rt is the desire of the council to use paper ballots rather than a voice vote, such a procedure ~s proper. However, smce there is no provision for a secret vote, each ballot must be signed by the council member cashng the vote. D Elimination Process. ff any of the cand~dates nonunated receives five votes on the first ballot, such person is declazed elected. If none of the candidates receives five votes on the first ballot, the candidate (plus des) recervmg the lowest number of votes is dropped as a candidate unless tlus ehminaUon would leave one candidate or less for the office If ttus ehmmatron would leave one candidate or less for the office, another vote is taken, and once agam the candidate (plus Ues) rece~ving the lowest number of votes ~s dropped as a candidate unless ttus ehmmauon would leave one candidate or less for the office. In the event that one candidate or less is left for the office after the second vote, a flip of a com shall be used m order to ehmmate all but two candidates for the office. E Impasse Process. In the event that neither of the two final candidates receives five votes on the first ballot on wluch there aze only two candidates, another vote shall be ~""~ w ~ ~w... taken If no cand~date receives five votes on the second such ballot, the candidate who ~,,,,, receives the votes of a majority of the council members present shall be declazed elected. If no candidate receives such a ma~onty vote, the meeting shall be adjoumed for a penod not to exceed twenty-four hours, and new nominations and new ballots shall be taken. If no candidate receives five votes on the first ballot at the ad~ourned meeung on which there aze only two candidates, another vote shall be taken. If no candidate receives five votes on the second such ballot, the candidate who receives the votes of a ma~onty of the council members present shall be declazed elected. If no candidate receives a ma~onty vote on [he second such ballot at the ad~oumed meehng, a flip of a com shall be used to deternune which of the two final candidates shall be declazed elected as mayor or deputy mayor. F. Boards, and Commissions. Elechons to fill posihons on boards or commissions shall be conducted m the same maaner. However, a ma~onty of the council members present rather than a ma~onty of the full council is sufficient to dec~de an elechon of this nature. Each boazd or commission vacancy shall be voted on sepazately G. Advertising of Vacancies After Partial Terms Pnor to advert~smg boazd and commission vacancies, when a person has already served on the boazd or commission and is seekmg reappotntment, council should make the decision of whether or not to advertise that particulaz vacancy VIII. Research and Study Sessions ,~-_ .~ A. Information/Research Requests/ Rule of Three. Requests for mformauon should be directed to `"`hothne,"" or, if a public request is not appropnate, direcdy to the city manager or the city attorney. Requests for a bnefing should be directed to the crty manager or the city attomey. A smgle council member may require the ciry manager or the city attorney to provide avazlable mformauon at any dme or to answer any question concernmg an agenda item. The concurrence of three counc~l members is required to assign a matter for reseazch by staf£ For staff to spend more ume than the c~ty manager or the city attorney considers reasonable m l~ght of other staff time commitments, the concurrence of five council members is required. In such case, the manager or attomey shall report [he results of the preliminary research and an eshmate of the time required to complete the task as the manager or attomey proposes. In any case, a vote shall be taken at a council meetmg, but work may proceed m an emergency pendmg such vote. The council shall be mformed of any such emergency work. B Budget Rule. A matter shall be placed before the council for decision dunng the deliberahon of the budget by a vote equal to or greater than the number of council members rema~mng at the meehng afrer deduchQn of the ma~onty thereof. C. Study Sessions Matenals for study sessions generally will be made available to the council and the pubhc at least ten days before the date of the study session Notice will be given as for other council meeungs Wntten comments received by staff pnor to noon on ~ ~ i~ the Thursday precedmg study sess~ons will be forwazded to all council members that ~ evemng Testimony of persons other than staff is not pernutted at study sessions unless a ma~onty of the council members present votes to suspend tlus rule. The council will give ~ direction to staff at study sessions for the presenta[ion of achon items at future regular council meehngs. Summanes of study sessions are placed on the council agenda for approval, mcludmg the direction given, any remaimng issues, and any staff reaction or proposed work plan m response to the study session IX. Procedure in Handling Major Capital Improvement Projects Ma~or capital improvement pro~ects shall be handled, to the extent practicable, m accordance with the Plannmg and Project Approval Process dated December 3, 1992, and the Commumty and Environmental Assessment Process dated June 16, 1987, but failure to follow any aspect of such processes shall not be grounds for any challenge to any city pro~ect Pnor to a development review dec~s~on by the planmng boazd, and whenever poss~ble at the Ume of the council's review of the community envixonmental assessment and pro~ect approval for program and prelimmary design relatmg to a ma~or capital improvement pro~ect to be constructed by the city or a related improvement dismct, the counc~l may deternvne by mohon to review the pro~ect pnor to the development review If so, the mayor will schedule a pubhc heanng and consideraUon of a motion direchng staff concemmg• 1) the program and 2) the conceptual design of the pro~ect At such ume, the council will deal only ind~recdy with the factors wlvch may ultimately be entailed m a development review apphcation under Chapter 9-4, ""Land Development Review,"" B.R.C 1981, m recogmt~on that it may later be called upon to ad~ud~cate such quest~ons on a call-up of a planmng boazd decision. ^'~ X. Council Calendar The council office mazntuns and sends at least weekly to council members a calendar of heanngs set by city staff and boazds and commissions and events at which the mayor or any council member will have a ceremomal or a substantrve role. Any council member may attend such heanngs and events, but council members may not testify at a boazd or commission heanng and may be dis-mvited from ceremomal events by the host Council members aze respons~ble for noufying the council office of heanngs and events for wluch they aze the hazson to the council. XI. Council Liaisons The council may appoint hazsons from among its members to serve on ad hoc and ongomg mtergovemmental committees, such as the Colorado Mumcipal L.eague Pohcy Commrttee, the Denver Regional Council of Governments, the Regional Atr Quality Consorhum, the CU/City Steenng Committee, or the Boulder County Consortmm of Ciaes. Council haisons may be appomted for staff activiues on an ad hoc basis. No more than two liaisons aze appomted for any achvity, and such appomtments occur at council meehngs, after notice to the council that the appomtment will be considered as part of the agenda of the meetmg. The mayor appomts one of the members to the Housmg Authonry and one to the Urban Renewal Authonty, m conformiry with state law, but council is not~fied at a council meehng of each such appointment, and the Urban Renewal Authonty appomtment is sub~ect to Counci] rahficauon The council appomts ~"! iz ~, one of its members to the Bureau of Conference Sernces and Cultural Affairs, to the Boulder e''""' County Solid Waste, Recychng and Composhng Authonty, and to the boazd of directors of the ~""' Boulder Art Center. Council hazsons aze expected to mform the council of their haison achvities and to request advice on important policy issues. XII. Parliamentary Procedure Except as otherwise provided herem, all matters of procedure aze govemed by Robert's Ru[es of Order New[y Revised (1990). XIII. Declarations, Proclamations, and Resolutions A. Mayor to Screen All matters proposed for council or mayoral action which commemorate a penod of time or commend the actions of a person or a group or endorse a posrtion or an idea not directly related to the affairs of the city shall be screened by the mayor. B. Mayoral Declarations. If a group wrth substanual local support requests such action, and the mayor deternunes that there ~s no substantial political issue concernmg such act~on, the mayor may issue a declazat~on for the achon. Such declazaUon shall be forwazded to a bmder kept for such purpose m the crty council office but shall not be placed on the agenda unless the council detemunes at a meetmg by ma~onry vote of the counc~l members present to call up the matter, m wluch case the action shall be revoked upon the passage of the call-up motion, pendmg further acuon by the council at its next r^ regulaz meeting. C. Council Proclamations and Resolutions. In extraordinary circumstances, if the group supportmg the actron deternunes that it wishes council acUon rather than a mayoral declazation, and the acuon otherwise meets the cntena set forth above, the mayor may, if the mayor considers such action appropnate m hght of the importance of the acuon and the addihonal busmess on the council agenda, place a proclamat~on or a resolution on the agenda for council act~on D Resolutions. Resoluaons are appropnate for legislative concerns, mcludmg, wrthout limitation, conveyances of posit~ons or ideas to other legislahve and admmistrahve bodies. But all legislative achons must be by ordmance E Political Questions. In the event that a substantial pohtical issue is deternuned to be presented by a proposed declara[ion or proclamation, the mayor shall not act or place the matter on the agenda, but mstead will mform the group supportmg the action that the matter will be placed on the agenda only if a ma~onty of the council members present at a meehng of the council so directs. The burden shall be on such group to present the ~ssue to the council The mayor may request counc~l advice at any ume concernmg proposed mayoral or council acnon. F. Foreign Policy and National Policy Questions. Counc~l shall not act on a foreign f"' ~ l3 pohcy or national pohcy issue on which no pnor official crty pohcy has been established ,.~„~ by the council or the people, unless suffic~ent time and resources can be allocated to _ assure a full presentation of the issue. G. Fund-Raising Publicity for fund-razsmg efforts and commumty events will be deemed mappropnate for council achon, although ma~or efforts and events may be commemorated if the ma~onty of the council members present at a meetmg of the council so directs. Ordinance No. 6054 (1999). ,'"~, ~ ia ~~ Public Pnvate Partnerships , xi , ~1. ~ Fs:, ~~ ~"~~ ~i"+ t t } ~ a .1~ ` t> ' # F..~ ~•- ~ t ,~ }' .f,.. ~t ~1{ t . . - i«~~ ~~5~ ' ~' 4 i . , s~~p~t,~t~~: w}'~ ~'t 4 a.~;~ r;r: ~~- ~ ~ i~ ~ V F 3 ~ ;:~ : ~j °. 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FvwW r-'S~ ~`' t('G _~~ ~m~. ~:~s~ -;~,_~' w~: , ~ts ~ -~. ~ . ~~~ ~~a .¥ .~~~ ~ ~ a i _ • .. ..,.Mx~~ix~ j. ti h~rtt~~ P~IRIN~RS~IIPS fOR P~RI~S Lessons from the Lila Wallace-Reader-'s Digest Urban Parks Program Chris Wallcer ihe Urban [nsn[uce L~la Wallxe- Reader's D~ges[ Fund ~ '~.. About This Report In 1994, the Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund launched a ma~or national mitiarive to mcrease the quality and quanuty of urban parks for pubhc use, especially m underserved neighborhoods. Over four years, the Fund has mvested 516 m~on to help create, restore, or ¢nprove 20 parks and greenways m aues across the country, and enable five ma~or metropohtan pazks to make substanaal improvements to their grounds and pubLc programs and to support theu efforts to enhance stewardship This report, part of an ongomg evaluauon bemg conducted by the Urban Inshtute, m Washmgton, D C., looks at part- nerslups between pubhc agennes and nonprofit groups, a key feature m the design and unplementaaon of 12 unprovement pro~ects the Fund supported dunng the first phase of rts pazks miuahve With mumapal parks departments under constant fiscal pressure, pnvate nonprofit organizahons bnng essential new skills and resources to park design management, ~"" programmuig, and stewardship ~... On the followmg pages, Urban Instrtute evaluators esplore these publ~c-pnvate partnerships and discuss emergmg lessons We offer these findings to mform those mvolved m sun~lar work to develop urban parks as well as to mdrviduals who may find the lessons denved from this analysis apphcable to their work. We hope this uiformanon offers valuable msights and use£ul suggesuons related to desigmng, developmg, and sustazmng healthy and effectrve partnerships across a range of endeavors Copmght m Aprd 1999 The Urban Insntute dll ngh[s raerr short quotes, no pazt of th~s book mav be reproduced m any I m anv form bv any means, tlectrofuc or mechan~cal, mdudm recording, or by mformanon storage or retneval system, with permus~on @om 2'he L`rban Insntuce ~ ~ CONI~NIS i Introduction How partnerships between pubhc agencies and pnvate nonprofits can help effectively build, renovate, maintazn, and program parks 5 The Advantages of Partnerships for Parks By teammg up, parks agenaes and nonprofits can help nties do a better ~ob of ineeung anzens' demands for more and better parks m the face of Lmited pubhc resources. 11 A Framework for Understanding Parks Partnerships f.~... The definmg charactenstics of pubhc-prrvate partnerships are 'V„~ structure, control, assets and habilmes, and nsks A look at how each of these elements contributes to the operation of successful partnerships 2~ Conclusion Final thoughts on how to use the find~ngs m this report ~,^°, ~ INIRODUC110N Instead of his document is for praarhoners> managers, and mnovators m the parks field It is beirtg an analyhc tool-not a step-by-step guide-to help these professionals idennfy the thallenged to key considerations when planmng, developing, and assessmg partnerships between upg~ade and pubhc agencies and nonprofit organizations to build, renovate, and operate urban maintain parks par~ in the face of ~ tontinui~g Pubho-prrvate partnerships for parks are prohferatmg across the country-and gener- ~"'~ neighborhood atmg much exatement and mterest One reason vs that they work. Parks parmerships detline, agency are successfully combimng the assets of the pubhc and pnvate sectors in novel ways to directors and create new and refurbished parks, greenways, trails, and other community assets m staff now are our ahes-often m the face of mumapal budget constrau~ts. asked to invest in Support of ~other reason for the mcreased mterest m parks partnerships is that parks [hem- positive selves are becommg more important elements of urban revrtahzaaon mitiauves under changes in ~+'ay nauonwide Afrer nearly three decades of steady dechne, chang~ng pubhc amtudes neighborhaods. are encouragmg many aties to support more mvestments m pubLc mfrastrudure, including parks -Instead of being challenged to upgrade and mamtazn parks tn the face of contuiumg neighborhood dechne, park managers now aze encouraged to use pazks as a way to support posrtrve changes m neighborhoods. And mcreasingly, pazks agencies are not expected to do this alone. In many aues and urban neighborhoods, they can count on the support of other orgamzed constituencies, most ofren from the crpanding commumty-based nonprofit sector Importandy, park partnerships are occurnng m an overall envuonment of growmg pubhc-pnvate partnerships m other actrvrties, to~speaally commumty develop- ment. A new "technology" of partnerships is thus evolvu~g, offermg valuable lessons that can be apphed across a vanety of arenas p~"` Pattnershrps for Parks 1 ~+ir.r ~ 2 Partnersh~ps for Parks The observanons m this report are derrved from early findtngs from a four-yeaz evalu- ahon of the Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund Urban Parks Imtiahve commissioned from the Urban Inshtute m 1996. The tmtiahve, which was launched m 1994, seeks to create new parks and renovate e~usting parks m ll U S unes. Stronger and more effective paztnerships between pubhc parks agencies and local nonprofits are among the strategies che Fund is supportmg as part of this effort The Fund hopes to demon- strate that parks agencies can build, renovate, mamtazn, and program parks more effechvely m partnerships ~+nth nonprofit orgamzations than they can acUng alone. The pro~ects reveal important topics to be considered when plamm~g, creahng, and entenng mto new parks parmerships or assessing e~usnng ones Based on our early field mveshgarions m the 11 uhes parhapatmg m the imuahve, we developed the following framework to help us esamine the contnbution of parks partnerships to park improvement and creation pro~eds Many mdrvtduals from both the pubhc and prrvate sectors who are paruapaung m the ulmatrve found the frame- work helpCul and have begun to use u to ecamine their own partnerships, we present it here m hopes that others will find it useful as well Our framework exammes four key considerations m parks partnerships ^ Structure. Vfuch lilce most busmess partnerships, publtc-pnvate partnerships for ~ parks mclude both general partners and limited partners, each wrth its own set of responsibdmes, strengths, and weaknesses In the Urban Parks Imt~ative, the general pazmers are typically parks agenaes and nonprofit orgamzations that support parks. The hmited partners aze the various constituenaes that use or suppoR parks-mcludmg recreanon associations, environmental ~roups, youth orgamza- hons, and communrty development agennes ^ Control. In busmess partnerships, the general partners usually make all of the ma~or deasions, wrthout consultmg with the hmited partners In parks parmer- ships, decisionmaktng responsibdity is shared more broadly limited partners often are grven a voice m decisionmakmg m return for their support. ^ Assets and Liabilitres. Partners bnng both assets and Labdines to the partnership. In good partnerships, the assets of one partner offset the habilities of another. In public-pnvate paztnerships for parks, we found it helpfiil to new asseu and hab~L- hes m terms of the partners' finanaal resources, orgamzanona! capaaty, pubhc unage, and constituencv charactensucs ^ Risks. The pazks partnerships encountered a vanety of risks, but all have developed a set of strategies for miuganng them In add~aon to the four-part framework, this paper also reviews common challenges to successful parks partnerships These mclude msuffiaent capacity among partners to carry out their promises, madequate commitment to collaborahon, the pursuit of ~'"" ~ ~ flawed strategies, tnsuffictent returns, and fa~lure to commumcate effecuvely Most successfiil partnerships have devtsed ways to meet and overcome these challenges A fuller evaluahon of the Urban Parks Imhatrve will be pubhshed m 2000 and will mclude spenfic detazl about each of the fund-supported pro~ects. Another docu- ment-analyzing commumty urvolvement m parks development-will be produced m 1999, and a manual on conducang research about park users will be produced m 2000. ,.-. w..- PartnnshipsforParks 3 `~..~ ~ 1~H~ ~IDU~INI~IG~S Of P~RIN~RS~1 I PS f OR P~IRI~S Urban parks t the federal level, fundmg from [he Departments of Transportahon and Agricul- have 6e[ome ture and the Envuonmental Protecuon Agenry is promohng more open spaces m a hot-ticket urban areas New Clean Water Act rules may encourage more aggressrve local item. effores to create parks and urban greenways. And moves are afoot to recapitahze [he Land and Water Conservation Fund, which could provide a ma~or new impetus for urban open space development '~~' Cihzen sucveys consistendy show strong support for local, state, and federal park sys- "" tems, and park usage has grown dramatically over the past several decades A 1994 National Parks and Recreahon :lssociahon study showed that $30 7 billion of state and local recreauon mvestment would be needed between 1995 and 1999 to meet pubhc demand.' Crvic and pohucal leaders have responded to these needs bv razsing the total municipal bonding represented by parks and recreation issues by 50 percent m recent years. U S. census figures reveal that local spending on pazks and cecreation between 1980 and 1993 mcreased kom 53.~ b~lhon to $8 4 bilhon, or from 324 to 355 per capita, a 6 5 percent annual growth rate. Even as parks' populanty grows, however, park managers report that funding support for their agenaes is not sohd. Few can count on budget mcreases to match a owuig responsibdiues. In large ahes, parks expenditures have been flat or dechnmg There has been madequate investment in landscap~ng, playscapes, ballfields, wallang and bdung trads, recreauon centers, and other commumty faciliues, which are not replaced when they come to the end of theu usefiil lives. Poor mazntenance of even 'Gted by Mazun J Rosen, "Partnerstups The Key to ti~e Future for Amenra's Urban Parks" m Ur6arc Parks and Open Space, Alerander Garnn and Gayle Berens (Urban Land Insnture and Trust for PubLc Iand, 1997) Pannerships tor Parks 5 ~ ~a'. ~r~ 6 Partnenhips for Parks sound facilities has mvitzd graffiu and mappropnate behavior Trash, overgrown land- scapmg, and deteriorated equipment are common Reduced programmmg has made rt harder for mnez-citv residents to play games, learn skills, and parucipate m commu- mty events Dechne m The quality of public space degrades one of the strongest asseu neighborhood residents have-their sense of commumry The tens~on between anzens' demand for more and better pazks and msufficient pub- hc resources can be resolved when park managers and nonprofit agenaes collaborate to mobdize atizen support for parks Partnerships between public agenaes and the nonprofit sector have several advantages, with perhaps the most important advantage bemg that the nonprofit seaor brmgs new resources-Eundmg, expertise, and new constituenaes-to the parks field WHY PARTNER WITH NONPROFITS? ~ V~.. ~g~ `~ Between 1977 and 1994, the nonprofit sector overall was the fastest-~rowmg part of the nauonal economy, growing 4 3 percent annually, compared with a 2 1 percent growth rate for forprofit business and a 2 3 percent growth rate for government ~ The nonprofit sector is an importan[ player m meeting pubhc needs. Government support of the sector has helped to dnve nonprofits' growth In some areas, nonprofit and gov- ernment paztnerships have become '~:. ^~;'~°" , +~'~`~~~?;~ ~"w+~ =~_ -~~~ ~:4s~_+~ss'- °~ 'r " Great Society pmgrams 6epma dear in the 2970s, °e ~„qs Gmits,o~t e central to sernce dehvery. In com- ~~~"`~oti~ ° ~ ~, iumedSapu6tio-p~vate parbrerships"as a way to enlist mumty development, for example, =E"."~he ~ ~sfi ~ sociatneeds. The term "pubUr nonprofiu have ushered m a revolu- `,~3, P~_ ~ i'~ to'uintinveshnerrtsb the ~ ] Y hon m housmg, economic develop- '~ `°'seitn ` ~ ~ eds. It has expanded to inc[ude ~oint ment, and commumty plannuig r~ ;~public e ofprogram areas. In tfie early ~ i; ~f490s, _ sbome (Reim~entrngGovemment) New strate es su oRed b ~ PP y a~ ~ E te tAe 6esC examples of piivate natronal foundarions have mn- ; i a rapid increase m pubGc-private ~ ~ tnbuted gready Instead of pro~ect- _~, ~a .a~ ` '"° focused grants that undenvnte t ~ ~;°,:_~ , _ * _ ~ s~ngle-shot miaatrves, commumty development funders now stress the need Eor systems change-altenng relanonships among pohnes, programs, and uishtu- tions m ways that lead to effectrve and sustained soluuons to soaal problems. In this work, fostenng collaboratton has become a core system change strategy Parks managers are well posiuoned to rephcate the successes of pubhc and nonprofit collaboration m commumty development and other areas One reason is the growmg -V¢gmia Hodglunson and ~[uaav We~tzman, Vonpro6t ~Imartac D~mensrons of the (ndependerttSeaor, 199(r199i, San Frarsism loesev-Bass [n~ , 1996 Sgure t, page'_ ~s ~ Total Expenses of Reaeational and Environmental Nonprofit Organiutions, 1989-1995 35 30 ~ 2~ z 25 o J ~ J m ~ V1 K '2 O • ~ ~ O ~ G 15 ~ ~ 10 1989 P °" ~n~' Rrr +' ~ jRecreatonal ~ En~ronmental 1990 1991 1992' 1993 1994 1995 YEARS Saurce IRS Form 990 Re4im Trsnsac4on Fles, 1990-1997, as ad7usted hy Naronal Center for Chantable Stanstia Note Database indudes 501(c)(3) ope24ng orgam~t~ons, excluding most rehgious orgamuhons and argamra4ons with less than SZ5,000 in receiptz strength of the nonprofit parks sectoc Recreation and sports groups are among the fastest-growmg nonprofits today, with operaring espenses uicreasing at 12 percent per year ($1 8 bdLon to $3 5 bdhon), compared wrth 9 percent for the rest of the non- profit sector.3 Environmental organuauons are mcreasmg their spendmg at S? per- cent per yeaz ($1.5 bilLon to 32 4 b~on). Together, these two categones of nonprofits mcreased spendmg from 33 3 bilhon m 1989 to 35 9 bdhon in 1995. To compaze, state and local spending on parks and recreahon was 316 bilLon in 1993' Nonprofits are also strong partners because they can mvolve the commumty of pazk users duectly m park destgn, construction, programming> and management. ~tember- ship orgamzations, in particular, often can mobilize volunteers and momtor their work more easily than parks agencies can Exhibrt 1 on the followmg page, which details the partnerships and pro~ects the Fund's Urban Parks Imhatrve is supporting, reflects the reasons why it makes sense for pubhc 'IRS Form 990 Transaaion Files 1990-199i, u ad~usted by the ^lanonal Cenrer for Chantable Stat~sncs 'U S Department of Commerce, Econonuc and $[a[u5tla Admwstrauon, Statuncaldbs[ract oJ fhe Um[ed Sm[es, 1996, Table Vo 4i8, 'Stare and Local Govemments-Summary of Finanms 1980 to t993"p 302 Partnerships for Parks 7 8 Pannersltrps`orParks E X H I B I T 1 Summary of Urban Parks Initiative Partnerships ~ agencies to team with nonprofits. Each of the pro~eccs mvolves collaboration among multiple parhes and aims not only to improve parks and sustam them over time but also to create durable collaborations between pubhc and prrvate parties-that is, to build a support system for parks. As the exhibit also shows, wuh one excepaon, the pubhc partners are municipal parks and recreahon departments The nonprofit parks support partners mclude pazks foundauons, "friends-of" organizauons, and several groups focused on broader urban mihatrves. These drverse pro~ects fearure efforts ro unprove ma~or urban parks, create new urban greenways, construct or reconstruct neighborhood parks, and mtroduce new commumty azts, reaeational, scienafic, and cultural programs a"" r...- Parrnersh~ps for Parks 9 ~ ~r.r ~ ~I f R~IM~WORK f OR UND~RSI~INDING P~IRICS P~RIN~RS~IIPS hile thece are a few examples of long-rumm~g partnerships m the parks field, most aze new. We have construded a conceptual framework for use m exammmg part- nerships. The framework borrows from legal concepts of partnership as a type of busmess assoaanon, compnsmg struaure, control, assets and liabtltt:es, and nsks. Also, for the sake of this discussion, we offer the followmg defiruuon of partnerships• ~' Publio-prrvate pannerships are agreements among multaple publ:c and pnvate part:es to '""' ruk mone,v, t~me, ~nfluence, or other assets m pursuit of~orntgoals' STRUCTURE Partners aze "general" or "limited° depending on their im~estments and risks. A partnership structure is defined by the number of partners and their relanve status as "general" or "Lmited" partners. General partners control busmess operations and are at nsk for all losses of the enterpnse not borne by the lumted paztners Limrted partners lose only what they mvest and gam only what the partnership speafies as appropnate. Parks agenaes and their prunary nonprofit partners usually have the most mvested (and the most to lose) m parks partnerships-they aze the general partners Lumted partners are usually less-invested conshtuent groups Over nme, the general partners usually stay the same, but ofren, Lmited partners come and go as the acuvuies of the partnersh~p evolve and draw upon different mteresu and contnbunons 'Our new of partnersh~ps through the lens of assets, nsks, and accountab~Lty was sUmulattd by work on collectrve amon problema See ELnor Ostmm, Gommng the Commoru The Evolunon of fnsnfuttons forCalleRrvedmort, Carnbndge Umversity, 1995 ~ PartnershipsfarParks il ~ 12 Partnershipsfar Parks CONTROL Partners have differing involvement in management and dec~sionmaking. In a busmess partnershtp, the ~eneral parmers usuallv control operations, and limited partners play atmost no role m decisionmal:in~ In parks partnerships, however, lim- ited partnecs typically do have some voice m management In the tirban Parks Imua- trve, general partners created a vanety of councils, advisorv groups, and o[her bodies Lumted partners mvolved m these bodies ~enerally have some sav as partnerships evolve Over ume, the level of mvolvement bv l~mited partners m management changes In the Crban Parks Inmahve, mvolvement bv hmrted partners ~enerallv has dechned as partnerships have mamred past design and mto dav-to-dav unplementation Structure One or more "general partners" anA one ar more'limited part- ners." ` ~ General partners exercise projed corttrol and are primarily responnble~ and at nsk, for the success of tfie initiative. Limited partners are project conrtituentr. Tfieir mterests and risks are Gmited to the amount ofthev cantri6ution. Responnbihty fir strategic direction and operat~anal derisians. Strengths and weaknesses of~ . Resources (of money, vatunteersj . Organaabonal Gpaoty . Pu6hcImage . Const~tuenaes Potent~al toss af confihuted assetr, due to usues of rnmmitment, capacrty, strategy, retums, and organizat~anal culmre. ASSETS AND LIABILITIES Partners bnng both assets and liab~lities to the partners}up. Each parmer bnngs both assets and habilities ro a partnership Assets can mdude resources, orgamzanonal strengrh, pubhc image, and [he constituenues each partner counts on tor support LiabiLties mclude shortfalls m resources, or~amzational weak- nesses, poor public image, and weak constttuent support One mark uf a well- functionmg partnership is that ~omt assets are strengthened and l~abilities reduced ~«~^ through cooperation The value of assets and the cost of Labdities change o~er time '6y,. ~ ~ At the early stages of a partnership, the publu image of che parnes may convev sub- stannal advantages or disadvantages m~omt a[tempts to attract hmited partners to [he mmattve ,~s partnerships mature, partners' abdity to commit monev and voluntarv support to parks may predommate RISKS Partners must be willing to take risks. Paztners nsk losmg some or .ill of the resources they wnuibute to a partnership In the lirban Parks Imtiauve, wz detected five vaneties of risk These pertam to whether or not the partners are ( I) genuinelv committed to keepmg theu promises to other partners, (2) capable of carrnng out these promises, (3) able to crafr sensible strate- gies to accomplish partnership goals, (-t) gettmg the returns they e.cpected from the One of the teasfunderstood azpectr of partnerships u how tfiey change over t~me The sequencing betow arrays tfie typical stages of a parks developmeM pro~ecL It can be mud~fied ~ for other kinds of efforts, induding imtiatives to improve parks pmgrammmg. Predeve[opment A few care members of a partnership debate pm~ed feasibitity. Con- shtuentr have not 6een mobi6zed: nsks are tow and confined to the geneal partners, wBo t~ghtly eontrol Qroject activities and p[edge _ resources to the effort but do not yet Commrt them. Oesign Planning begins for land purcbase, construc[ion, finanong, pmgram- mmg, and managemerd. The num6er of players expands, nsk leveLs nse, and general partners tose some a6i[ity to control projeR actmties. Dunng this stage, partnees' most valuable assets are their pubtic image and their abdity ta mobilize constituerrts. Th~s ~s parhalady true when a rapid increaze in kimited partners wiEh ash is needed. Lnplemenfation Thu stage can inctude (and acquisit~an, rnnstruction, and programmmg. ~ Flnanda[ commitmenu made during the des~gn phase are wlled in. Partnership members usually dun't change, atthough attrition in (imited partners ca~ ocwr. The value af mobilized constituents begms to dedme, and the value of funding and orgamzahons'rPSOUrces rises dramat~cally. Management Pro~ed manageme~ inctudes responn6i6ty for mamtenance, security, ongoing programming, mmmunity outreach and commumcation, and other recurting Usks Mart ~mited partners drop aut of active partinpa- tion, althaugh they an be mabilized if issues important to their mter- ests surface Risks are faidy taw and are limited to the general partners, who maintain high control over pro~ed actrnties. ~ e""^ ~ Pannersh3ps for Parks 13 ""'"' 14 ParmershipsforParks ~..- partnership, and (5) able to commumcate effectrvely with their parmers even though their or~amzattonal cultures may be very different STRUCTURE Pubho-pnvate partnerships m the lirban Parks Imhatrve share broad simdarities m how responsibdiues are allocated benveen pubhc and prtvate sectors, how the pnvate partners are governed, and how the partners mobilue cxpertise from the broader community The General Partners: Parks Agencies and Parks Support Nonprafits .,., +... ~^ Most public agencies have moved Wward performance-based park devetopment, pragramming, and management counter- ~- tradifional bureaucratic inefficiencies and sUefching a~" ollars r"^~ ft n respond flexibly ta park improve- _` f nities. A real strength has been , y' _ mmunity rerider~tr to suppod parla, ~, a o n a tradit~onaL orgamzationat focus. ~ The general partners have the most at stake m the success of the part- nership In the mmatrves we revtewed, the core partners were mumapal parks agenaes, nonprofit pazks support groups, and the Trust for Pubhc Land " The general part- ners have committed to play leader- ship roles m the creauon of new parks or the substantial renovation and improvement ot existmg facili- ties They are pnmarily responsible for pro~ect plannmg and design, fundrazsmg, procurement, wmmumty orgamzmg, programmmg, and facilities mamtenance Although ltmited parmers are parnally vested m the success of all of these activrties, the general partners have most at nsk The general partners bear most of the burden of keeping the partnership intact over time Un1Ilce hmited partners, whose mterest is morivated by the demands of support- ers wrth narrow concerns-for e~mple, a soccer assoaation hopmg to secure more playing fields-general partners serve mulhple mtetests. Because partnership pro~eas change over ume, the mLC of limited partners changes The general partners, however, remam the same The Limited Partners: Constituent 6roups The lim~ted partners are defined by the mterests that constituent members share. In the lirban Parks Initianve, these constituents have mcluded groups rangmg from neigh- borhood associations to reg~onal watershed protecnon assoaauons The followmg table lists some mterests that bmd constituent members actrve m parks improvement 'The Tmx for PubLc Land is a nauonal mrermediarv orvyimeahon devoced ro the acqwsmon and presewanon ot f"'^ pubhc land tor recrea[ional, rnv¢onmental, open space, and otha pubLc purposes to...- ~""~ PannershrpsforParks 15 rr A number of groups united araund common interests make natural constituentr on which to buiW park partnerships: Civic Culture Parks tan help further an irderchange amung diverse races and groups, and parks offer a venue that can support expressions and ce(ebrat~ans of commumty and neiqhborhoad wlidarity, Mstory, and culture. [ommuniry-BUildin9 Parks can wpport the work ofthose seeking ways to engage com- ' munity members m projects that on hetp improve #he quatity nf life in communiHes, and in partxular parks can support efforts to -~ improve adjace~ neigh6ofioods~and stimulate business devetop- , = , - ' ment and job crea6on. ~ _., Environmentalism . Nready represenWtive af the mre ideal~ af qroups iMerested m - _ ` ;~-`yreemng" issu~. Parks can wpport activities such as ecosystem ;_ ` restomtion, ufian farest~ and mmmurrity gerdening. . ~~ . _ _ ° ~ _~ .. ., , n ~ ~'`~'-listoric Pre`servation„~~p Farla am particuladyinearurgfuLtn irtdividuals who seethem az --a- '"~ x=' ~ place~ to e~iplore landscapearcltitecEure or ar` sattingx for major ~~ ' ~z arts, cultura4 and sae~rtificinstitutions: ~ w- _ . _. ;~~ _ ~ "~ ' Natural Nistory °- Parks are valued hy ffiose imerested'm exploring nature, ecoingy, s..~~ , ~ and other naturat sciences as a sc~rfific endea~mr ar-or educa- ~ ` ' t~onat puryoses. ' ' _ ~ Our field mvestiganons found, not surprismglv, that parks appeal to an e.~ctraordmary range of consutuents. Groups respond to appeals wrth particular resonance for them-for example, a bicvchng club may contnbute volunteers to improve a green- way-but they also share mterests held more mtensely by others-the celebration of ethmc commumues, for mstance Indeed, park supporters may not even be park users Natural history, environmentalism, recreation, histonc preservation, and commumry- bu~lding appeal to many who do not use parks We also found quite a few emerging relationships benveen parks agencies and partners that normally would be considered outside of the natural parks constituenaes Whde not all of the aties m the Urban Parks Imtiatrve have taken full advantage of con- sutuenry-buddmg opportumnes, where coalrtions have wocked well, the nonprofit partner tends to have a strong track record m mobdizmg constituencies, deLvermg programs, and buildmg relationships wrth local funders. CONTROL Who deades what a paRnership does7 In parks partnerships, the general partners ,~"~ usually grant some say to the hmited partners m return for thes support As a result, ~ ~ ~.yW, 16 PartnershipsfarParks ^ Greenway devetopment and programming imtiat~ves in ane tity in the Urban Parks Initlative were of great appeat to schoolteachers striving to make thev natural srience cumcutum more retevant to inner-city youth, who often feel disconnected from their naturat environmem. ^ Three cibes in ffie im6ative have emphasized parks as a vehide W steer at-riskyouth irdo positive activities. Tfiis has tonneded parks '.depactments and patice depaitments m new ways. ~ ^ Design of new neighborhood patks in four cit~es has created fresh opportuoities,to engage univemties interested in prepanng graduate ' studeMs fur careers m community planning, landscape architectiire, . an3utherfields ~ _ . One ci as embraced parks as a community development asset '~ resu oth ritywi eighborfiaod-by-neighhorhood Gnks ,;~ ; ' d oradons and their finanrial aod ~ " '~tech rt ° ~ ~ , _ ~ :~~ ~ have produc6ve[y engaged regional ~ ~` ~~ebqimn ( d st'ate agencies responsiEte far ~+ rs ifiem with commum`ty residentr who i~,,,, $ vfe~ ationaLspace , the envuonmental, recreahonal, neighborhood,and otherlunrted Partners that mvest assets may exer- cise parual control over the deci- s~ons the partnership makes. The partners' first important dea- sions pertam to control over which decisions can hmrted partners "cast votes"? In our research, we found it helpful to thmk about four areas of parmership decistonmalung gover- nance, pro~ed and program design, ~mplementation, and management Governance mcludes deasions on who may participate m the partner- ship, theu level of mvolvement, the allocation of decisionmakmg authonri, and the terms under which the partnership continues or is dissolved The general paztners almost always have the final word on issues of governance Conuol over design, implementation, and management issues vazied wtdely across the part- nerships we studied Urban parks partnerships have devised a number of inethods to structure partinpa- tion m decisionmalung, ranging from advtsory bodies to mobilize wnstrtuent support and solicu advice [o governmg councils authonzed to resolve ma~or issues. We have seen partnerships restructure participahon over hme, some partnerships establish advtsory councils early on to assisc m pro~ect and program design issues but later turn to formal governmg bodies to oversee parks or facilities management. Apart from advisory and governmg bodies, hmited parmers someumes partiupate mdirectly m partnership decisions through membersh~p on the nonprofit general partner's board of directors This someames becomes an alternatrve to other methods of partiapaaon The amount of control exerased by the hmrted partners can change over tune As partnerships form, the general partners usually control ma~or decisions about part- nership structure and purposes But as the partnership moves mto the design of ma~or faaLnes or programs, and hmited partners pledge their contnbuuons, control is no longer so tighdy held Limited partners be~m ro esernse mftuence, if not outnght ~+ control, over ma~or pro~ect deasions Thereafter, throughout implementauon and '~~.. Partnerships for Parks 17 management, the limited partners mav continue to share in operational decisionmak- ing or withdra~v from active participation, ur buth, as the number of partners changes and the issues before the partnership ~vol~~e. ASSETS AND LIABILITIES E.~chibit 2 presents a balance yheet ot potential assets and liabilities tha[ each of the public and nonprofit partners can bring to a parks partnership. Public agencies and their nonprofit partners ~Nill display different combinations of these assets and liabili- ties. In good partnerships, the assets of one partv offset the Iiabilities oF the other. For example, the nonprofit partner mav bring tlesiblz fundin; to the partnership, allow- ing ne~,v program initiatives and offsetting a public agencv s chronic underfundina, which impedes innovation. The pubtic szctor, in turn, mav brin~ a solid organiza- tional infrastructure, allowing the partnership to implement new initiatives and off- setting a nonprofit's lack of staff and predictable funding. E X H I B I T 2 Public and Private Assets and Liabilities Public Sedor Nonprofit Partner Financial Assets and Liabilities Public agencies. > ~- All agencies depend on appropriations. ~tost can count on some intergovernmental aid (communitv development block grants, for esample), and some have dedicated rev- enue sources. Increasingly, parks departmen[s have estab- lished enterprise funds, supported bv fees For servi~es. ~1lthough total funding may not be enough to allo~v agencv directors to maintain all of their facilities ~dequatelv and take on new tasks, funding tends to be stable from ~.~ear to year. Over several years, budgets mav rise or fall, but thev tend to do so incrementallv. Chronic Underunding Bureauc~atic Inertia Popular Indifference Narrow Constituencies Unpredictable Funding Lack of Foilaw-Through Unrealistic Exoectations ShaUow Support Public-se~or agencies bring relativety sta- ble ;unding to eatti partnership, but over time :t~is funding has failed to keep up ~~vit;~ _xpandir,g management responsibiii- ti~s. Stablz funding allows managers to plan and implement basic pr4qrams knorv- ing th~y ~nrilt have the resources to carry them out, but chronic underfunding makes ~t ~i~ ~calt ~er most agen~es to innovate :o ~x~and :erric~s ~r improve quality. ~ 18 Pattnenh3ps for Parks No pubhc agenry offiaal we mterviewed was sausfied with the s~ze of lus or her budget for mazntenance, basic programs, or faciliries repair and replacement. Although one or two agenaes had rebounded from yeazs of curs, most had suffered consistent decluies In every uty, parks departments had zrther cut mamtenance budgets or shifted some responsib~lity for mamtenance to nonprofit agencies or, m one case, to other aty agenaes Consequendy, agen~y officials are understandably reluctant to invest m new facilities that present a future mamtenance burden. Nonprofiu. Nanprofit agenries can be creative in devetoping new programs for parks- indeed, this is a big reason ~Nhy their funders choose to support them-but uncertain funding makes it difficutt for direttors to make tong-term commitments. Nonprofit agencies can tap fundmg sources unavailable to pubhc agencies, includmg donauons from mdrviduals, corporations, and prrvate foundations Unlilce pubhc agenues, nonprofits are fle~ble m thea ability to use these funds to pursue new pro- grams, and [hey aze free to develop mnovarive ideas and sohcit contnbuuons to support them. rilthough corporate and founda- tion funders do place restncuons on their grants, they typically allow at least modest room to mnovate ""`" Nearly all of the nonprofit partners in the miuatrves we studied, however, had to ~"" spend substanttal Ume fundraumg Multi-year grants were uncommon, and although some funders could be counted on for support each year, amounts were unpre- dictable. As a result, nonprofit a oups, parucularly new ones, found it difficult to make credible long-term commitments. As previously noted, under the best cucumstances, partners' strengths complement each other In this case, for c~cample, a nonprofit partner may be able to use philan- thropic fundmg to create a new youth development program but not have sufficiendy predictable long-term fundmg to keep the program gomg. A parks agency, on the other hand, may not have the budget fle:ub~ty to aeate the program mmally but may pick it up as an ongomg program once its value is demonstrated Organizational Assets and Liabilities Public agencies. On the asset side, pubhc agenaes brmg an mfrastructure of stable staff, management systems, plamm~g and budgehng procedures, and other competennes, allowmg them to plan, implement, and manage large pro~ects Parks agenaes typically employ large numbers of workers and manage assets of con- siderable value Most have a well-developed orgamzational mfrastructure, consisnng ,r~ of multiple operahng divisions responstble for caprtal facilihes deveiopment, land- °wr ~ A"'"' E..r PartnershipsforParks 19 scape and forestry, facilities mazntenance, and recreational programs. Offices responsi- ble for strategic plannmg, budgetmg, human resources, and contracang, among oth- ers, support the work of these drvisions Th~s accumulated set of staff and functions adds up to a considerable capaciry ro take on the work of parks aeahon, improve- ment, and management One drawback of all this accumulated capacrty, however, is that it often comes wrth highly rounne procedures, malung it difficult for agenry heads to mnovate. Both pab- hc and pnvate partners expressed frustration wrth the slow paee of agenry work, par- ucularly m the area of contrading and procurement. We also found instances where plamm~g and design became laden with unnecessary steps and procedures, which lengthened the time needed to implement fasly simple pro~ects or produced des~gns that were unresponsrve to the commumry. Some agency managers acknowledged that their orgamzaaons were unnecessardy meffiaent due to cumbersome procedures or staff attrtudes. Several direaors have embarked on efforts to mculcate an ethic of c~ti- zen responsrveness among staff, m keepmg with recent customer sernce trends m pubhc admmistration Nonprofits. Nonprofit agencies have ~usdy earned a reputation for bemg dex- ible-but also for bemg thmly staffed and not always properly managed None of the nonprofit partners m the Urban Parks Im- uarive are large enough to have created cumbersome decis~on- makmg procedures and ngid mternal drvisions of labor Rather, most have rather lean staffs who share pro~ect responsibilmes when needed Although we did not find cYtensrve use of paid consultants, who can absorb workload at peak times or provide Nonprofit agencies are tlax~bte encugh to expenment ~Nith new proqram moa- ets, funding strateqies, and potitical ailiances, but their tacR of organiza- tionat strength sometimes makes it difficult for them to foitow through on imptementation effectively. techmcal advice, most nonprofit partners did rely on boards, advisory committees, and other sources of speaal~zed e~cpertise. Most of the nonprofits we reviewed had accepted unforeseen pro~ect and program responsibilities, reshuffling staff to take advantage of fundmg opportumties or respond to pro7ect difficulties However, we also found nonprofit partners that lacked the capacity to follow through on commitments One orgamzation m the Urban Parks Imriative could not meet us pro~ect responsibilrties when fundmg from other sources dried up Another nonprofit responded to an external grant opportumty so it could support its programs m low- rncome areas, but senior management underesnmated the commitment needed to carry out the grant effecnvely Most of the nonprofit partners found that the commit- ments they had accepted stramed the capacity of their relatrvely small staffs, although most managed to complete tasks successfully ~P""' ~W.. ,,~., ;~ 20 Pannerships for Parks Public Perceptions as Assets and Liabilities Public agencies. Parks agenries usually can rely on pu6lic support for bond issues ior parks facitities reconstruction, but the public perception that parks are "the governmenYs job" can dampen wilt- ingness to activety particioate in vot- unteer activit~es. Public goodwill is an asset that both nonprofit orgamzations and public agenaes contribute to parks partnerships. Our mterviews revealed that pubhc parks have substantial public legitimary, mdeed, m one aty, surveys showed the parks department as the most highly rated aty service. But if pubhc parks agencies usually can call on sigmficant good- will, rt rypically u passive Parks agenaes have difficulty mob~liz- mg prrvate finanaa! contnbutions or volunteers The public can view care and mam- tenance of pazks as "the government's ~ob " All of the agenaes in the miuanves we studied used volunteers, and some soliated monetary support However, most had encountered the popular amtude that "government should do rt" Nonprofits. Nonprofits can usually atYract vo(un- ~ teer and funding support unavaitabie to pubtic agencies because of their altruistic commitment to community change, but to gain such supnort, non- profits may tend to overpromise on what they can ultimatety deliver. Nonprofits usually can access and use commumrv credibilitv :n ways that parks agencies cannot. Because nonprohts are nerther "m rt for the money" nor supported by tax dolla; s, citv.ens usu- ally are willmg to volunteer their attention, labor, and money Nonprofits can sohat support not avazlable to pubhc agenaes from chantable foundanons and mdinduals, mdudmg from atywide "ehtes" (some of whom stt on partners' boards), the broader pubhc, and restdents of low-mcome commumties In the case of lowancome commumties m panc~ular, nonprofits can grve prrvate partners an entree that may have been demed a government agency, espeaally if the agenry is viewed by the commumty as havmg hvstoncally neglected its concerns. Nonprofit access here is not automahc or sustamed uncrrtically The nonprofit partners have ro deliver. Whde nonprofit partners can clazm a speual status m their appeals for pubhc support, they also nsk raising e.xpeaations among commumty residents that cannot be sans- fied easdy. For example, one nonprofit partner successfully drew commumty restdents mto decisionmalung about parks improvement through des~gn charettes but subse- quendy could not persuade the aty agenry to accept the community's recommenda- tions Other partners have encouraged participat~on of commumty residents m cleanup efforts and other volunteer actrvihes, only to see enthusiasm wane when city- scheduled improvements lagged behmd the commumty's expected ammg. `rrr ~~ ``rr.r Constituency Assets and Liabilities Consutuencies may be the strongest potennal asset each general partnet has Support from environmentahsts, for ceample, has been very helpful in secunng state open space fundmg Support from bicydmg groups has Lkewise been important m helpmg local mitiauves claim state allocations of federal cransportation fundmg Public agencies. Parks agenaes can tap a wide range of natural constrtuencies to support their actrvities. These mclude parents with ch~ldren m parks-sponsored programs, paruapants in adult recreahon pro- grams, adults who use facilines on a casual basis, and neighbor- hood groups that advocate for ctty services. These represent a power base that can be mobilized when deasionmakers are determmmg park and reaeanon fundmg issues Most of the parks departmenu m the Urban Parks Imuatrve have not reached out to nontradmonal constituenaes. Such uncon- Parmerships far Parks 21 Usuatty, constituents demand resutts. The price for continued support is the partners' abitity to deliver concrete benefits. This implicit bargain repre- sents a kind of perFormance test: unless partners cooperate to detiver on promises, they face erosion of ccn- sfituent support and the advantages a solid constituency conveys. ventional constituents could mclude groups mterested m the natural saences, sup- ~„ porters of pubhc education, and commumty development practihoners These ~,,, represent an untapped financial and volunteer resource for almost all of the parks departments mcluded m our research Nonprofits. The nonprofit partners m the Urban Parks ImIIatrve can be extremely helpful m tap- ping these broader consutuenaes Partly because the Urban Parks Imhatrve encour- ages this emphasis, each of the nonprofit partners has crammed the role of parks m community development and, m so domg, attracted support from commumty organi- zahons, foundauons, pubhc agenues, and other groups with a speual focus on neigh- borhoods. In almost all of the greenways or trads pro~ects, nonprofits have devoted wns~derable effort to attracung the polmcal and finanaal support of environmental groups, birychng assoaations, commumry schools, and others wrth an mterest m Qre- serving or studyuig the natural envuonment Among the most intereshng efforts to attract nontradiuonal supporters to parks improvements were nonprofits reaching out to cultural and scientific rostitutions, mduduig umvers~aes and museums, and their supporters While these new constituencies are icnportant, their support may be comparauvely shallow because parks are not central to theu pnmary mterest This may be particu- larly true where efforts to mobdize broader consutuenry support for parks tend to be new Nonprofits and theu pubhc partners have not had hme to dehver the benefits ~,,,, these conshtuents expect. One of the ma~or queshons surroundmg the Urban Parks ~ ~ 22 Partnerships for Parks Imtiative is whethez nontradiuonal parks constiments can be drawn mto public sup- port for parks improvement and management m a sustained way. RISKS Partners must nsk somethmg to make the partnership more than an agreement to cooperate or to coordmate adrvihes when it's convement They accept these nsks because of the payoffs involved-everyone has to get somethmg Crom the venture In a pubhc-pnvate partnetship for a neighborhood park pro~ect, for example, the pubhc agenry may be required to commit capital funds, wh~le the nonprofit partner promises to mobilize volunteers or fundmg to mamtam the pazk once improvements are completed. The pubhc partner nsks takmg on a future unfunded obhganon-a completed park wtth no resources to keep it up The nonprofit parcner nsks its furure commumty credib~Lty if the pubhc partner fails to construct the pro~ect as promised ivfany partnerships we encountezed display this combmation of percerved nsks. The public sector fears long-term mazntenance obhgaaons, while the nonprofit wornes that its commumty credibility will be 7eopardized ~ Parmers m the Urban Parks Inrtiauve are workmg to balance these and other nsks. The pubhc agency, for eYample, can brmg stable funding that allows conststent pro~ect unplementation m spite of ups and downs in the nonprofit's cash No partn?r will take nsks ~Hithout some expected reward. What are :he rewards or ~ncentives to the pafies that take on the risks of partnership? The short answer is creation of new benefits for the community. The tonger answer is the need of both par- ties to sustain and buitd assets or reduce liabilities. flow The pnvate parmers, on the other hand, can brmg ne~,v money for innovative programs that would be unaffordable to underfunded parks departments. In another crample, the pubhc seaor bnngs a large and mternally drverse staff that can sustam a development program over time, while the nonprofit's orgamza- honal flexibility enables it to take on some tasks far more effi- ciendy, such as mob~zing volunteers to construd a playground quickly, a task that would have taken far Ionger if handled through the Pazks and Recreation Department The pubhc sector's clazm on popular goodwill can help shield the partnership frora the erosion of commumty support if progress is slower than commumty residents espect. At the same nme, the nonprofit's connections m the commumty can help overcome popular mdifference toward, or even suspinon of, pubhc agencies In one parmership we reviewed, the nonprofit's aedibdity with a suspicious commumty helped the organuation broker agreements between residents and pubhc agenaes to move a stalled greenways pro~ect fonvard ~ F""'" `'ti~r WHAT CHALLENGES DO PARTNERSHIPS fACE? Partnerships encounter a varietv of challenges, wh~ch are summarized m che boY below. Capaciry shortfalls, flawed strategies, and msufficient returns are potentiallv faced by anyone attemptmg to accomplish a goal. The other n~o challenges-made- quate commitment and a mismatch of ur~anuational cultures-are spzafic to collab- oranons In the Urban Parks Imuahve, Rvo nsks predommate madequate capanrv and madequate commitrnent Capaaty problems result when a paRner's habiLues outwetgh its asseu, or its assets aze sunply madequate to the task vfore troubhng are madequate commitments, which most often come m the form of compenng promises that crowd out pledges made to the other partners For example, a parks agency commits to a neighborhood parks unprovement pro~ec[ but fa~ls to advance it m pro~ect managers' Lsu or puts it faz down the pnonry lut m rts annual budget request To reduce commitment failures, partners must keep theu ~omt venture near the top of each other's agendas Partnersh~ps for Par!-s 23 'P~" ' Capacity Shortfalls Partners fait to perform agreed•upon tasks 6ecause fhey tack the `+~ capacity w do so. Even goad-faith commitmenTs aren't fulfitted due . ta fadum of leadership, urgamutionat weaknesses, lack of fundmg, or inadequate planning and managemeirt. - ~ ~ Inadequate A partnership wttapses because one or more partners da not Commitment mmmrt Eulty tu rn(la6aradon. At the extreme, a partner may make a promise with no intertt to hoaar it Mom cammonly, hanest promues are firferted as otfier tasks ascend m pnudty. Flawed Strategies The partners agree to a flawed strate~. Atthough iti: pursued by ; apable and weU-mtentioned paRne~, the cnmp[exiry of the task or ffie inadequacy ofthe approach produces poorresutts. there6y dis- ~-` couraqing the partners from mnt~mm~g , Insuffirient Returns Papoffs don3~ufify the investment even though partners are~both ~ wpable and committed. frorexample, a nonpmfit may be(ieve that a suctessfit(~mnt projectwith a pu6Gc agency wi4 fieighten visi6iGtg thereby increasing donefionz If no increases rewlk it may forsake future coapeat~on. Failures to Commumcation, leadership styte, orgamzational wlWre, and Communicate other gaps are zo prafound that even though parhes agree on strate- gies, are capable, and are committed to coUaboraUon, implementa- t~on becomes so "e~cpensrve" tfiat the parties don't invest further in the joint effurt. ~:~ ~ ``.r ,s^'^ 24 Partnershrps for Parks ~..y., How Do Partners Sustain Each Othe~'s Commitment? Accountab~lity trumps flaggmg commitment Partners must have ways to hold one another accountable for results Partners m the Urban Parks Initiative have devued strate~ies to ensure that tach partner dehvers on its commitments, summar¢ed below Confront paor performance, clarify responsibilities, and reconrile. Untess partners confront poor performance, problems vnll likety pernsk When performance is restored, partners must forgive prenaus lapses. Othervnse, caoperation ends. Accountahility usualty is aided by ctear understandings on who does what This is even more importard when parties share jomt responsibility for pro~ect tasks, as do the partners in most oPthe Urhan Parks Initiative projects. Raise the sfakes, inuease rewards. As partners see more vaWe irt partidpatinq m the partnersfiip, the risk that a partner wilC reduce its cnmmi6nent declines and the rnst of heing exduded irom the partnership goes up. Uther partners have mare stake in monitonng performance, raising the tikeGhood that paor ~ performance witl he discovered. ~""~ Change the num6er of partnea. As partners mcrease, the risk that any one partner vnlt fail to hold up itr end declines. The risk of hemg detected and the num6er ot parties that an sancdon faifure go up. Lengthen tlme horizons. perate goes up as t~me honzons lengthen: partners who take the Iong to seek shart-tertn adva~ges that~eopardize future gains from cooper- ons and payoffs are pubUc F~~i tments. Palroffs. and strategies are dear to al[ mwlved (and, m some r the general public), arry partner an judge the fairness of who gets what other ' performance ~ ~ Confront poor performance, clarify responsibiliries, and reconcile. In the Urban Parks Imtianve, we found that confusion about who does what m a parks parmership can ~eopardize commumtv conhdence and residents' willmgness to partiapate m partner-sponsored actrvrties Some ambigmrv m the mmal stages of parmership formauon can be useful Assignmg roles can be dtfficult, partners m~ome ~+^+ ,~ r ~ of the parks inrtiaaves have found u helpful to postpone decisions until they can estabhsh a reasonably solid worlung relationship Nevertheless, a number of mitiauves are approachmg the pomt where successful sortmg of roles-m parncular, which of the management and maintenance funaions will be assigned to whom-has become important to the long-term success of the mmanve In one city, for example, the greenway partnership rehes on several parhes to carry out drverse tasks When one entity disconunued a task unportant to the paztnership because of staff changes, the others confronted the group and clazified roles The part- ners acknowledged the problem and identified the resources ro conanue on m response to the partner's new situation. Raise the stakes, increase rewards. Initially, the greenways pro7ect in one uty was httle more than a feasib~lity study and a vision Wider commitment began to gel when the nonprofit partner secured imple- mentation fundmg, thus razsing the stakes for the others m the newly formed partner- ship Now, partners are ~omed together in many ways, tncludmg by a sense of collec- trve vulnerab~ry to any single partner's opting out. The rewards are increased by having stronger, more equal partners. ,~"` Change the number of partnzrs. °~.,,. If one partner has made a commitment to perform certazn tasks, other parmers rypi- cally find out about that commitment quukly They become, m turn, the mformal momtors of performance. In some tnstances, mcreasing the number of momtors- other pattners-keeps the pressure on other members whose commitmenu may be m doubt Staff changes m the aty parks department of one participant m the Urban Parks Inr native lefr a void in the leadership of a ma~or pro~ect. To help sustam the agenry's commitment, the partnership members, which mclude some pazks employees, have mvited cross-~unsdictional staff and commumty leaders to ~oin the partnership An ex officio advisory group will be formed to ensure that former members of the Qartner- ship can contmue to play consultmg roles Lengthen time horizons. Design and construction of greenway segments m one aty could have been swiftly completed by the aty a(one-but a key partner wanted to ensure reai communiry mvolvement. The partnership agreed to a process that mitially generated tension when it threw off pro~ect timehnes. In the end, communrty mvolvement ~ustified lengthen- mg the time honzons. Pannerships for Parks 25 e~""` ~r...~ 26 Pannerships for Pnrl~ ~take sure contributions and payoffs are public. Kzepin;~'`~ards fsc~ up° is a!~ealthv partnzrship strate~"~. In one cirr, the parmership aeated for ea~h park proiect begins with frank discussions of tivhat each member can and ~vill ~o for the pro~ect. Both the .^.onproht and *he narks a;enc.~r hunor their com- mitmenc to ~+rovide Eull reports to the other partners, ;ncludin~ ~ommunitv represen- tatives. Trust is established 'because the partners zre respected and consulted. Promises are more likelv to be kept when individuals publichr accept responsibilitv for delivering on commi~ments and can commit others ss well. In several initiatives, highly visible mavoral or citv manager support became an important assurance that the public a~ency would deli~~er on its promises. hese initial hndings from [he Lrban Institute evaluation of public-private partnerships for parks development and this framework for assessina partnerships are offered in hopes that they will be helpful for others interested in parks partnerships and for those interested iri successful public-private partnerships in zny field. We offer these observations as a stimulus for action and Yor further diagnosis and discussion, and ~ve welcome comments or feedback from all. Acknowledgments The authors of this report-Chris Walker with Robin Redford and Carol Steinbach- acknowledge the time and effort contributed to the research by staff oE local parks agencies, nonprofit organizations, and the Trust for Public Land. We also acknowledge the insightful comments of :~dam Stoll and other staff of the Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund. Errors are those of the authors, and their views do not necessarily represent those of the Urban Institute or the Fund. To order L`rban Institute publications, call the Publication Sales Office, ZO?-?61-568~. Other inquiries should be directed to the Public Affairs Office, ?02-Z6 l -~709.