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Item 6B1 - DRAFT_DowntownSignageLightingGuidelines_LBsubmitLandmarks Board Downtown Signage Lighting Subcommittee 9/26/17 DRAFT page1 of 2 Landmarks Board Downtown Design Guidelines Signage Lighting Subcommittee
 Draft Proposal for Changes 9/26/17 Under Section 3: Public Realm add 3.1.E as follows. E. Additional guidelines for Downtown Historic District signage 1.Signage Lighting —The historic nature of the district requires careful consideration of the impacts of modern signage lighting in order to avoid negative character changing results. While some variety is encouraged (NPS) there should be a predominance of unlit or externally lit over internally lit signage. a. In many locations there is a significant amount of ambient lighting from street lamps and storefronts, enough to provide sufficient illumination for signage without additional lighting. . (New Orleans) It is particularly important to minimize signage lighting on the Mall where there is significant ambient light b. Signage lighting should be subdued. c. Signage lighting should only be illuminated after sunset and off after sunrise. d. The light color of external or back lit signs should be warm white with temperature rating of 3500K or less. (Denver, Fort Collins) [Discussion: Include phrase "…unless the objective is to have color tinted light." Reasons for: It is acceptable to have lighting with color. Why? Reasons against: White light is historically consistent, and contributes to a more dignified setting.] e. The most appropriate lighting is indirect. (New Orleans, Washington DC, Denver, Ft Collins) i. Use visually unobtrusive external lighting fixtures for indirect lighting unless the intention is to restore historic lighting. (New Orleans, Denver) ii. Back or halo lighting is not as appropriate as external lighting but it is an acceptable alternative. (New Orleans, Denver, Washington DC) f. Direct lighting or internal lighting is inappropriate and strongly discouraged. (Washington DC, Denver forbids internal, New Orleans forbids internal) This includes internally lit signs and signs with light that shines through translucent or clear material of letters, shapes, or background outward towards pedestrian areas. Internal lighting may be appropriate under the following conditions listed by order of importance. i. Neon is appropriate when it is compatible stylistically with the building or Landmarks Board Downtown Signage Lighting Subcommittee 9/26/17 DRAFT page2 of 2 there is evidence that neon was used in the period of significance. (New Orleans) ii. Internally lit signage may be appropriate when indirect lighting cannot be added as per section E.1.e. above or when ambient lighting from street lamps, adjacent storefronts and other sources is not sufficient for visibility. iii. Visibility of the box depth enclosing internal lighting equipment shall be hidden. In other words, recess the box into a wall, storefront or other architectural feature so the face of the sign is flush with the finished plane of the architectural feature. However, recessing the box must not remove or damage historic features. If the sign is a projecting type (perpendicular to building facade) minimize the depth of the box. iiii. Signs employing cut out faces from which internal light passes through should have slender or small cut outs to avoid excessive brightness. iiiii. Internally lit signage may be appropriate for wayfinding purposes, such as parking garage entrance identification, and not for occupant or building identification if the building is large, such as a building that occupies a large portion of the block, where there are several entrances for several functions. Wayfinding signs should be significantly smaller than occupant identification signage. Landmarks Board Downtown Signage Lighting Subcommittee 9/26/17 DRAFT page3 of 2 Additional discussion regarding downtown signage: Currently signage is reviewed by staff unless an applicant makes a proposal that is discouraged by the design guidelines. The question raised by the subcommittee for discussion is, should all signage be reviewed by LDRC? Reason for making the change: Review of all applications by the LDRC allows the board to understand how the proposed language is affecting applicants as well as the effectiveness of these changes, until such time as the board deems it appropriate to return reviews to staff. Reason against making the change: If an application proposes to do something that is encouraged by the design guidelines it is more efficient to have a staff level approval. OLD TOWN HISTORIC DISTRICT DESIGN STANDARDS FORT COLLINS, COLORADO July 2014State Historical Fund, History Colorado, the Colorado Historical Society. Project #2013-M2-032 page left intentionally blank Credits This project was paid for in part by a State Historical Fund Grant from History Colorado, the Colorado Historical Society. Project # 2013-M2-032 City Council Karen Weitkunat – Mayor Gerry Horak – Mayor Pro Tem Bob Overbeck Lisa Poppaw Gino Campana Wade Troxell Ross Cunniff Landmark Preservation Commission Ron Sladek Doug Ernest Pat Tvede Dave Lingle Belinda Zink Alexandra Wallace Maren Bzdek Meg Dunn Kristin Gensmer Prepared by: Winter & Company 1265 Yellow Pine Avenue Boulder, CO 80304 303.440.8445 www.winterandcompany.net Planning and Zoning Board Jennifer Carpenter Jeffrey Schneider Kristin Kirkpatrick Gerald Hart Emily Heinz Jeff Hanson Michael Hobbs Historic Preservation Staff Karen McWilliams Josh Weinberg Downtown Development Authority Staff Matt Robenalt Todd Dangerfield Derek Getto TABLE OF CONTENTS III. DESIGN STANDARDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HISTORIC RESOURCES Architectural Details 43 Materials and Finishes 47 Windows 50 Doors and Entries 55 Commercial Storefronts 57 Historic Roofs 59 Exposed Historic Foundations 59 Loading Docks 60 Color 60 Existing Additions 62 New Additions and Accessory Structures 62 Planning for Energy Efficiency 64 Accessibility 68 Phasing Preservation Improvements 68 Temporary Stabilization Treatments 69 Existing Historic Alterations 69 IV. DESIGN STANDARDS FOR ALL PROPERTIES Awnings and Canopies 73 Street Layout 74 Outdoor Use Areas 74 Handrails and Enclosures 75 Art and Historic Properties 76 Site Lighting 76 Building Lighting 77 Service Areas 78 Surface Parking 78 Buffers 79 Building Equipment 79 Security Devices 80 Color 82 Archeological Resources 82 INTRODUCTION Overview 3 About This Document 4 What are Design Standards 4 Policies Underlying the Design Standards 5 Sustainability - Social, Economic and Environmental Benefits of Historic Preservation 7 The Development of Old Town Fort Collins 9 1. USING THE DESIGN GUIDELINES Design Review System 15 Where the Design Standards Apply 16 Design Standards Organization 17 II.. PLANNING A PRESERVATION PROJECT What Does Historic Preservation Mean 23 Planning a Preservation Project 24 Case Studies 29 Designing in Context 38 Historic Architectural Styles 39 Overarching Preservation Principles 40 III. DESIGN STANDARDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HISTORIC RESOURCES Architectural Details 43 Materials and Finishes 47 Windows 50 Doors and Entries 55 Commercial Storefronts 57 Historic Roofs 59 Exposed Historic Foundations 59 Loading Docks 60 Color 60 Existing Additions 62 New Additions and Accessory Structures 62 Planning for Energy Efficiency 64 Accessibility 68 Phasing Preservation Improvements 68 Temporary Stabilization Treatments 69 Existing Historic Alterations 69 IV. DESIGN STANDARDS FOR ALL PROPERTIES Awnings and Canopies 73 Street Layout 74 Outdoor Use Areas 74 Handrails and Enclosures 75 Art and Historic Properties 76 Site Lighting 76 Building Lighting 77 Service Areas 78 Surface Parking 78 Buffers 79 Building Equipment 79 Security Devices 80 Color 82 Archeological Resources 82 C 2013 Noré Winter (sketch material content) V. DESIGN STANDARDS FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION Overview 85 Building Placement and Orientation 86 Architectural Character and Detail 87 Building Mass, Scale and Height 89 Building and Roof Forms 92 Entrances 93 Materials 94 Windows 95 Energy Efficiency in New Designs 97 Energy Efficiency in Building Massing 99 Environmental Performance in Building Elements 100 Solar and Wind Energy Devices 100 VI. DESIGN STANDARDS FOR SIGNS Overview 103 Treatment of Historic Signs 104 Sign Installation on a Historic Building 105 Design of New and Modified Signs 106 Design of Specific Sign Types 107 Awning Sign 107 Interpretive Sign 107 Murals 108 Tenant Panel or Directory Sign 109 Projecting/Under-Canopy Sign 109 Flush Wall Sign 110 Window and Door Sign 111 Kiosks 112 Other Sign Types 112 Illumination 112 APPENDIX Historic Architectural Styles A-3 INTRODUCTION Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 3 Overview Fort Collins is recognized for its rich collection of his- toric resources. They are enjoyed by residents, business owners and visitors as links to the city’s heritage while also setting the stage for a vibrant future. Preserving these assets is essential to Fort Collins’ well being. A key collection of these historic resources is found in the Old Town Historic District which is a place with special meaning for Fort Collins. Once the core of business activity, the brick and stone fa- cades provide a link with the past. The ornamental cornices, brackets, and lintels are records of the skilled craftsmen who worked to build Fort Collins at the turn of the century. The community recognized the significance of the Old Town Historic District as an important cultural resource. They wished to preserve the inherent historic elements of buildings as a cultural record for future generations and to maintain the sense of place that existed. Responding to this sentiment the City Council designated the area an official locally designated historic district in 1979. Previ- ously, in 1978, the Secretary of the Interior also entered a somewhat larger Old Town Fort Collins Historic District into the National Register of Historic Places. The Landmark Preservation Commission and city staff have the responsibility to review the proposed changes in the area and determine their compliance with the design standards. The design standards are to be used by the Landmark Preservation Com- mission and city staff to review any changes to the exterior of buildings within the Old Town Historic District. They are also for designers and owners who are planning projects within the district. Today, many of the historic resources found within the Old Town Historic District have been reha- bilitated and the district is thriving. The document highlights the success stories of past projects and the positive impact they have had. While rehabilita- tion will continue in the district, additions and infill construction are also anticipated. The standards are intended to promote designs that respect the heritage of the area. They therefore encour- age projects that contribute to the quality of the district. The historic preservation design standards promote the community’s vision for sustainable preservation. The standards also provide direction for rehabilitation, alteration, expansion and new construction projects in- volving locally-designated individual historic landmarks and properties in locally-designated historic districts elsewhere in Fort Collins. They also guide city staff and the Landmark Preservation Commission’s evaluation of such projects, helping the city and property owners maintain the special qualities of Fort Collins’ history. Financial Assistance See the following web site links for financial as- sistance programs that may be available for the rehabilitation of a historic resource: • City of Fort Collins, Historic Preservation web site: http://www.fcgov.com/historicpreservation/ • History Colorado web site to assist in rehabilita- tion projects: http://www.historycolorado.org • National Park Service web site for tax credit information to assist in rehabilitation projects: http://www.nps.gov/tps/tax-incentives.htm Introduction4 About this Document Why Do We Preserve Historic Resources? We preserve historic resources for these reasons: »To honor our diverse heritage »To support sound community planning and development »To maintain community character and support livability »To support economic, social and environmen- tal sustainability in our community The design standards also provide a basis for making consistent decisions about the treatment of historic resources and new infill within the district. Designing a new building or addition to fit within the historic char- acter of Old Town requires careful thought. Preserva- tion in a historic district context does not mean that the area must be “frozen” in time, but it does mean that, when new construction occurs, it shall be in a manner that reinforces the basic visual characteristics of the historic district. In addition, the standards serve as educational and planning tools for property owners and their design professionals who seek to make improvements. While the design standards are written for use by the layperson to plan improvements, property own- ers are strongly encouraged to enlist the assistance of qualified design and planning professionals, including architects and preservation consultants. Note In this document, “Old Town” refers to the area officially designated as the local historic district, in contrast to a more general reference to a larger portion of the downtown. See map on page 16. Background The Old Town Historic District Design Standards are an update to the Design Guidelines for Historic Old Town Fort Collins, 1981. WHAT ARE DESIGN STANDARDS? Design standards are regulatory provisions that pro- mote historic preservation best practices. They seek to manage change so the historic character of the district is respected while accommodating compatible improvements. They reflect the city’s goals to promote economic and sustainable development, enhance the image of the city and reuse historic resources. An essential idea is to protect historic resources in the district from alteration or demolition that might dam- age the unique fabric created by buildings and sites that make up the Old Town Historic District. The standards also promote key principles of urban design which focus on maintaining an attractive human- scaled pedestrian-oriented environment. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 5 Background POLICIES UNDERLYING THE DESIGN STANDARDS Several regulations and policy documents establish the foundation for the standards, including: City Plan Fort Collins, Historic Preservation Principle LIV 16: The quality of life in Fort Collins will be enhanced by the preservation of historic resources and inclusion of heritage in the daily life and development of the community. Policy LIV 16.1 – Survey, Identify, and Prioritize Historic Re- sources. Determine what historic resources are within the Growth Management Area, how significant these resources are, the nature and degree of threat to their preservation, and methods for their protection. Policy LIV 16.2 – Increase Awareness. Increase awareness, understanding of, and appreciation for the value of historic preservation in contributing to the quality of life in Fort Collins. Policy LIV 16.3 – Utilize Incentives. Use incentives to encourage private sector preservation and rehabilitation of historic resources. Policy LIV 16.4 – Utilize Planning and Regulations. Recog- nize the contribution of historic resources to the quality of life in Fort Collins through ongoing planning efforts and enforcement regulations. Policy LIV 16.5 – Encourage Landmark Designation. Actively encourage property owners to designate their properties as historic landmarks. Policy LIV 16.6 – Integrate Historic Structures. Explore opportunities to incorporate existing structures of historic value into new development and redevelopment activities. Principle LIV 17: Historically and architecturally significant buildings Downtown and throughout the community will be valued and preserved. Policy LIV 17.1 – Preserve Historic Buildings. Preserve his- torically significant buildings, sites and structures throughout Downtown and the community. Ensure that new building design respects the existing historic and architectural character of the surrounding district by using compatible building materials, colors, scale, mass, and design detailing of structures. Policy LIV 17.2 – Encourage Adaptive Reuse. In order to capture the resources and energy embodied in existing buildings, support and encourage the reuse, and adapta- tion of historically significant and architecturally important structures, including but not limited to Downtown buildings, historic homes, etc. Policy LIV 17.3– Ensure Congruent Energy Efficiency. Ensure that energy efficient upgrades contribute to or do not lessen the integrity of historic structures. Consider attractive means of achieving efficiency such as installing storm windows. Land Use Code Section 3.4.7 Historic and Cul- tural Resources Section 3.4.7 provides standards for preservation and treatment of historic properties and their incorpora- tion into new developments. It provides a good basis for design standards and guidelines as it sets the broad principles for the treatment of historic resources, but gives only very limited guidance or direction for rehabilitation of historic properties themselves. Code of the City of Fort Collins, Chapter 14 Landmark Preservation This section of the code sets forth the following dec- laration of policy for Historic Preservation within the City: (a) It is hereby declared as a matter of public policy that the protection, enhancement and perpetuation of sites, structures, objects and districts of historical, architectural or geographic significance, located within the City, are a public necessity and are required in the interest of the prosperity, civic pride and general welfare of the people. (b) It is the opinion of the city council that the economic, cultural and aesthetic standing of this City cannot be main - tained or enhanced by disregarding the historical, architec- tural and geographical heritage of the City and by ignoring the destruction or defacement of such cultural assets. It also identifies: ›standards for determining eligibility, ›designation procedures, ›construction, alteration and demolition activity, and a ›landmark rehabilitation program Introduction6 THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR’S STANDARDS FOR REHABILITATION The City of Fort Collins requires rehabilitation projects to be in conformance with the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Build- ings. The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation are general standards established by the National Park Service for historic properties. It is the intent of this document to be compatible with The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards while expanding on the basic rehabilitation principles as they apply in Fort Collins. Standards for Rehabilitation: “1. A property shall be used for its historic purpose or be placed in a new use that requires minimal change to the defining characteristics of the building and its site and environment. 2. The historic character of a property shall be retained and preserved. The removal of historic materials or alteration of features and spaces that characterize a property shall be avoided. 3. Each property shall be recognized as a physical record of its time, place, and use. Changes that create a false sense of historical development, such as adding conjectural features or architectural elements from other buildings, shall not be undertaken. 4. Most properties change over time; those changes that have acquired historic significance in their own right shall be retained and preserved. For More Information For more information on national treatments underlying the preservation standards, see The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilita- tion: http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/standguide/ rehab/rehab_index.htm For More Information: See the following web links to National Park Ser- vice Preservation Briefs and Tech Notes: http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/briefs. htm http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/tech- notes.htm 5. Distinctive features, finishes, materials and construction techniques or examples of craftsmanship that characterize a historic property shall be preserved. 6. Deteriorated historic features shall be repaired rather than replaced. Where the severity of deterioration requires replacement of a distinctive feature, the new feature shall match the old in design, color, texture, and other visual qualities and, where feasible, materials. Replacement of missing features shall be substantiated by documentary, physical, or pictorial evidence. 7. Chemical or physical treatments, such as sandblasting, that cause damage to historic materials shall not be used. The surface cleaning of structures, if appropriate, shall be undertaken using the gentlest means possible. 8. Archeological resources affected by a project shall be pro- tected and preserved. If such resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures shall be undertaken. 9. New additions, exterior alterations, or related new con- struction shall not destroy historic materials, features and spatial relationships that characterize the property. The new work shall be differentiated from the old and shall be compatible with the historic materials massing, size, scale, and architectural features to protect the historic integrity of the property and its environment. 10. New additions and adjacent or related new construction shall be undertaken in such a manner that if removed in the future, the essential form and integrity of the historic property and its environment would be unimpaired.” PRESERVATION BRIEFS & TECH NOTES The Cultural Resources Department of the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, pub- lishes a series of technical reports regarding proper preservation techniques. This series, Preservation Briefs and Tech Notes, is a mainstay for many preservationists in the field. When considering a preservation project, these resources should be consulted. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 7 Historic Preservation and Sustainability SUSTAINABILITY - SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION Preserving and enhancing historic places promotes the three basic components of sustainability. These are: (1) Cultural/Social Sustainability, (2) Environmental Sustainability and (3) Economic Sustainability. Each of the components is described in greater detail in the following pages. Preserving historic places promotes the three basic categories of sustainability. Environmental Sustainability Economic Sustainability Cultural/Social Sustainability SUSTAINABILITY Cultural/Social Component of Sustainability This component relates to the maintenance of the community’s cultural traditions and social fabric. Pre- serving historic places and patterns promotes cultural and social sustainability by supporting everyday con- nections between residents and the cultural heritage of the community. These connections are reinforced by the physical characteristics of historic places, which often directly support environmental sustainability. Historic properties in the district provide direct links to the past. These links convey information about earlier ways of life that help build an ongoing sense of identity within the community. Residents anchored in this sense of identity may be more involved in civic activities and overall community sustainability efforts. The historic development pattern of the district pro- motes social interaction that supports a high quality of life and helps build a sense of community. The area is compact and walkable, providing for impromptu mix- ing of different cultural and economic groups. Direct connections to the public realm provide opportunities for community interaction. This physical pattern, com- bined with the inherent cultural connections, provides significant support for the community’s overall sustain- ability effort. Environmental Component of Sustainability This is the most often cited component of sustainability. It relates to maintenance of the natural environment and the systems that support human development. Re- habilitation of historic resources is an important part of environmental sustainability and green building initia- tives. It directly supports environmental sustainability through conservation of embodied energy, adaptability, and other factors that keep historic buildings in use over long periods of time. Inherent Energy Typically historic buildings were built with energy efficiency in mind. Construction methods focused on durability and maintenance, resulting in individual build- ing features that can be repaired if damaged, thus mini- mizing the need for replacement materials. Buildings were also built to respond to local climate conditions, integrating passive and active strategies for year-round interior climate control, which further increase energy efficiency. Passive strategies typically include building orientation for sun and breezes. Active strategies typi- cally include operable awnings, and double-hung and transom windows. Embodied Energy Embodied energy is defined as the amount of energy used to create and maintain the original building and its components. Preserving a historic structure retains this energy. Re-using a building also preserves the energy and resources invested in its construction, and reduces the need for producing new construction ma- terials, which require more energy to produce. Studies confirm that the loss of embodied energy by demoli- Introduction8 tion takes three decades or more to recoup, even with the reduced operating energy costs in a replacement building. Building Materials Many of the historic building materials used in the dis- trict contribute to environmental sustainability though local sourcing and long life cycles. Buildings constructed with wood and masonry were built for longevity and ongoing repair. Today, new structures utilize a signifi- cant percentage of manufactured materials. These ma- terials are often less sustainable and require extraction of raw, non-renewable materials. High levels of energy are involved in production, and the new materials may also have an inherently short lifespan. The sustainable nature of historic building materials is best illustrated by a window: older windows were built with well seasoned wood from durable, weather resistant old growth forests. A historic window can be repaired by re-glazing as well as patching and splicing the wood elements. Many contemporary windows cannot be repaired and must be replaced entirely. Repairing, weather-stripping and insulating an original window is generally as energy efficient and much less expensive than replacement. Landfill Impacts According to the Environmental Protection Agency, building debris constitutes around a third of all waste generated in the country. The amount of waste is reduced significantly when historic structures are retained rather than demolished. Economic Component of Sustainability This component of sustainability relates to the economic balance and health of the community. The economic benefits of protecting historic resources are well documented across the nation. These include higher property values, job creation in rehabilitation industries, and increased heritage tourism. Quality of life improvements associated with living in historic districts may also help communities recruit desirable businesses. Historic Rehabilitation Projects Historic rehabilitation projects generate both direct and indirect economic benefits. Direct benefits result from the actual purchases of labor and materials, while material manufacture and transport results in indirect benefits. Preservation projects are generally more labor intensive, with up to 70% of the total project budget being spent on labor, as opposed to 50% when compared to new construction. Expenditure on local labor and materials benefits the community’s economy. Historic Preservation and Sustainability By preserving existing buildings and guiding compatible redevelopment, the Design Stan- dards promote the three key elements of com- munity sustainability: »Cultural/Social Sustainability. Preserv- ing historic places and patterns promotes cultural and social sustainability by supporting everyday connections between residents and the cultural heritage of the community. It also enhances livability in the community. »Environmental Sustainability. Rehabilita- tion of historic resources conserves energy that is embodied in the construction of existing structures. It also reduces impacts on landfill from demolition and reduces the need to fabricate new materials. »Economic Sustainability. The economic benefits of protecting historic resources include higher property values, job creation and increased heritage tourism. For More Information: See web link to National Park Service Sustainabil- ity information: http://www.nps.gov/tps/sustainability.htm For More Information: See the following web link to Preservation Brief 3: Improving Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/briefs/3- improve-energy-efficiency.htm Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 9 The Development of Old Town Fort Collins HISTORY The opening of the Overland Stage Line between Denver and Wyoming, in the early 1860s, necessitated the construction of military forts to protect coaches and immigrant trains from the threat of Indian attacks. Entering the Cache La Poudre River Valley in 1862, the 9th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry set up camp in the vicinity of Laporte, Colorado. In 1864, due to severe flooding of the Cache La Poudre and a series of military command changes, the outpost, known as Camp Col- lins, was moved to the area just southeast of the old Fort Collins Power Plant. The founding of the military post attracted citizens wishing to open mercantile establishments and thereby capitalize on trading with the nearby soldiers. Joseph Mason was the first to obtain permission from the War Department to build a store on the four-mile-square military reservation. His structure was erected in 1865 on land that later became the Linden/Jefferson inter- section. Called “Old Grout,” it served as a settler’s store, church, post office, community center, and later as the county offices and courthouse. Old Town claims the site as the foundation for the City of Fort Collins. Two other notable structures built in the area include Auntie Stone’s cabin/hotel and a flour mill. The establishment of this commercial district neces- sitated the platting of the town’s first streets. In 1867- 1868, Jack Dow and Norman H. Meldrum surveyed the area and set up streets that ran parallel to the major environmental landmark, the Cache La Poudre River. However, the influx of proprietors to Fort Collins, and specifically the Old Town area, was certainly not a stampede because when the fort closed in 1866, there were scarcely a dozen civilians in town. The subsequent departure of the soldiers put the town’s future in ques- tion. The town and its business district languished until the mid-1870s. In retrospect, the prosperity of the town was assured in an incident, called by Ansel Watrous in his History of Larimer County, “perhaps the most notable event in the early history of Fort Collins.” In the fall of 1872 the agricultural colony was established. General R. A. Cameron, originator of the Union Colo- ny in Greeley, spearheaded the drive for Fort Collins’s Agricultural Colony. The purpose of the new commune was for it to be the crop-raising group for the settlers at the Union Colony. Working with the earlier settlers of Fort Collins, the officers of the new colony organized the Larimer County Land Improvement Company. The goal of the company was to encourage settlement of the Fort Collins area. Within two months of their arrival, the company had acquired enough land for their surveyor to come in and plat new city streets. For this job they chose a young New Yorker, Franklin C. Avery, who had also platted the Union Colony. Mr. Avery, utilizing the latest techniques in city planning, laid the streets according to the cardinal points of the compass, rather than along the environmental dictates that guided Dow and Meldrum. By including most of the original surveyed area of Fort Collins, Avery cre - ated the distinct triangular shaped lots and streets that characterize Old Town. Spring of 1873 saw an influx of population, and many new business buildings were erected in Old Town. Dur- ing that year 68 frame buildings were constructed in Fort Collins, with a majority in the Old Town area, but gusty autumn winds blew several down. The ones that remained were later removed to build the more sturdy brick buildings that stand today. Near harvest time of the same year a plague of grasshoppers descended upon the crops and devoured them. The businesses of the community suffered along with the farmers, as the grasshoppers made repeat performances in 1874 and 1875. Many families and businesses in Old Town left, Ansel Watrous wrote, “Building was practically at a standstill and business of all kinds was in the dumps.” The arrival of the Colorado Central Railroad in 1877 began a new era of prosperity for Fort Collins, and in particular for Old Town, as the Terminal was in close proximity to the business district. Investments in housing and business buildings rose, as did the spirit of the people who lived and worked in Old Town. The following year saw the building of some substantial brick business blocks in Old Town, and a promise of more to come. Introduction10 The decades of the 1880s and nineties saw the addition of ornately decorated buildings like the Miller Block and the Linden Hotel. Other distinctive buildings, like the City Hall /Fire Station, added uniqueness to this area. In 1887 electric lights and the town’s first telephone enhanced Old Town’s status as the mercantile center for Fort Collins. In 1897 the Avery Building provided the link between Old Town and New Town. An early competition developed between the business people in Old Town and those with businesses near the intersec- tion of College and Mountain. The new Avery Building was a bridge that joined these two shopping areas together. But the competition between the two areas was to remain strong throughout the next century. The new century, however, brought other problems to Old Town. The Post Office, with its accompanying pedestrian traffic and long an institution in one building or another in the triangle, moved to the corner of Oak and College. Mr. Avery crossed Mountain Avenue to build yet another structure for his rapidly expanding First National Bank. By the 1900s Fort Collins was the well-settled home of Colorado’s first land-grant college, the possessor of a notable in-town railway transit system, and a very popular spot in northern Colorado for urbanite and farmer alike. On the direct railroad line between Den- ver and Cheyenne, the passenger depot on Jefferson Street in Old Town welcomed contented old-timers of the community and diverse newcomers: academic, agricultural, and financial. Fort Collins’ residents were served well by Old Town, whose offerings ranged from commodities and services found in eastern cities to items more commonly located in agricultural com- munities. These ranged from hotel accommodations, banks and restaurants to hardware stores, feed, coal and hay shops. 1889 Bird’s Eye view of Old Town Miller Block (1889) Linden Hotel (1908) Old Town (1900) Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 11 The major retail businesses left the interior of the triangle to locate along College Avenue frontage in the early 1920s in response to the advent of an auto- oriented population. Other, smaller businesses soon thought it was more advantageous to move along College Avenue. After World War II the area was beginning to show signs of aging and decay. During the 1950s and 1960s, Old Town became home to social services organiza- tions, automobile maintenance facilities, and some limited retail. It also housed a collection of taverns and some low-cost housing. Revitalization began in the 1980s, with individual inves- tors who saw opportunities in rehabilitating the historic structures in the area. The Secretary of the Interior listed the Old Town Historic District in the National Register in 1978. This included all of the land area that was later (1979) designated as the local historic district, but also extended farther north to include the original fort site. This made federal income tax credits available for the certified rehabilitation of historic structures in the area. With the city’s designation of the local historic district in 1979, a formal design review process was established to assure that historic buildings would be preserved and that new construction would be compatible with the historic context. Individual investment efforts attracted more invest- ment, and in 1985 Old Town Associates proposed a redevelopment plan that included rehabilitation of several historic buildings, erection of new infill build- ings and construction of a pedestrian area for a portion of Linden Street. Revitalization continued through the turn of the twenty-first century, with substantial participation of the City of Fort Collins and the Down- town Development Authority. By 2013, the Old Town Historic District was well-established as a center for dining, retail and entertainment as well as housing and professional offices. Fort Collins’ Old Town is a reminder of its early pioneer settlement. It was established by people who purchased lands from a real estate company in order to ward off the loneliness of the prairies, to profit by the experience and expertise of their new neighbors, and to furnish their families with social amenities that were long in coming to communities situated farther east on the Great Plains. Old Town demonstrates how these people settled a new area and used local materials to decorate it with styles current in the East, creating a substantial, as well as unique, latter nineteenth-century American community. Historic Development Patterns Old Town retains many framework elements from its early history; other features have changed over time. The fact that it has remained dynamic is a part of its heritage. For this reason, remaining resources which help to interpret that span of human occupation and use are valued. While a row of historic buildings may be easily un- derstood as defining a particular span of time, other features are more subtle but still continue to influence patterns of development. The aerial image shown on the next page underscores the value of the features that sill survive because they provide a hint to the early character. To preserve the historic building fabric and to provide din-ing, retail and entertainment uses was a goal of the 1985 redevelopment plan. Illustrative plan from the 1985 redevelopment plan set a vision for Old Town. Introduction12 Circa 1920’s image of Old Town Fort Collins Historic District. Streets that run at an angle to the standard grid pattern of the rest of town give the Old Town Historic District a distinct triangular shape that is clearly visible. The River District is visible in this image as well. (Aerial image looking south east.) Je f ferson ST Linden ST Moun t a i n A V E Walnu t ST North College AVE Pine ST 1 USING THE DESIGN STANDARDS Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 15 Design Review System The Landmarks Preservation Commission and City staff shall take these factors into consideration when reviewing proposed work: ›The significance of the property ›The context, with respect to other historic properties ›The location of any key, character-defining features ›The condition of those features ›The landmark status ›Eligibility status of the property In addition, there are many cases in which the stan- dards state that one particular solution is preferred, such as for the replacement of a damaged or missing feature, but the text further notes that some alterna- tives may be considered if the preferred approach is not feasible. In determining such feasibility, the city will also consider: ›The reasonable availability of the preferred material ›The skill required to execute the preferred approach ›The quality, appearance and character of alternative solutions, such as new materials. TERMS RELATED TO COMPLIANCE When applying design standards, the City has the abil- ity to balance a combination of objectives and intent statements that appear throughout the document, in the interest of helping to achieve the most appropriate design for each project. Because of this, and the fact that the design standards are also written to serve an educational role as well as a regulatory one, the language sometimes appears more conversational than that in the body of the City Code. To clarify how some terms are used, these definitions shall apply: Standard In this document the term “standard” is a criterion with which the City will require compliance when it is found applicable to the specific land-use activity. Shall Where the term “shall” is used, compliance is specifi- cally required, when the statement is applicable to the proposed project. Using the Design Standards16 Where the Design Standards Apply The design standards apply to all properties within the Old Town Historic District. They also apply as guidelines to eligible and designated properties within the River Downtown Redevelopment Zone District. These areas and properties are identified on the map below. North NTS Map Key National Register District Old Town Historic District River Downtown Redevelopment Zone District Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 17 Design Standards Organization DESIGN REVIEW TRACKS The design standards chapters are grouped into three “tracks” for purposes of design review. Staff will deter- mine which track a project will follow. (See the chart on the following page.) These are: ›Preservation Track ›New Building Track ›Other Improvements Track Follow these steps to get started: Step 1 What Type of Improvement? Determine the nature of the improvements that are planned. There are three categories: Existing Building If improvements are planned to an existing building, determine if it has historic significance or not. This will influence which review track applies. New Building Will the planned improvements include construction of a new building? If so, then the “New Construction Track” applies. This includes a new structure to be erected on a vacant lot; adding a new structure to a lot with an existing building on it; or providing an addi- tion to an existing noncontributing building where one already exists. Other Work Site improvements, signs and other miscellaneous projects follow this third track. Step 2 What Type of Existing Building? All existing structures in the Old Town Historic District are classified with respect to their historic significance, using criteria established by the National Park Service. The City will work with the property owner to confirm the status of historic significance. Two classifications are used: Contributing Property A “contributing” property is one determined to be historically significant. It is so because it was present during the period of significance and possesses suf- ficient integrity to convey its history, or is capable of yielding important information about that period. Note that some properties may have experienced some degree of alteration from their historic designs. These alterations may include window replacement, cornice removal, a porch enclosure or covering of a building’s historic materials. Nonetheless, these altered properties retain sufficient building fabric to still be considered contributors. For all contributing properties, the Preservation Track shall apply. Noncontributing Property The classification of “noncontributing” applies to exist- ing buildings that do not possess sufficient significance and/or exterior integrity necessary for designation, and are considered noncontributing to a district. The New Construction Track applies to these properties, except as noted below. Noncontributing, but Restorable In some cases, an older noncontributing property which has been substantially altered could be restored with a sufficient degree of care, such that it may be re-classified as a contributing property once improve- ments are completed. An owner may elect to take such an approach; the city will work with the owner to determine if this is appropriate. For this special condi- tion, the Preservation Track will apply. This option is not mandatory and is up to the building owner. Using the Design Standards18 WHICH TRACK APPLIES? The standards are organized into groups of chapters that represent “tracks” for different types of improvements. This chart defines the track that will apply to a specific proposal. New Building Existing Building Step 1 Restorable Non- Applicable Step 2 Noncontributing Other Other Track New Bldg. Track Contributing Preservation Track WHICH CHAPTERS APPLY? Use this chart to determine which chapters of the design standards apply to a proposed improvement project. Some projects will include work in more than one track; in this case a combination of chapters will apply. TYPE OF WORK SECTION TO USE:Introduction I. Using the Design StandardsII. Planning a Preservation ProjectIII. Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic ResourcesIV. Design Standards for All PropertiesV. Design Standards for New ConstructionVI. Design Standards for SignsPreservation TrackRehabilitate a contributing property 4 4 4 4 4 (1) (1) Restore a noncontributing property 4 4 4 4 4 (1) (1)New Building TrackImprove a noncontributing property 4 4 4 4 (1) Construct a new building 4 4 4 4 (1)Other TrackSigns 4 4 (1)(1)(1)4 Site Work 4 4 (1)(1)(1)4 Miscellaneous 4 4 4 (1) Standards may apply to some projects in this category. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 19 Permitted and Prohibited Solutions In many cases, images and dia- grams in the historic preservation standards are marked to indicate whether they represent permitted or prohibited solutions 4 A check mark indicates permitted solutions. 8 An X mark indicates solutions that are prohibited. DESIGN STANDARDS FORMAT The historic preservation standards are presented in a standardized format as illustrated below. A Windows Key A Design Topic Heading B Intent Statement: This explains the desired outcome for the specific design element and provides a basis for the design standards that follow. C Design Standard: This describes a desired outcome related to the intent statement. D Additional Information: This provides a bullet list of examples of how, or how not to, comply with the standard. E Illustration(s): These provide photos and/or diagrams to illustrate related conditions or possible ap- proaches. They may illustrate per- mitted or prohibited solutions as described at right. B Historic windows help convey the significance of historic structures, and shall be preserved. They can be repaired by re-glazing and patching and splicing elements such as muntins, the frame, sill and casing. Repair and weatherization also is more energy efficient, and less expensive than replacement. If an original window cannot be repaired, new replacement windows shall be in character with the historic building. C 1.1 Maintain and repair historic windows. D »Preserve historic window features including the frame, sash, muntins, mullions, glazing, sills, heads, jambs, moldings, operation and groupings of windows. »Repair and maintain windows regularly, including trim, glazing putty and glass panes. »Repair, rather than replace, frames and sashes. »Restore altered window openings to their historic configuration. E Sidebars These provide additional infor- mation that will be helpful in understanding the standard. In some cases a sidebar includes links that direct the user to additional material; this may be technical information about a rehabilitation procedure or other helpful infor- mation. 4 Using the Design Standards20 II PLANNING A PRESERVATION PROJECT Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 23 What Does Historic Preservation Mean? Historic preservation means keeping historic proper- ties and places in active use while accommodating appropriate improvements to sustain their viability and character. It also means keeping historic resources for the benefit of future generations. That is, while maintaining properties in active use is the immediate objective, this is in part a means of assuring that these resources will be available for others to enjoy in the future. Historic preservation does not mean necessarily freez- ing properties or districts in time. Historic preserva- tion seeks to manage change to preserve authenticity and historic craftsmanship while adapting to existing and future needs. This section summarizes important steps and ap- proaches to consider when planning a preservation project ›Planning a Preservation Project ›Case Studies ›Designing in Context ›Historic Building Styles When planning a preservation project, it is important to determine historic significance, assess integrity and determine program requirements prior to outlining a treatment strategy that will inform the overall project scope. ACCEPTED TREATMENTS FOR HISTORIC RESOURCES The following list describes permitted treatments for historic resources that may be considered when planning a preservation project. Much of the language addresses buildings; however, sites, objects and struc- tures are also relevant. Preservation “Preservation” is the act of applying measures to sustain the existing form, integrity and material of a building. Work focuses on keeping a property in good work- ing condition with proactive maintenance. While the term “preservation” is used broadly to mean keeping a historic property’s significant features, it is also used in this more specific, technical form in this document. Restoration “Restoration” is the act or process of accurately de- picting the form, features and character of a property as it appeared in a particular time period. Features from later periods must be removed for an accurate restoration and to use the Restoration Treatment. This may apply to an entire building, or to restoring a particular missing feature. Reconstruction “Reconstruction” is the act or process of depicting, by means of new construction, the form, features and detailing of a non-surviving site, landscape, building, structure or object for the purpose of replicating its appearance at a specific time and in its historic location. This has limited application, in terms of an entire build- ing, but may apply to a missing feature on a building. Rehabilitation “Rehabilitation” is the process of returning a property to a state that makes a contemporary use possible while still preserving those portions or features of the property which are significant to its historical, archi- tectural and cultural values. Rehabilitation may include a change in use of the building or the construction of an addition. This term is the broadest of the permit- ted treatments and applies to most work on historic properties. Combining Treatments For many projects a “rehabilitation” approach will be the overall strategy, because this term reflects the broadest, most flexible of the approaches. Within that, however, there may be a combination of treatments used as they relate to specific building components. For example, a surviving cornice may be preserved, a storefront base that has been altered may be restored, and a missing kickplate may be reconstructed. Planning a Preservation Project24 STEPS TO CONSIDER FOR A SUCCESSFUL PRESERVATION PROJECT. Follow the steps below when planning a preservation project. Step 1. Review reasons for significance: The reasons for significance will influence the degree of rigor with which the standards are applied, because it affects which features will be determined to be key to preserve. Identifying the building’s period of significance is an important first step. Step 2. Identify key features: A historic property has integrity. It has a suf- ficient percentage of key character-defining features and characteristics from its period of significance which remain intact. Step 3. Identify program requirements for the desired project: The functional requirements for the property drive the work to be considered. If the existing use will be maintained, then preservation will be the focus. If changes in use are planned, then some degree of compatible alterations may be needed. Step 4. Implement a treatment strategy: A permitted treatment strategy will emerge once historic significance, integrity and program requirements have been determined. A preservation project may include a range of activities, such as maintenance of existing historic elements, repair of deteriorated materials, the replacement of missing features and construction of a new addition. Planning a Preservation Project A successful preservation project shall consider the significance of the historic resources, its key features, and the project’s program requirements. The tables and diagrams presented here and on the following pages provide overall guidance for planning a preserva- tion project. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 25 PREFERRED SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS Selecting an appropriate treatment for a character-defining feature is important. The method that requires the least intervention is always preferred. By following this tenet, the highest degree of integrity will be maintained. The following treat- ment options appear in order of preference. When making a selection, follow this sequence: Step 1. Preserve: If a feature is intact and in good condition, maintain it as such. Step 2. Repair: If the feature is deteriorated or damaged, repair it to its historic condition. Step 3. Replace: If it is not feasible to repair the feature, then replace it in kind, (e.g., materials, detail, finish). Replace only that portion which is beyond repair. Step 4. Reconstruct: If the feature is missing entirely, reconstruct it from ap- propriate evidence. If a portion of a feature is missing, it can also be reconstructed. Step 5. Compatible Alterations: If a new feature (one that did not exist previ- ously) or an addition is necessary, design it in such a way as to minimize the impact on historic features. It is also important to distinguish a new feature on a historic building from the historic features, in subtle ways. For More Information For more information regarding the treat- ments for a historic resource please visit the National Park Service web site: http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/tps/standguide/index. htm If a feature is deteriorated or damaged, repair it to its his-toric condition. Planning a Preservation Project26 A BC or D E WHICH AREAS ARE THE MOST SENSITIVE TO PRESERVE? For most historic resources in the Old Town Historic District, the front wall is the most important to preserve intact. Alterations are rarely permitted. Many side walls are also important to preserve where they are highly visible from the street. By contrast, portions of a side wall not as visible may be less sensitive to change. The rear wall is sometimes the least important (excepting free-standing landmarks, those along improved alleys or certain civic and industrial buildings), and alterations can occur more easily without causing negative effects to the historic significance of the property. Location A. Primary Façade: Preservation and repair of features in place is the priority. This is especially important at the street level and in locations where the feature is highly visible. Location B. Second- ary Wall, Which Is Highly Visible: Some flexibility in treatment may be considered with a compatible replacement or alteration. Location C. Secondary Wall, Which Is Not Highly Visible: Preserva- tion is still preferred; however, a compatible replacement or alteration may be acceptable when it is not visible to the public. More flexibility in treat- ment may be considered. Location D. Highly Visible Rear Wall: This applies to many cultural buildings of historic significance, such as civic buildings, improved alleys and other landmarks that are viewed “in the round” or border a public space such as a park. Preservation and repair in place is the priority. Location E. Rear Wall That Is Not Highly Visible: A compatible replacement or alteration may be acceptable when it is not visible to the public. A higher level of flexibility in treatment may be considered. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 27 ALTERED HISTORIC COMMERCIAL FACADE The starting condition. Missing Cornice Historic Windows Altered Storefront DEVELOPING A PRESERVATION STRATEGY The standards discuss a range of preservation options, including reconstruction and replacement of features in various ways. When applied to a building that is al- ready altered, which would be the best approach? This diagram outlines the approaches to consider in making that decision. When should I use this treatment? »There is substantial alteration, making other options difficult. »There is less information about the historic design. »The context (the block lacks a substantial number of historic structures that retain integrity) has more variety. »Financial assistance is not a priority. When should I use this treatment? »The building is part of the fabric of the district. »There is less information available about the historic design. »A phased project is planned. »To receive some financial assistance. When should I use this treatment? »The building is highly significant. »There is good historical information about the design. »The needed materials and craftsmen are available. »The context has many intact historic buildings. »To receive the most financial assistance. Approach 3: Rehabilitation (contemporary interpretation) Approach 1: Accurate Restoration 4 Approach 2: Rehabilitation (simplified historic interpretation) 4 4 Planning a Preservation Project28 Historic building remodel.Interim improvements to the building included removing the canopy, providing a new sign and painting the stucco covering. A later rehabilitation effort included remov-ing the stucco, reconstructing the cornice and installing a new storefront system. 4 4 PHASING PRESERVATION PROJECTS In some cases, a property owner may wish to make interim improvements, rather than execute a complete rehabilitation of a historic property. This work shall be planned such that it establishes a foundation for future improvements that will further assure continued use of the property and retain its historic significance. For example, a simplified cornice element may be installed on a commercial storefront, in lieu of reconstructing the historic design, with the intent that an accurate reconstruction would occur later. Plan interim improvements to retain opportunities for future rehabilitation work that will enhance the integrity of a historic property. ›Preserve key character-defining features while making interim improvements. ›Interim improvements that would foreclose op- portunities for more extensive rehabilitation in the future are not permitted. BEALS & REED BLOCK Address: 160 North College Avenue Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 29 Case Studies CASE STUDIES Numerous rehabilitation projects have been suc- cessfully completed since the adoption of the design standards. Some examples appear in this section. They include “before and after” pairings. Some of these in- clude photographs from the early years when this was the center of commerce. Then, images from the 1970s and 1980s document interim conditions, when many buildings had been altered. Finally, more recent photo- graphs, generally from 2013, illustrate the progressive rehabilitation and continuing revitalization of the area. These case studies demonstrate the benefits of the on-going stewardship of the historic resources in the district, and of the positive effects that local historic district designation has had. They further demonstrate successful solutions for many of the design topics ad- dressed in this standards document. WALNUT STREET BLOCK Address: 200 block of Walnut Street, north side In the upper photos (ca. 1981), storefronts have been altered, upper story windows have been reduced in size and new materials obscure historic masonry. In the lower photo, windows and storefronts are restored, and historic brick facades are revealed. 4 8 8 Planning a Preservation Project30 AVERY BLOCK Address: 100 block of North College, 100 block of Linden Street An early image of the Avery Block exhibits a distinctive line of ground level storefronts.In 1981, storefronts had been altered, and the distinctive mid-belt cornice line was obscured. In 2013, a reconstructed cornice reestablished a distinctive hori-zontal feature, and awning once more reflect the dimensions of each storefront bay. 4444 8 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 31 ANTLERS BLOCK Address: 200 block of Linden Street, east side An early view of the Antlers hotel and associated buildings in its block demonstrates a variety in building heights, but a sense of continuity is established by the horizontal alignment of storefront level moldings and second story cornices. In 1981, many historic features remain, but minor alterations have occurred, and some details are obscured by monochromatic paint schemes. One of the buildings has been rehabilitated in this image and modifica-tions have occurred on other buildings.After rehabilitation (photo: 2013), buildings have been adapted to new uses while the key, character-defining features that contribute to their historic significance have been preserved. 4 4 8 4 8 Planning a Preservation Project32 LINDEN STREET Address: 200 block of Linden Street, west side The northern end of the Linden Street block in 1980 appears with several storefronts missing, and a mono-chromatic paint scheme diminishes one’s perception of the distinctive architectural details. A close-up view of the storefront at 252 Linden, in 1980 shows the miss-ing storefront. After rehabilitation in the mid-1980s, many storefronts have been reconstructed. Architectural details are highlighted with contrasting color schemes. The left-most storefront remains altered, but other features on this facade have been pre -served. In 2013, awnings and signs have been added, and color schemes have changed. This demonstrates the ongoing adaptive use of these properties, while preserving their historic significance. In the mid-1980s, after the store -front has been reconstructed. 4 4 4 8 8 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 33 THE MCPHERSON BLOCK Address: 100 block of Linden Street, west side Ca. 1980, Black’s Glass, with a missing mid-belt molding, and historic storefront altered. The transom also is covered, changing the proportions of the ground level. In 2013, storefronts and the midbelt molding are recon -structed. 4 8 8 Planning a Preservation Project34 OLD FIRE STATION AND CITY HALL Address: 200 block Walnut Street, north side The old city hall and fire station occupied two buildings side-by-side on Walnut Street. A distinctive arch identified the door for fire engines. In 1980, the two buildings appear as one metal clad facade. The storefront for city hall has been removed, and the doorway for fire engines has been widened. At the beginning of rehabilitation in the early 1980s, damage to the historic masonry is vis-ible. The hose tower also is missing. Lower left:Shortly after rehabilitation, reconstructed cornices and storefront are visible. A more contemporary storefront, using dark metal components, is used in the historic fire engine entry, to signify that this is a later alteration. The tower also is reconstructed. Lower right:In 2012, awnings and signs have changed, but the key features of the building remain intact, demonstrating the continuing use of this historic resource. 4 4 8 8 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 35 J.L.HOHNSTEIN BLOCK Address: 220 East Mountain Avenue An early view of the Hohnstein block documents the tall first floor and the distinctive masonry arch details on the upper floor. In 1980, metal cladding obscures most of the key character-defining features of the building front. In the early 1980s, the initial reha-bilitation revealed key features of the facade. Almost 30 years later, in 2013, the building continues to be in active service. An outdoor dining area reflects a new use, but is designed to remain visually subordinate to the historic building. Note the historic sign on the side wall. 4 48 Planning a Preservation Project36 MILLER BLOCK Address: 11 Old Town Square In 1979, wood paneling obscures historic storefronts. Shortly after construction of the plaza in Old Town Square, (ca. 1985), new awnings define the dimensions of individual storefront bays.In 2013, key features remain preserved. Different awning colors distinguish individual businesses while retaining the overall visual continuity of the building. In this early photo, the Miller building stands as a signature building at Linden and Walnut streets; diagonally from the Linden Hotel. 4 4 8 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 37 In this early photo, the Linden Hotel stands as the signature building at the corner of Linden and Walnut Streets In 1980s, historic masonry is covered with a cementatious plaster and the storefronts have been altered. Some upper story windows have been blocked up. Again in the early 1980s, the Linden in an altered state. The Sal-vation Army and Reed and Dauth buildings are to the right. In 2013, the Linden is once more the icon for Old Town Fort Collins. THE LINDEN HOTEL Address: 201 Linden Street 4 8 8 Planning a Preservation Project38 Designing in Context District-wide Block Immediate Surroundings A fundamental principle of the design standards is that projects shall be planned to be compatible with the context. This is especially relevant to the design of an addition or new building. Levels of Context Consideration Context shall be considered at these levels: ›District-wide – in terms of the qualitative features, such as the orientation of the street, alley, street wall, buildings and features ›The block – which focuses on the collection of buildings, sites and structures in the area ›Immediate surroundings – properties adjacent to, facing or overlooking a specific site Note: The contexts are highlighted in white and the mock project area is identified with a heavy black line. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 39 Historic Architectural Styles The Architectural Style descriptions will assist the City in determining which features are key to a property’s significance. Note that styles are rarely “pure” in form, and a wide range exists within individual styles. Please see the Appendix for a description of the Architectural Styles found in the Old Town Historic District. The majority of the buildings styles found in the Old Town Historic District are shown here. Early Twentieth - Century Commercial, single storefront.Nineteenth-Century Commercial, Richardsonian Romanesque architectural style Nineteenth-Century Commercial, Italianate architectural style that is fifty feet or more with multiple entrances. Historic Architectural Styles Information about Fort Collins’s historic architec- tural styles is available from a number of sources, including: ›The City of Fort Collins Historic Preservation Division ›City of Fort Collins, Central Business District Development and Residential Architecture, Historic Contexts, November 1992 ›A Cultural Resources Inventory of The Old Fort Site, Fort Collins, Colorado, June 2002 ›See History Colorado web link at: http://www.historycolorado.org/archaeologists/ colorados-historic-architecture-engineering-web- guide See also the following reference book: ›What Style is it? A Guide to American Architec- ture. John C. Poppeliers, S. Allen Chambers, Jr., Nancy B Schwartz. Historic Building Survey, National Park Service, US Depart- ment of the Interior. 1983 ›Visual Dictionary of Architecture. Francis D.K. Ching. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1995 ›A Field Guide to American Houses. Virginia & Lee McAlester. New York, Alfred A. Knopf. 1984 4 4 4 Planning a Preservation Project40 Overarching Preservation Principles The following design principles apply to all historic properties and will be used when evaluating the appropriateness of related work: 2.1 Respect the historic character of a property. ›The basic form and materials of a building, as well as architectural details, are a part of the historic character. ›Don’t try to change the style of a historic re- source or make it look older than its actual age. ›Confusing the character by mixing elements of different styles or periods can adversely affect the historic significance of the property. 2.2 Seek uses that are compatible with the historic character of the property. ›Converting a building to a new use different from the historic use is considered to be an “adaptive reuse,” and is a sound strategy for keeping an old building in service. For example, converting a residential structure to offices is an adaptive use. A good adaptive use project retains the historic character of the building while accommodating a new function. ›Every effort shall be made to provide a compat- ible use for the building that will require minimal alteration to the building and its site. Protect and maintain significant features and stylistic elements. ›Changes in use requiring the least alteration to significant elements are preferred. In most cases designs can be developed that respect the historic integrity of the building while also accommodating new functions. 2.3 Protect and maintain significant features and stylistic elements. ›Distinctive stylistic features and other examples of skilled craftsmanship shall be preserved. The best preservation procedure is to maintain historic features from the outset to prevent the need for repair later. Appropriate maintenance includes rust removal, caulking and repainting. ›These features shall not be removed. 2.4 Repair deteriorated historic features and replace only those elements that cannot be repaired. ›When necessary, upgrade existing materials, using recognized preservation methods. If disas- sembly is necessary for repair or restoration, use methods that minimize damage to historic materials and facilitate reassembly. 4 DESIGN STANDARDS FOR THE TREATMENT OF HISTORIC RESOURCES III Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 43 Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources Architectural details help convey the significance of historic properties, and shall be preserved. The method of preservation that requires the least intervention is expected. For More Information See web link to Preservation Brief 17: Architectural Character - Identifying the Visual Aspects of Historic Buildings as an Aid to Preserving Character. http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to- preserve/briefs/17-architectural- character.htm The City seeks to preserve the historic integrity of properties of historic significance in the Old Town Historic District. This means employing best practices in property stewardship to maintain the key character- defining features of individual historic resources, as well as maintaining the context in which they exist. This section provides standards for the treatment of historic properties in Old Town. It focuses on the rehabilitation and maintenance of character-defining features of each individual contributing property as well as the district as a whole. The standards in this section do not apply to new construction. The standards translate the general principles for historic preservation outlined in the preceding chapter to the treatment of individual building features and components that are found typically in the district. ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS Architectural details help convey the historic and architectural significance of historic properties, and shall be preserved. The method of preservation that requires the least intervention is expected. 3.1 Maintain significant architectural details. ›Retain and treat exterior stylistic features and examples of skilled craftsmanship with sensitiv- ity. ›Employ preventive maintenance measures such as rust removal, caulking and repainting. 4 4 4 44 Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources44 Historic Architectural Details Typical historic architectural details to preserve include: ›Cornices and eaves ›Moldings and brackets ›Windows and doors and surrounds ›Modillions and other surface ornamenta- tion › Columns ›Storefronts ›Please see the Architectural Styles section in the Appendix. 3.2 Repair, rather than replace, significant architectural details if they are damaged. ›Do not remove or alter distinctive architec- tural details that are in good condition or that can be repaired. ›Document the location of a historic feature that must be removed to be repaired so it may be repositioned accurately. ›Patch, piece-in, splice, consolidate or otherwise upgrade deteriorated features using recognized preservation methods. ›Minimize damage to historic architectural de- tails when repairs are necessary. ›Protect significant features that are adjacent to the area being worked on. Retain and treat exterior stylistic features and examples of skilled craftsmanship with sensitivity. Maintain significant architectural details, including: projecting cornices, masonry patterns, decorative moldings, double-hung wood windows and other decorative fea-tures. 4 4 Document the location of a historic feature that must be removed and repaired so it may be repositioned accu-rately. 4 Patch, piece-in, splice, con-solidate or otherwise upgrade deteriorated features using recognized preservation meth-ods. 4 For More Information See web link to Preservation Brief 27: The Mainte - nance and Repair of Architectural Cast Iron http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/27-cast-iron.htm and See web link to Preservation Brief 47: Maintaining the Exterior of Small and Medium Size Historic Buildings http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/47-maintaining-exteriors.htm Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 45 3.3 Reconstruct an architectural feature accurately if it cannot be repaired. ›Use a design that is substantiated by physical or pictorial evidence to avoid creating a misrepre- sentation of the building’s history. ›Use the same kind of material as the historic detail. However, an alternative material may be considered if it: ›Has proven durability ›Has a size, shape, texture and finish that conveys the visual appearance of the his- toric feature. ›Is located in a place that is remote from view or direct physical contact ›Do not add architectural details that were not part of the historic structure. For example, decorative millwork shall not be added to a building if it was not a historic feature as doing so would convey a false history. The rehabilitation of the Reed and Dauth building included reconstruction of missing features. Using historic photographs, a cornice was constructed to match the historic in character. An alter-native material (wood) was used instead of the historic metal. Before rehabilitation (ca. 1980)During rehabilitation (ca. 1982) The rehabilitated Reed and Dauth building, 223 Linden Street (2013) During rehabilitation (ca. 1982) 4 Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources46 These buildings demonstrate a successful reconstruction of a missing cornice. See the image above for the historic condition. Loomis Building, 213-217 Linden Street 4 Use historic photos as a source for reconstructing a missing detail.Interim image of missing cornice. 8 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 47 MATERIALS AND FINISHES Historic materials shall be preserved in place. If the material is damaged, limited replacement to match the historic should be considered. Historic building materials shall never be covered or subjected to harsh cleaning treatments. Preserving historic building mate- rials and limiting replacement to only pieces which are deteriorated beyond repair also reduces the demand for, and environmental impacts from, the production of new materials and therefore supports the city’s sustainability objectives. 3.4 Maintain historic building materials. ›Protect historic building materials from dete- rioration (see “Maintaining Historic Materials” at right for information on treating different types of materials). ›Do not remove historic materials that are in good condition. ›Use a low pressure water wash if cleaning is permitted. Chemical cleaning may be consid- ered if a test patch does not have a negative effect on the historic fabric (test patch shall be reviewed by City preservation department). ›Do not use harsh cleaning methods, which can inhibit the function and/or appearance of the historic material, (such as sandblasting, which can damage its protective coating.) Maintaining Historic Materials Primary historic building materials include masonry (brick, mortar, stone, and concrete), wood and metal. These shall be preserved and repaired. 4 Appropriate treatments to protect specific materi- als from deterioration include: Masonry ›Maintain the natural water-protective layer (patina). ›Do not paint, unless it was painted historically (this can seal in moisture, which may cause extensive damage over time). ›Re-point deteriorated masonry mortar joints with mortar that matches the strength, com- position, color and texture of the historic material. Wood ›Maintain paint and other protective coatings to retard deterioration and ultraviolet dam- age. ›Provide proper drainage and ventilation. Metal ›Maintain protective coatings, such as paint, on exposed metals. ›Provide proper drainage. Do not use harsh cleaning methods, such as sandblasting, which can damage his-toric materials. 8 Re-point mortar joints where there is evi-dence of deterioration. This shall match the historic design. 4 Historic building materials are key features of historic buildings and shall be preserved. 4 Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources48 3.5 Repair historic building materials when needed. ›Repair deteriorated building materials by patch- ing, piecing-in, consolidating, or otherwise reinforcing the material. ›Replace only those materials that are deterio- rated, and beyond reasonable repair. 3.6 Replace historic building materials in kind. ›Use the same material as the historic material to replace damaged building materials. ›Also use historic materials to replace damaged building materials on a non-primary façade. ›Replace only the amount of material that is beyond repair. ›Use only replacement materials that are similar in scale, finish and character to the historic material. ›Use only replacement materials with proven durability. ›Do not replace building materials, such as masonry and wood siding, with alternative or imitation materials, unless no other option is available. Repair deteriorated building materials, when needed. 4 Alternative or replacement materi-als shall match the style and detail of the historic fabric and be durable in the local climate, such as these cast concrete details that replace missing stone features. 4 For More Information See web link to Preservation Brief 16: The Use of Substitute Materials on Historic Building Exteriors. http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/16-substitute-materials.htm Typical Materials Typical historic building materials used in Old Town Fort Collins include: »Masonry ›Brick ›Stone ›Terra Cotta ›Poured Concrete ›Pre-cast Concrete »Wood »Metal ›Cast iron, ›Copper ›Sheet metal Understanding the character of these materials and the patterns they create is essential to their preservation, and, when appropriate, the use of alternative materials. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 49 3.7 Preserve the visibility of historic materials. ›Consider removing later covering materials that have not achieved historic significance. ›Once a non-historic material is removed, repair the historic, underlying material. ›Do not cover or obscure historic building ma- terials. ›Do not add another layer of new material if a property already has a non-historic building material covering the historic material. Consider removing later covering materials that have not achieved historic significance (left) to reveal the underlying historic materials (right). 48 For More Information See web link to Preservation Brief 1: Assessing Cleaning and Water-Repellent Treatments for Historic Masonry Buildings http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/briefs/1- cleaning-water-repellent.htm See web link to Preservation Brief 2: Repointing Mortar Joints in Historic Masonry Buildings http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/briefs/2- repoint-mortar-joints.htm Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources50 WINDOWS Historic windows help convey the significance of historic structures, and shall be preserved. They can be repaired by re-glazing and patching and splicing elements such as muntins, the frame, sill and casing. Repair and weatherization also is often more energy efficient, and less expensive, than replacement. If a his- toric window cannot be repaired, a new replacement window shall be in character with the historic building. 3.8 Maintain and repair historic windows. ›Preserve historic window features including the frame, sash, muntins, mullions, glazing, sills, heads, jambs, moldings, operation and group - ings of windows. ›Repair and maintain windows regularly, includ- ing trim, glazing putty and glass panes. ›Repair, rather than replace, frames and sashes. ›Restore altered window openings to their his- toric configuration. Historic Window Components Window components include: ›Sash ›Frame ›Number of lights (panes) ›Shutters ›Security Devices (bars and screens) ›Insect screens ›Storm windows 4 4 4 Before rehabilitation: upper story windows in need of repair.After rehabilitation: repaired windows. 8 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 51 3.9 Replace a historic window with a matching design if repair is not possible. ›Replace with the same material. ›Match the appearance of the historic window design (i.e., if the historic is double-hung, use a double-hung replacement window). ›Maintain the historic size, shape and number of panes. ›Match the profile of the sash, muntin and its components to the historic window, including the depth of the sash, which may step back to the plane of the glass in several increments. ›Use clear window glazing that conveys the vi- sual appearance of historic glazing (transparent low-e glass is preferred). ›Do not use vinyl and unfinished metals as win- dow replacement materials. ›Do not use metallic or reflective window glaz- ing. ›Do not reduce a historic opening to accom- modate a smaller window or increase it to accommodate a larger window. 4 Before rehabilitation: historic windows are missing.After rehabilitation: historic openings are restored. 8 Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources52 Alternative Window Material If it is not possible to match the historic design and materials of a window, then an alternative design may be considered in the following locations: ›On a non-primary façade, accessory build - ing or addition ›On a primary façade if no other option is available Alternative window designs shall: ›Match the general profile and details of the historic window. ›Use materials that match the historic ap - pearance in dimension, profile and finish. Match the appearance of a historic window design (i.e., if the historic is double-hung, use a double-hung replacement window). Replace historic windows (top) with a matching design (bottom), if repair is not possible. 4 Do not reduce a historic opening to accommodate a smaller win-dow or increase it to accommodate a larger window. 8 4 8 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 53 3.10 Use special care when replacing a window on a primary façade. ›Give special attention to matching the historic design and materials of windows located on the façade. ›Also, match the historic design when replacing a window located on a secondary wall. 3.11 Design a storm window to minimize its visual impacts. ›If a window did not historically have a storm window, place a new storm window internally to avoid exterior visual impacts. ›Use storm windows designed to match the historic window frame if placed externally. ›Use insect screens with painted wooden frames where wood windows exist. 3.12 Restore a historic window opening that has been altered. ›Restore a historic window opening that previ- ously existed. ›Place a new window to fit within the historic opening. Place storm windows internally to avoid exterior visual impacts (right). Use storm window inserts designed to match the historic frame if placed externally (left). 4 Preserve the size and proportion of a historic window opening. 48 For More Information See web link to Preservation Brief 9: The Repair of Historic Wooden Windows http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/briefs/9- wooden-windows.htm See web link to Preservation Brief 13: The Repair and Thermal Upgrading of Historic Steel Windows http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/13-steel-windows.htm See web link to window retrofit article from the National Trust for Historic Preservation web site http://www.preservationnation.org/who-we-are/ press-center/press-releases/2012/new-windows- study.html Web link to window treatments National Park Service Tech Notes. Scroll down page to window to secure links http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/tech- notes.htm Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources54 3.13 When necessary, locate and design a new window opening to preserve the overall rhythm and arrangement of windows on a secondary building wall. ›Locate a new window opening to match the general arrangement of historic windows in a building wall. ›Design a new window opening to match historic window proportions on the same façade. 3.14 Enhance the energy efficiency of historic windows and doors. ›Make the best use of historic windows; keep them in good repair and seal all the leaks. ›Maintain the glazing compound regularly. Remove old putty with care. ›Place a storm window internally to avoid the impact upon external appearance. ›Use storm windows designed to match the historic window frame if placed externally. Double-hung windows found in many historic structures allow for transferring cool air in and warm air out during the summer months. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 55 DOORS AND ENTRIES The design, materials and location of historic doors and entries help establish the significance of a historic structure and shall be preserved. When a new door is needed, it shall be in character with the building. 3.15 Maintain a historic primary entrance. ›Preserve historic and decorative features, including door frames, sills, heads, jambs, mold- ings, detailing, transoms and flanking sidelights. ›Do not alter the historic size and shape of a historic door opening. ›Do not change the historic locations of door openings on primary façades. ›Do not add a new door opening on a primary façade. ›Do not enclose transoms or sidelights. 3.16 Repair or replace a damaged door to maintain its general historic appearance. ›Use materials that are similar to that of the historic door. ›When replacing a historic door on a primary façade, use a design that is similar to the historic door. ›When replacing a historic door on a non- primary façade, use a design that is in character. Historic Door and Entry Components Historic door and entry features include: ›Door Detailing ›Sills ›Surround ›Transoms ›Heads ›Threshold ›Moldings ›Jambs ›Landing (i.e., mosaic tiles) ›Flanking sidelights ›Hardware Maintain a historic primary entrance design. The design, materi -als and location of historic doors and entries help establish the significance of a historic structure and shall be preserved. 4 4 Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources56 3.17 Locate and design a new door and entry to preserve the historic composition. ›Locate a new door to be consistent with the historic architectural style of the structure. ›Design a new door or entry to match historic door proportions. Design a new door or entry to match historic door proportions. 4 4 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 57 COMMERCIAL STOREFRONTS A historic commercial storefront is a key defining feature of a historic commercial building and shall be preserved. A historic storefront is usually framed by masonry side walls and a horizontal cornice or lintel above the storefront windows. The space within is highly transparent, including large transom windows over the display windows. A store entrance is usually recessed behind the plane of the façade and the cornice or lintel separates the storefront from upper floors. Preserving significant historic storefronts and recon- structing altered or missing storefront features is a key goal. Researching archival materials such as historic photos and building plans can be helpful in understand- ing the role of the storefront and its relationship to the street. 3.18 Maintain and repair a historic commercial storefront. ›Maintain interest for pedestrians by maintaining an active street level storefront. ›Preserve the storefront glass if it is intact. ›Repair historic storefront elements by patching, splicing, consolidating or otherwise reinforcing the historic materials. ›Do not alter the size and shape of a storefront opening. ›Do not use reflective, opaque or tinted glass. ›Do not remove or enclose a transom. ›Retain the relationship of the storefront to the sidewalk. 3.19 Replace storefront features to match historic features if necessary. ›Use traditional materials such as masonry and wood. ›If using traditional materials is not possible, use compatible substitute materials that are similar in scale, finish and character to the historic material, and have proven durability in the local climate. ›Use historical documentation to guide the design of replacement features, or design simplified versions of similar elements seen on nearby historic properties, if no documentation is available. ›Expose historic storefront elements that have been covered by modern siding or other ma- terials. 4 Before rehabilitation: historic storefront components survive. (ca. 1980)After the initial rehabilitation storefront components are retained. (ca. 1982) Storefront components continue to be pre -served. (2013) For More Information See web link to Preservation Brief 11: Rehabilitating Historic Storefronts http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/11-storefronts.htm 44 Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources58 3.20 Reconstruct a missing storefront to match the character, scale and materials of the historic. ›Use historical documentation to guide the design of the reconstruction. Traditional Commercial Storefront Features Historic commercial storefronts typically feature a tall ground floor level while upper stories have shorter floor-to-floor heights. The key character-defining features of a commercial storefront are: Molding or Lintel Transom Display Window Bulkhead/Kickplate Recessed Entry Engaged Column or Pilaster Contemporary Storefront Designs When a historic storefront is largely missing, it may be appropriate to design a replacement that is a contemporary interpretation of a traditional storefront. A contemporary replacement design shall: ›Promote pedestrian interest and an active street-level façade ›Use high-quality, durable materials that are similar in type and scale to traditional materials ›Be located within the historic structural frame of sidewalls and lintel or cornice that spaces the storefront opening ›Convey the characteristics of typical his- toric storefronts ›Include traditional storefront elements such as a bulkhead and transom ›Maintain the transparent character of the display windows ›Provide a recessed entry ›Use a simple and relatively undecorated design ›Relate to traditional elements of the façade above ›Preserve early storefront alterations that have become historically significant 3.21 A simplified or contemporary interpretation of a traditional storefront may be considered where the historic storefront is missing and no evidence of it exists. ›Where the historic is missing and no evidence of the historic storefront exists, a new design that uses traditional features of a storefront is permitted. ›The new design shall continue to convey the design character and materials of typical com- mercial storefronts. This includes the transpar- ent character of the glass. ›Use simple color combinations (see “Permitted Color Combinations for a Commercial Store- front” on page 61 for more information). 4 4 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 59 HISTORIC ROOFS Many roofs in the Old Town Historic District are flat and are concealed from view, where changes may not affect the integrity of the structure. For those that are visible, the form, shape and significant materials of a historic roof help define the character of a historic structure as it is perceived from the public way and shall be preserved. 3.22 Preserve the historic roofline on a historic structure. ›Maintain the perceived line and orientation of the roof as seen from the street. 3.23 Maintain and repair historic roof materials. ›Preserve decorative elements, including crests and chimneys. ›Retain and repair roof detailing, including gut- ters and downspouts. EXPOSED HISTORIC FOUNDATIONS A historic building foundation contributes to the charac- ter of a historic structure and shall be preserved. Altering or replacing historic foundation walls is discour- aged. However, it may be necessary to replace historic foundation walls with compatible new materials where the historic foundation is deteriorated beyond repair. 3.24 Maintain and repair a historic foundation. ›Re-point historic masonry foundations to match the historic design. ›Design landscaping and other site features to keep water from collecting near the foundation. ›Do not cover a historic foundation with newer siding material. ›Do not install windows, window wells or an access door on the front façade of a historic foundation. Historic Roof Features Historic roof features to maintain include: ›Parapet profile ›Historic height and profile. ›Historic materials ›Historic skylights ›Parapet crests Maintenance Tips: ›Look for breaks or holes in the roof surface and check the flashing for open seams. ›Watch for vegetation, such as moss and grass, which indicates accumulated dirt and retained moisture. ›Patch and replace areas with damaged roof material (often, repairing a roof can be much less expensive than complete replacement). Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources60 3.25 Replace a foundation wall using new material that is similar in character to the historic foundation. ›For example, if a stone foundation must be replaced, a material that conveys the scale and texture of the historic fabric may be considered. ›Use materials and details that resemble those used in foundations on similar nearby historic properties. ›Do not increase the height of the structure when replacing a foundation wall as it will alter the alignment of historic façades along the block and its relationship to other details on the build- ing. LOADING DOCKS Historic loading docks are important character- defining features of some commercial and industrial buildings and shall be preserved. These features also influence the perceived scale of the structure. Altering, enclosing, or removing a historic loading dock is not allowed. Loading docks on the rear of a building are important to the character of a property. 3.26 Maintain and repair a historic loading dock. ›Maintain the historic location and form of a loading dock. ›Maintain and repair loading dock components and details, such as a canopy or railing. COLOR Choosing the right combination of colors for a historic rehabilitation project can unify building elements with the façade and highlight important architectural detail- ing. Paint color selection shall be appropriate to the architectural style and complement the building and its surroundings. Using the historic color scheme is an option, but new schemes that are compatible are also permitted. 3.27 Retain historic colors. ›Retain the historic or early color and texture of masonry surfaces. ›Retain historic coatings such as paint that help protect exterior materials from moisture and ultraviolet light. ›Do not strip paint or other coatings to reveal bare wood. ›Do not paint unpainted masonry and architec- tural metals. ›Do not use destructive paint removal methods such as propane or butane torches, sandblasting or water blasting which can irreversibly damage historic materials. Preserve traditional loading docks. 4 For More Information See web link to Preservation Brief 10: Exterior Paint Problems on Historic Woodwork http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/10-paint-problems.htm Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 61 3.28 Use a color scheme that is compatible with the historic character of the structure. ›Restore historic paint colors and finishes to the extent reasonable to highlight the structure’s historic appearance. ›Repaint with colors that are appropriate to the period of historic significance of the building and district. Color selection shall be based on historic paint analysis of the historic layers of paint or appropriate historic research. ›Use color schemes that are simple in character (generally one to three accent colors for trim elements). ›Seek professional advice and properly prepare surfaces before painting. Permitted Color Combinations for a Commercial Storefront Three colors are generally sufficient to highlight a commercial storefront. Base Color. This appears on the upper wall and frames the storefront. The major expanses on a storefront will be painted this color. Major Trim. This defines the decorative elements of the building and ties the upper façade trim with the storefront. Elements include: ›Building and storefront cornice ›Window frames, sills and hoods ›Storefront frames, columns, bulk-heads and canopies. Minor Trim. This is intended to enhance the color scheme established by the base and major trim colors and may be used for window sashes, doors and selective details. Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources62 EXISTING ADDITIONS Some existing additions may have become historically significant in their own right. Unless the building is being accurately restored to an earlier period of sig- nificance, additions that have taken on significance shall be preserved. However, more recent additions may detract from the character of the building and could be considered for modification or removal. 3.29 Preserve an older addition that has achieved historic significance in its own right. ›Respect character-defining building components of a historically-significant addition. ›Do not demolish a historically-significant addi- tion. 3.30 Consider removing an addition that is not historically significant. ›Ensure that the historic fabric of the primary structure is not damaged when removing these features. NEW ADDITIONS AND ACCESSORY STRUCTURES A new addition or accessory structure that is compat- ible with the historic building and surrounding historic context may be permitted. It is important to consider its design and placement, as well as its relationship to the surrounding historic context. The design standards for new construction also apply to the design of a new addition or accessory structure. 3.31 Design an addition or accessory structure to be compatible with the historic structure. ›Design an addition or accessory structure to be visually subordinate to the historic building (It shall not replicate the design of the historic building.) ›Use materials that are of a similar color, tex- ture, and scale to materials in the surrounding historic context. ›Design an addition or accessory structure to be compatible with the scale, massing and rhythm of the surrounding historic context. ›Incorporate windows, doors and other open- ings at a consistent solid-to-void ratio to those found on nearby historic buildings. ›Use simplified versions of building components and details found in the surrounding historic context. This may include: a cornice; a distinc- tive storefront or main door surround; window sills or other features. ›Do not use replicas of historic building components and details that would convey a false history or that would draw undue attention to the addition. 4 For More Information: See web link to Preservation Brief 14: New Exterior Additions to Historic Buildings: Preservation Concerns http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/14-exterior-additions.htm 4 Preserve an older addition that has achieved historic significance in its own right. Design an addition or secondary structure to be subordinate to the historic building. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 63 3.32 Design an addition or secondary structure to be subordinate to the historic building. ›Place an addition or secondary structure to the side or the rear of the historic structure. ›Place a rooftop or upper-story addition to the rear to minimize visual impacts from public streets. ›Do not locate an addition on a primary façade. 3.33 Differentiate an addition from the historic structure. ›Use changes in material, color and/or wall plane. ›Use a lower-scale connecting element to join an addition to a historic structure. ›Use contemporary architectural styles or mate- rials in an addition or a simplified version of the architectural style. 3.34 Do not try to make an addition or secondary structure appear older than it is. ›Do not replicate historic details; use simplified versions. 3.35 Do not damage the historic fabric of the historic building when adding an addition. ›Do not damage or obscure significant architec- tural features of the historic building. Locating an Addition to a Historic Commercial Structure An addition to a historic commercial structure shall be subordinate to, and differentiated from, the historic structure as illustrated below. Historic Structure The one and two- story commercial building illustrated at right are historic. Historic Structures Rear Addition The rear addition illustrated at right is appropriate. Rear Addition 4 Rooftop Addition The rooftop addition illustrated at right is appropri- ate because it is set back from the front façade. Rooftop Addition 4 Appropriate addition to the rear of a contrib-uting structure. This building addition is located on an improved alley. Appropriate addition to the front of a one-story non-contributing structure. 4 4 Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources64 Planning for Energy Efficiency PLANNING FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY These standards address maintaining and improving resource and energy efficiency in a historic building, as well as methods for approaching energy conservation and generation technologies. The standards in this section apply to projects involving historic buildings. Other sustainability standards throughout this docu- ment will also apply. Objectives for historic preservation and community sustainability are often in alignment. Follow these basic steps when considering a rehabilitation project for energy efficiency: Step 1: Establish Project Goals. Develop an overall strategy and project goals for energy efficiency to maximize the effectiveness of a project. This will establish a broad view that can help place individual actions into context. Focus on minimizing use of resources and energy, minimizing negative environmental impacts, and retaining the his- toric integrity of a property. Strategies shall maximize the inherent value of the historic resource prior to considering alterations or retrofitting with new energy generation technology. Step 2: Maintain Building Components in Sound Condition. Maintaining existing building fabric reduces negative environmental impacts. Re-using a building preserves the energy and resources invested in its construction, and removes the need for producing new construction materials. Step 3: Maximize Inherent Sustainable Qualities. Typically, historic buildings in the Old Town Historic District were built with resources and energy efficiency in mind. Construction methods focused on durability and maintenance, resulting in individual building fea- tures that can be repaired if damaged, thus minimizing the use of materials throughout the building’s life cycle. Buildings were also built to respond to local climate conditions, integrating passive and active strategies for year-round interior climate control, which increase energy efficiency. Passive strategies typically include building orientation and features such as roof over- hangs and windows to provide both natural day lighting as well as management of solar heat gain. Active strate- gies typically include operable building features such as awnings and double-hung and transom windows. Identify a building’s inherent sustainable features and operating systems and maintain them in good operat- ing condition. In some cases these features may be covered, damaged or missing; repair or restore them where necessary. Step 4: Enhance Building Performance. A historic building’s inherent energy efficiency shall be augmented using techniques which improve energy efficiency without negatively impacting historic building elements. Noninvasive strategies such as increased in- sulation, weatherization improvements and landscaping should be employed. Step 5: Add Energy-Generating Technologies Sensitively. The flexibility of many historic structures allows for the respectful integration of energy efficient technolo- gies, i.e., solar panels, geo-thermal systems and thermal walls etc. Energy-generating technologies are the most commonly known strategies. However, the efficiency of a historic structure will often be great enough that generation technologies aren’t the most practical solu- tions. Utilize strategies to reduce energy consumption prior to undertaking an energy generation project. Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 65 ENHANCING ENERGY PERFORMANCE Improvements to enhance energy efficiency shall complement the historic building. The structure, form and materials shall be sensitively improved in energy efficiency terms to preserve the building’s character. 3.36 Use noninvasive strategies when applying weatherization improvements. ›Use cost-effective weather-stripping, insulation and storm windows to improve energy ef- ficiency while preserving historic character. ›Install additional insulation in an attic, basement or crawl space as a simple method to make a significant difference in a building’s energy ef- ficiency. Provide sufficient ventilation to prevent moisture build-up in the wall cavity. ›Install weatherization strategies in a way that does not alter or damage significant materials and their finishes. ›Use materials which are environmentally friendly and that will not interact negatively with historic building materials. ›When a roof must be replaced, consider install- ing a radiant barrier. ›Maintain historic windows; keep them in good repair and seal all leaks. ›Retain historic glass, taking special care in putty replacement. ›Maintain the glazing compound regularly. Re- move old putty with care. ›Use operable systems such as storm windows, insulated coverings, curtains and awnings to enhance performance of historic windows. MAINTAINING ENERGY EFFICIENCY The historic sustainable building features and systems of a historic building shall be maintained in good oper- ating condition. 3.37 Preserve the inherent energy efficient features of the historic building in operable condition. ›Identify a building’s inherent sustainable features and operating systems and maintain them in good condition. ›Retain historic shutters, awnings, canopies and transoms. Operable features such as these will increase the range of conditions in which a building is comfortable without mechanical climate controls. Energy Audit To inform an energy efficiency project strategy, conduct an energy audit. Energy audits can give a comprehensive view of how energy is currently managed, in the daily and seasonal cycles of use, and can also provide perspective on the payback of investment for potential work on the building. For example, an energy audit, when examined based on an overall strategy, may demonstrate that priorities shall be on increasing insulation in walls, ceilings and foundations, rather than replac- ing windows. Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources66 Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Diagram This diagram summarizes the principal direction in the standards for a rehabilitation project for energy efficiency on a commercial building. These measures can enhance energy efficiency while retaining the integrity of the historic structure. Upper-story WindoWs »Maintain historic windows »Weather-strip and caulk »Add storm windows (preferably interior) transoms »Retain operable transom to circulate air solar panels »Set back from primary façade to minimize visibility from street attic »Insulate internally or roof Green roof »Place below parapet line to minimize visibility from street roof material »Retain & repair aWninGs/canopies »Use operable awnings to control solar access and heat gain »Use fixed canopies to provide year-round shade and shelter doors »Maintain/weather-strip historic doors »Consider interior air lock area storefront WindoWs » Maintain and caulk historic windows Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 67 3.39 Install solar collectors to minimize potential adverse effects on the character of a historic property. ›Place collectors to avoid obscuring significant features or adversely affecting the perception of the overall character of the property. ›Size collector arrays to remain subordinate to the historic structure. ›Install collectors on an addition or secondary structure. ›Minimize visual impacts by locating collectors back from the front façade. ›Ensure that exposed hardware, frames and pip- ing have a matte finish, and are consistent with the color scheme of the primary structure. ›Use the least invasive method to attach solar collectors to a historic roof. USING ENERGY GENERATING TECHNOLOGIES Integrate modern energy technology into a historic structure while maintaining its historic integrity. Use of energy-generating technologies should be the final op- tion considered in an efficiency rehabilitation project. Utilize strategies to reduce energy consumption prior to undertaking an energy generation project. Consider the overall project goals and energy strategies when determining if a specific technology is right for the project. As new technologies are tried and tested, it is impor- tant that they leave no permanent negative impacts to historic structures. The reversibility (returning the building fabric to its historic condition) of their applica- tion will be a key consideration when determining if it shall be permitted. 3.38 Locate energy-generating technology to minimize impacts to the historic character of the site and structure. ›Locate technology where it will not damage, obscure or cause removal of significant features or materials. ›Maintain the historic character of the building. ›Install technology in such a way that it can be readily removed and the historic character eas- ily restored. ›Use materials which are environmentally friendly and that will not interact negatively with historic building materials. 3.40 Install wind turbines to minimize potential adverse effects on the character of a historic property. ›Use turbines and any exposed hardware with a matte finish that is consistent with the color scheme of the primary structure. ›Do not obscure significant features or impair the building’s historic significance. ›Attach turbines in a manner that avoids damage to significant features. ›Install turbines to allow restoration of affected building areas. ›Minimize structural impacts when installing turbines. Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources68 ACCESSIBILITY In 1990, the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandated that all places of public accom- modation be accessible to everyone. This includes his- toric structures that are used for commercial, rental, multi-family and public uses. Note that the law provides that alternative measures may be considered when the integrity of a historic resource may be threatened. In most cases, property owners can comply without compromising the historic resource. Owners of his- toric properties should comply to the fullest extent feasible with accessibility laws, while also preserving the integrity of the character-defining features of their building or site. These standards shall not prevent or inhibit compliance with accessibility laws. 3.41 Accessibility improvements shall be designed to preserve the integrity of a historic property. ›Retain the key features of the historic structure in any design. ›Ensure that accessibility improvements are “reversible.” PHASING PRESERVATION IMPROVEMENTS In some cases, a property owner may wish to make in- terim preservation improvements, rather than execute a complete rehabilitation of a historic property. This work shall be planned such that it establishes a founda- tion for future improvements that will further assure continued use of the property and retain its historic significance. For example, a simplified cornice element may be installed on a commercial storefront, in lieu of reconstructing the historic design, with the intent that an accurate reconstruction would occur later. 3.42 Plan interim preservation improvements to retain opportunities for future rehabilitation work that will enhance the integrity of a historic property. ›Preserve key character-defining features while making interim preservation improvements. ›Interim preservation improvements that would foreclose opportunities for more extensive rehabilitation in the future are inappropriate. ›See photo sequence on page 28.Accessibility improvements shall be designed to preserve the integrity of a historic property to the fullest. 4 Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 69 TEMPORARY STABILIZATION TREATMENTS When a building is to be unoccupied for an extended period of time, it shall be secured in a way in which to preserve historically significant features and prevent deterioration from weathering or vandalism. Often termed “mothballing,” such procedures are particularly relevant to properties that have been vacant for a long time. Stabilization shall be planned such that the integ- rity of the property will be maintained. 3.43 If a building is unoccupied, secure it in a way that protects its historic character. ›Maintain a weather-tight roof. Temporary roof- ing may be installed if needed. ›Structurally stabilize the building, if needed. ›When enclosing a window or door opening, do not damage frame and sash components. Mount any panel to cover the opening on the interior. Also, paint the panels to match the building color. ›Provide adequate ventilation to the interior of the building. EXISTING HISTORIC ALTERATIONS Many historic structures experience changes over time as design tastes change or need for additional space occurs. Many of these occurred while retaining the characteristics that are key historic features. Some of these alterations now may be historically significant themselves. An addition constructed in a manner compatible with the historic building and as- sociated with the period of significance is an example, and it too may merit preservation in its own right. In contrast, more recent alterations usually have no historic significance and may even detract from the character of the building and obscure significant fea- tures. Removing such an alteration may be considered in a rehabilitation project. Historic features that have been modified can also be restored. 3.44 Consider the significance of early alterations and additions. Consider these options: ›Preserve an older addition or alteration that has achieved historic significance in its own right, when it is key to understanding the history of the property. Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources70 IV DESIGN STANDARDS FOR ALL PROPERTIES 73Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 AWNINGS AND CANOPIES Traditionally, awnings and canopies were noteworthy features of buildings in the Old Town Historic District, and their continued use is encouraged. These elements are simple in detail, and they reflect the character of the buildings to which they are attached. 4.1 Preserve traditional canopies. ›Retain historic hardware. 4.2 Install an awning or canopy to fit the opening and be in character with the building. ›A fabric awning is permitted. ›A fixed metal canopy may be considered when it would be in character. ›Mount an awning or canopy to accentuate character-defining features. The awning or canopy shall fit in the openings of the buildings. ›Simple sloping awnings and flat canopies are permitted. Odd shapes, bullnose awnings and bubble awnings are prohibited. 4.3 Design an awning or canopy with colors and materials that are durable and compatible with the structure. ›Use canvas or a similar woven material (pre- ferred approach) for an awning. ›Do not use a material without proven durability or that has a gloss finish. ›Contemporary awnings may be considered. Design Standards for All Properties ›Post supported canopies are prohibited on the front facade of a commercial building. However, they may be considered on a rear facade that faces an alley. Design an awning or canopy with colors and materials that are durable and compatible with the structure. Traditionally, awnings were noteworthy features of commercial buildings, and their continued use is encouraged. Awnings and canopies can help define windows, entry areas and the pedestrian level of buildings. For More Information See web link to Preservation Brief 44: The Use of Awnings on Historic Buildings, Repair, Replacement and New Design http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/44-awnings.htm 4 4 74 Design Standards for All Projects STREET LAYOUT Established vehicular, pedestrian and bicycle access shall be preserved. 4.4 Retain the historic network of streets and alleys. › The network of streets and alleys shall be retained as public circulation space and for maximum public access. › Streets and alleys shall not be enclosed or closed to public access. ›Link a new walkway to an existing public right- of-way. OUTDOOR USE AREAS Outdoor use areas occur as accents. These include outdoor dining areas and small public plazas. These shall be integrated with the design of the site and the building. Small Public Plazas and Courtyards A small public plaza or courtyard may be considered. However, within the heart of the Old Town Historic District, where the greatest concentration of historic storefronts align, creating a gap in the street wall is not allowed, because it disrupts the street wall. 4.5 A small public plaza or courtyard shall contain features to promote and enhance its use. ›It must be: directly accessible to the public way; level with the public way; ›It may have one or all of the following: street furniture; public art; historical/interpretive marker. A small public plaza or courtyard is permitted at the rear of the structure to help to enliven the alley set- ting. 4 4 75Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 Terraces, Patios and Deck Space Improvements that provide areas for active outdoor use (i.e., dining) are welcomed amenities, but they must be in character with the historic fabric in the Old Town Historic District. There are typically two types: raised and at-grade. 4.6 Locate a raised dining area (deck) to minimize visual impacts to the street. ›Placing it to the rear of a property is preferred. ›Rooftop decks shall be set back from the build- ing facade. ›Projecting or cantilevered decks are prohibited. ›Dining support service areas, such as wait sta- tions and dish areas, shall be located away from public view. 4.7 Locate an at-grade dining area to minimize impacts on the streetscape. ›Locate an at-grade dining area to the side or rear of a property. ›It is permissible to locate an at-grade dining area in the public ROW in a street wall context, sub- ject to any necessary permits or encroachment agreements which may be required. The dining area shall be clearly defined in this setting. HANDRAILS AND ENCLOSURES In some circumstances it may be necessary to add handrails or an enclosure to a property to accommo- date an outdoor dining area, accessibility or to enhance safety. If so, it must have minimal impact on the urban setting and/or the historic resource. 4.8 A railing shall be simple in design. ›Simple metal work is permitted. ›Very ornate metal, plastic or wood designs are prohibited. ›The railing shall be transparent in its overall appearance. One shall be able to see through to the building. Railings shall be mostly transparent and simple in design. 4 4 76 Design Standards for All Projects SITE LIGHTING The light level at the property line is a key design con- sideration. This is affected by the number of fixtures, their mounting height, and the lumens emitted per fixture. It is also affected by the screening and design of the fixture. Light spill onto adjacent properties and into the night sky shall be minimized and the design shall be compatible with the district. 4.11 Shield lighting to prevent off-site glare. ›A light fixture shall incorporate a cut-off shield to direct light downward. ›A luminaire (lamp) shall not be visible from adjacent streets or properties. ›Shield a fixture to minimize light spill onto adjacent properties and into the night sky. 4.12 A light fixture must be in character with the setting. ›A fixture shall be compatible with the historic context. ART AND HISTORIC PROPERTIES Public art is welcomed as an amenity in Fort Collins’ historic districts. It shall be planned as an integral component of the urban environment and shall be strategically located to serve as an accent to public areas. An installation on private property that is visible from the public way also shall be planned to retain the historic significance of a property. 4.9 Public art shall be compatible with the historic context. ›An art installation shall not impede one’s abil- ity to interpret the historic character of the district. ›Locate public art such that the ability to per- ceive the character of historic buildings nearby is maintained. 4.10 An art installation on a historic property shall be compatible with the resource. It shall: ›Maintain one’s ability to interpret the historic character of the resource. ›Preserve key features that contribute to the property’s significance. ›Be reversible in a way that the key features of the property remain intact. 77Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 BUILDING LIGHTING The character and level of lighting that is used on a building is of special concern. Traditionally, exterior lights were simple in character and were used to high- light signs and building entrances. Most fixtures had incandescent lamps that cast a color similar to daylight, were relatively low intensity and were shielded with simple shade devices. Although new lamp types may be considered, the overall effect of modest, focused, building light shall be continued. When installing lighting on a historic building, use exist- ing documentation as a basis for the new design. If no documentation exists, use a contemporary light fixture that is simple in design. Building lighting shall be installed in a manner so as not to damage the historic fabric of the building and shall be reversible. Most historic light- ing was subdued and directed at signs, entrances, and in a few cases, building features. 4.13 Use lighting to accent: ›Building entrances, signs and to illuminate walk- ways. 4.14 Minimize the visual impacts of architectural lighting. ›Use exterior light sources with a low level of luminescence. ›Use lights that cast a similar color to daylight. ›Do not wash an entire building facade in light. ›Use lighting fixtures that are appropriate to the building and its surroundings in terms of style, finish, scale and intensity of illumination. ›Mount exterior fixtures in an inconspicuous manner. ›Do not damage or obscure historic building components and fabric when mounting exterior fixtures. 4.15 Use shielded and focused light sources to prevent glare. ›Provide shielded and focused light sources that direct light downward. ›Do not use high intensity light sources or cast light directly upward. ›Do not allow excessive light spill from buildings. 78 Design Standards for All Projects SURFACE PARKING The visual impact of surface parking shall be mini- mized. On-site parking must be subordinate to other uses and the front of the lot shall not appear to be a parking area. 4.18 Minimize the visual impact of surface parking. ›Locate a parking area at the rear or to the side of a site or to the interior of the block. This is especially important on corner properties. Corner properties are generally more visible than interior lots, serve as landmarks and pro- vide a sense of enclosure to an intersection. 4.19 Site a surface lot so it will minimize gaps in the continuous building wall of a commercial block. › Where a parking lot shares a site with a build- ing, place the parking at the rear of the site. 4.20 Provide a visual buffer where a parking lot abuts a public way. ›A landscaped strip or planter using a combina- tion of trees and shrubs is permitted. ›A low, decorative wall as a screen for the edge of the lot is also permitted. Materials must be compatible with those of nearby buildings. SERVICE AREAS Service areas shall be visually unobtrusive and must be integrated with the design of the site and the building. 4.16 Minimize the visual impacts of a service area. ›Orient a service entrance, waste/compost disposal area or other service area toward service lanes and away from public streets. ›Screen a service area with a wall, fence or planting, in a manner that is in character with the building and its site. 4.17 Position a service area to minimize conflicts with other abutting uses. ›Minimize noise impacts by locating sources of offensive sounds away from other uses. ›Use an alley. Orient a service area towards service lanes and away from public streets. 4 79Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 BUFFERS Parking, storage and equipment areas shall be visually buffered with landscaping or a screen wall. The design must complement the context. 4.21 Provide a visual buffer along the edge of a parking lot or service area. ›Use a landscape strip or screen wall at the edge of a parking lot. ›Provide a landscape buffer or screen wall by ground mounted mechanical equipment, service and/or storage areas. BUILDING EQUIPMENT Junction boxes, external fire connections, telecom- munication devices, cables, conduits, satellite dishes, HVAC equipment and fans may affect the character of a property. These and similar devices shall be screened from public view to avoid negative effects. 4.22 Minimize the visual impacts of building equipment on the public way and the district as a whole. ›Screen equipment from view. ›Do not locate equipment on a primary facade. ›Use low-profile or recessed mechanical units on rooftops. ›Locate satellite dishes and mechanical equip- ment out of public view. ›Locate utility lines and junction boxes on sec- ondary and tertiary walls, and group them. ›Group utility lines in conduit, and paint these elements, to match the existing background color. › Locate a utility pedestal (ground mounted) to the rear of a building. Parking Buffers Consider the use of a landscaped strip or planter to provide a visual buffer where a parking lot abuts a public sidewalk. 4 80 Design Standards for All Projects 4.23 Install mechanical equipment to minimize impacts on historic fabric. ›Install mechanical equipment in areas and spaces that require the least amount of altera- tion to the historic building. ›Do not damage or cut holes in important architectural features, such as cornices, deco- rative ceilings and paneling. ›Do not install mechanical equipment on a primary façade. SECURITY DEVICES It may sometimes be necessary to provide a security device on a building. It shall be designed to be as inconspicuous as possible, and must not alter signifi- cant architectural features of the building. The use of interior, operable, transparent devices is preferred. 4.24 Minimize the visual impact of security devices. ›Locate a security device inside a storefront. ›Use operable and transparent (simple bars with spacing so one can view through to display) security devices on ground floor storefronts. ›Opaque, roll-down metal screens are pro- hibited, because these obscure products on display and thereby weaken the interest of the street to pedestrians when in a closed posi- tion. ›Decorative security devices are permitted when they complement the architectural style. ›Security devices are prohibited above the sec- ond floor, unless unique security conditions are indicated. Install roof-mounted mechanical equipment, such as air conditioners, to be inconspicuous when viewed from pub -lic streets. Back side of building. 4 81Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 4.25 Do not damage the character of the historic building when installing a security device. ›Do not damage or obscure significant architec- tural features of the historic building. ›The installation shall be reversible. Once re- moved the historic building must remain intact and the integrity of historic materials shall not be compromised. 4 4 4 Decorative secu-rity devices are permitted when they complement the architectural style. 82 Design Standards for All Projects 4.27 Base or background colors shall be muted. › Building features shall be muted, while trim accents can be either a contrasting color or a harmonizing color. › An accent color shall not contrast so strongly as to not read as part of the composition. ›Bright high-intensity colors are not permitted. ›Use matte or low luster finishes instead of glossy ones. ›Non-reflective, muted finishes on all features is preferred. 4.28 Building elements shall be finished in a manner similar to that seen traditionally. The following are recommended treatments: › Brick and stone: unpainted, natural color un- less painted historically › Window frames and sash, doors and frame and storefronts: wood - painted; metal - anodized or baked color ›Highly reflective materials, weathered wood and clear finishes are prohibited on large surfaces. A clear finish is permitted on a wood entry door. ARCHEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Negative impacts on archeological resources shall be avoided. 4.29 Leave archeological resources in place, to the maximum extent feasible. ›Avoid disturbing known archeological re- sources. ›If archeological materials are discovered con- tact the City of Fort Collins Historic Preserva- tion office. COLOR Traditionally, color schemes in the Old Town Historic District were relatively muted. A single base color was applied to the primary wall plane. Then, one or two accent colors were used to highlight ornamental features, as well as trim around doors and windows. Since many of the commercial structures were unpainted brick, the natural color of the masonry became the background color. Sometimes a contrast- ing masonry was used for window sills and moldings. As a result, the contrast between the base color and trim was relatively subtle. These traditions of using limited numbers of colors, and muted ones, shall be continued. These standards do not specify which colors should be selected, but rather how they shall be used. 4.26 The facade shall “read” as a single composition. ›Employ color schemes that are simple in character. ›Using one base color for the building walls and another for the roof is preferred. ›Using one to three accent colors for trim ele- ments is also preferred. V DESIGN STANDARDS FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION 85Old Town Fort Collins Design Guidelines | July 2014 Overview Designing a new building to fit within the historic char- acter of the Old Town Historic District requires careful thought. Preservation in a historic district context does not mean that the area must be “frozen” in time, but it does mean that, when new building occurs, it shall be in a manner that reinforces the visual characteristics of the district. This does not imply, however, that a new building must look old. In fact, imitating historic styles is discouraged. Rather than imitating older styles, a new design shall relate to the fundamental characteristics of the his- toric context while also conveying the design trends of today. It may do so by drawing upon basic ways of building that make up a part of the character of the district. Such features include the way in which a build- ing is located on its site, the manner in which it relates to the street and its basic mass, form and materials. When these design variables are arranged in a new building to be similar to those seen traditionally, visual compatibility results. This section provides design standards for new infill construction and improvements to buildings that con- tribute to the fabric in the Old Town Historic District. ›Building Placement and Orientation ›Architectural Character and Detail ›Building Mass, Scale and Height ›Building and Roof Forms ›Primary Entrances ›Materials ›Windows New Additions A new addition to an existing building in the historic district shall follow the standards for new construction provided in this section. See also the Design Standards for the Treatment of Historic Resources section, for additional standards that apply to additions to a historic structure. The general alignment of storefronts, moldings and upper story windows contributes to the visual continuity of many commercial blocks in Old Town Fort Collins. A variation in the height of cornices exists, within a range of one to three stories. Facade widths also vary, but within a relatively narrow range. 86 Design Standards for New Construction Considering Context Compatibility with the Old Town context is a key principle for the design of new construction. This typically focuses on buildings in the same block, on both sides of the street, and also across an alley. In some cases, a structure that is not historic may also be found in the immediate vicinity, but this does not influence considerations of compatibility. BUILDING PLACEMENT AND ORIENTATION Traditionally, buildings in Old Town were arranged in consistent development patterns, in terms of their site plan and orientation. Most commercial buildings aligned uniformly along a street. This created a con- sistent “street wall” that is now a key feature of the historic district. Reinforcing traditional development patterns is paramount in designing a new building to fit within the historic district. New infill shall reflect traditional development patterns, including facade alignment and uniform building orientation. 5.1 Maintain the alignment of building fronts along the street. ›Locate a new building to reflect established alignment patterns along the block. ›Where historic buildings are positioned at the sidewalk edge, creating a uniform street wall, then a new building shall conform to this align- ment. 5.2 Maintain the traditional pattern of buildings facing the street. ›Locate a primary entrance to face the street and design it to be clearly identifiable. ›For a commercial storefront, use a recessed entry.Locate a primary entrance to face the street and be clearly iden -tifiable. 4 New Commercial Building Design Maintain the alignment of building fronts along the street. 87Old Town Fort Collins Design Guidelines | July 2014 4 ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER AND DETAIL In order to assure that historic resources are appreci- ated as authentic contributors in the historic district, it is important that a new building be distinguishable from them while also remaining compatible with the context. New construction shall appear as a product of its own time while also being compatible with the historically significant resources of the area. 5.3 Design a new building to express its own time while remaining compatible with the historic district. ›See the standards that follow for information about basic elements of compatibility. 5.4 An interpretation of a historic style that is authentic to the district will be considered if it is subtly distinguishable as being new. ›Exact imitation of a historic style that would blur the distinction between old and new build - ings and make it more difficult to understand the architectural evolution of the district are not permitted. 4 New construction should appear as a product of its own time while also being compatible with the historically significant resources of the area. Exact imitation of a historic style that would blur the distinc-tion between old and new buildings and make it more difficult to understand the architectural evolution of the district are not permitted. 88 Design Standards for New Construction 4 Design a new building to reflect its time while respecting key features of its context. 5.5 Incorporate traditional facade articulation techniques in a new design. Use these methods: ›a tall first floor ›vertically proportioned upper story windows ›window sills and frames that provide detail ›horizontal expression elements, such as cano- pies, belt courses, moldings and cornices ›vertical expression features, such as columns and pilasters ›a similar ratio of solid wall to window area ›a base, middle and a cap4 Incorporate traditional facade articulation techniques in a new design. Incorporate a kickplate into a storefront design. 89Old Town Fort Collins Design Guidelines | July 2014 4 BUILDING MASS, SCALE AND HEIGHT Each historic building in the district exhibits distinct characteristics of mass, height and a degree of wall articulation that contributes to its sense of scale. As groupings, these structures establish a definitive sense of scale. A new building shall express these traditions of mass and scale, and it shall be compatible in height, mass and scale with its context, including the specific block and the historic district as a whole. 5.6 Convey the traditional size of historic buildings in new construction as it is perceived at the street level. ›The height of a new building shall appear to be within the height range established in the con- text, especially at the street frontage. ›Floor-to-floor heights shall appear similar to those of traditional buildings. ›If an additional floor is permitted, place it (or sufficient portions of it) back from the street front to maintain the traditional range of heights at the street edge. 5.7 The overall height of a new building shall be compatible with the historic district. A building height that exceeds the height range established in the context will be considered only when: ›It is demonstrated that the additional height will be compatible with adjacent properties and for the historic district at large. ›Taller portions are set back from the street. ›Access to light and air of surrounding properties is respected. The overall height of a new building shall be compatible with the historic district. A building height that exceeds the height range established in the context will be considered only when it is demonstrated that the additional height will be compatible with adjacent properties and for the historic district at large. Note the additional height on the building in the background steps back from the front and side. The height of a new building shall appear to be within the height range established in the context, especially at the street front-age. 4 90 Design Standards for New Construction Mass, Scale and Height at Different Levels Building mass, scale and height shall be considered in these ways: (1) As experienced at the street level immediately adjacent to the building. ›At this level of perception, the actual height of the building wall at the street edge is a key factor. The scale of windows and doors, the modular characteristics of building ma- terials, and the expression of floor heights also contribute to perceived scale. (2) As viewed along a block, in perspective with others in the immediate area. ›The degree of similarity (or diversity) of building heights along a block, and the repetition of similar features, including openings, materials and horizontal expres- sion lines, combine to establish an overall sense of scale at this level of experiencing context. (3) As seen from key public viewpoints inside and outside of the historic district. ›In groups, historic buildings and compatible newer structures establish a sense of scale for the entire district and define the skyline. 5.8 Provide variation in building height when a new building is substantially wider than historic buildings in the district. ›In order to reduce the perceived mass of a larger building, divide it into subordinate modules that reflect traditional building sizes in the context. ›Vary the height of building modules in a larger structure. The variation in height should reflect historic building heights found in the district. ›A street wall should provide some variation in building heights, otherwise it can read as one large static mass. ›Excessive modulation of a building mass is not permitted, since this would be out of character with simpler historic building forms in the area. 5.9 Maintain the scale of traditional building widths in the context. ›Design a new building to reflect the traditional building widths of adjacent buildings. ›Where a building must exceed this width, use changes in design features so the building reads as separate building modules reflecting tradi- tional building widths and massing. Changes in the expression and details of materials, window design, facade heights or materials shall be used. ›Where these articulation techniques are used, they shall be expressed consistently throughout the structure, such that the composition ap- pears as several authentic building modules. Ne w B u i l d i n g 4 Changes in cornice lines combined with varia-tions in wall planes can help a new, larger building appear consistent with traditional development patterns. 91Old Town Fort Collins Design Guidelines | July 2014 4 This single, new infill building is divided into modules to reflect the scale of the historic context. The height of a new building shall appear to be within the height range of historic buildings, especially at street frontage. 5.10 Establish a sense of human scale in a building design. ›Use vertical and horizontal articulation tech- niques to reduce the apparent mass of a larger building and to create visual interest. ›Express the position of each floor in the exter- nal skin of a building to establish a scale similar to historic buildings in the district. ›Use materials that convey scale in their propor- tion, detail and form. ›Design architectural details to be in scale with the building. Windows, doors, and storefronts (in commercial buildings) that are similar in scale to those seen traditionally shall be used. This single infill building successfully employs building articulation methods to break up the mass of the building. Note the height of the storefront, depth of openings and variation in parapet heights. The building also reads as separate masses with the ver-tical circulation offsets that have been employed. 4 4 92 Design Standards for New Construction BUILDING AND ROOF FORMS A similarity of building forms also contributes to a sense of visual continuity. In order to maintain this feature, a new building shall have a basic form that is similar to that seen traditionally. 5.11 Use simple, rectangular building forms. ›Use building forms that are similar to traditional forms. › Use roof forms similar to those seen tradition- ally in the district. Floor to floor heights shall appear similar to those of traditional buildings. 4 Use a tall first floor and vertically proportioned upper story win-dows. 4 93Old Town Fort Collins Design Guidelines | July 2014 ENTRANCES Traditionally in the historic district, most primary en- trances were oriented to the street and were recessed. They provide visual interest and a sense of scale to each building. A primary entrance shall be clearly identifiable in a new building and it must be in character with the building and its context. The entrance shall include fea- tures to signify it as such, and convey a sense of scale. 5.12 Orient a primary entrance towards the street. ›Design an entrance to a commercial building to convey a sense of scale and provide visual interest. 5.13 Maintain the pattern created by recessed entryways. ›Set the door back an adequate amount from the front facade to establish a distinct threshold for pedestrians. ›Where an entry is to be recessed, the building line at the sidewalk edge shall be maintained by the upper floor(s). ›Use a transom over a doorway to maintain the full vertical height of the storefront. ›Oversized and undersized entrances are prohib - ited. 4 94 Design Standards for New Construction MATERIALS Traditional building materials in the historic district include various types of masonry, primarily brick, stone and concrete. Today, these materials are key to the character of the district. Building materials shall reflect the range of textures, modularity and finish of those employed traditionally. They also shall contribute to the visual continuity of the specific historic district. They shall be of proven durability in similar applications. 5.14 Use building materials that appear similar in scale, color, texture and finish to those seen historically in the district. ›Use materials that are proven to be durable in the local climate. ›Use materials that will maintain an intended finish over time, or acquire a patina. ›Use masonry with a modular dimension similar to typical masonry materials. ›When an alternative material is permitted, use a durable material. (See “Using New Materials” to the left for more information.) ›On the ground level, use materials that will withstand on-going contact with the public, sustaining impacts without compromising their appearance. Typical Materials Typical historic building materials used in Old Town Fort Collins include: »Masonry ›Brick ›Stone ›Terra Cotta ›Poured Concrete ›Pre-cast Concrete »Wood »Metal ›Cast iron, ›Copper ›Sheet metal Understanding the character of these materials and the patterns they create is essential to developing new interpretations. Using New Materials Compatibility with historic materials can be achieved without purely replicating their traditional use. A new building material that conveys the es- sence of modularity and the texture and finish of historic materials, and that has proven durability in the local climate, is often compatible. The degree to which an alternative material may be used successfully on a new building also will be influenced by the degree of consistency or variety in materials that already exists in the block. Use building materials that appear similar in scale, color, texture and finish to those seen historically in the district. 4 95Old Town Fort Collins Design Guidelines | July 2014 WINDOWS The manner in which windows are used to articulate a new building wall is an important consideration in establishing a sense of scale and visual continuity. Tradi- tionally in Old Town, a storefront system was installed on the ground floor and upper story windows often appeared as punched openings. These features often align with others in the block, and establish a rhythm or pattern of solid and void that vi- sually links buildings along the street. These traditional arrangements may also be interpreted in contempo - rary designs that complement the established patterns within the historic district. Window design and placement shall establish a sense of scale and provide pedestrian interest. Established solid to void patterns shall be maintained. Contemporary and creative design interpretations of window rhythms and patterns that reference, but do not duplicate his- toric designs, may be considered. 5.15 A contemporary storefront design is permitted if it reinforces the visual characteristics of the district. ›Design a building to incorporate a ground floor storefront. ›Basic design features found in traditional storefronts, such as a kickplate, display window, transom and a primary entrance shall be incor- porated. ›In storefront details, use elements similar in profile and depth of detailing seen historically. Design a building to incorporate a ground floor storefront. 4 4 Incorporate the basic design features found in traditional store-fronts, such as a kickplate, display window, transom and a pri-mary entrance. 96 Design Standards for New Construction 5.16 Arrange windows to reflect the traditional rhythm and general alignment of others in the district. ›Use window rhythms and alignments similar to traditional buildings, such as: vertically propor- tioned, single or sets of windows, “punched” into a more solid wall surface, and evenly spaced along upper floors; window sills or headers that align; and rows of windows or storefront sys- tems of similar dimensions, aligned horizontally along a wall surface ›Creative interpretations of traditional window arrangement may be considered. 5.17 Use durable window materials. ›Permitted window materials include metal and wood frame. ›Prohibited window materials include synthetic materials that do not have a proven durability, such as plastic snap-in muntins. Arrange windows to reflect the traditional rhythm and general alignment of others in the area. 4 97Old Town Fort Collins Design Guidelines | July 2014 New Construction and Sustainability ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN NEW DESIGNS The conservation of energy is a key objective in site design, building design and building orientation. The site design process shall include an evaluation of the physical assets of the site to maximize energy efficiency and conservation in the placement and design of a build - ing. Designs shall consider seasonal changes in natural lighting and ventilation conditions. A design shall also take into account the potential effect on an adjoining property, in terms of its solar ac- cess and ability to implement the same environmental design principles. Careful consideration shall also be given to balancing sustainable design principles with those related to maintaining the traditional character of the area. 5.18 Locate a new building, or an addition, to take advantage of microclimatic opportunities for energy conservation, while avoiding negative impacts to the historic context. ›Orient a building to be consistent with historic development patterns. ›Maximize energy efficiency and conservation opportunities. 5.19 Design a building, or an addition, to take advantage of energy saving and generating opportunities. ›Design windows to maximize daylighting into interior spaces. › Use exterior shading devices to manage solar gain in summer months. For example, use cano- pies or awnings on storefronts similar to how they were used traditionally. ›Energy-generating devices, including solar col- lectors and wind turbines, are permitted where they also remain visually subordinate. 98 Design Standards for New Construction COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY DIAGRAM A Wind Devices: Set back from primary facade to minimize visibility from the street. B Operable Transoms: Allows for natural air circulation. C Green Roofs: Set back from primary facade and hide behind parapets to minimize visibility from the street. D Shading Devices: Operable canopies located above display windows. E Solar Panels: Set back from primary facade and hide behind parapets to minimize visibility from the street. A B C D E These sustainability designs should be considered in the context of an overall strategy. 99Old Town Fort Collins Design Guidelines | July 2014 ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN BUILDING MASSING A building mass shall maximize the potential for natural daylighting as well as solar energy collection, while avoiding negative impacts to the historic context. 5.20 Shape a building’s mass to maximize solar energy potential. Use the following strategies: ›Design a building to allow natural daylighting to the interior. ›Articulate wall planes as a way to provide shade or increase solar access to interiors. ›Use thermal storage walls on a portion of the south facing building exposure, where appropri- ate. 5.21 Orient a building to maximize green principles while ensuring compatibility with adjacent, lower-scale structures. Permitted strategies include: ›Position the taller portion of a building along a north-south axis to minimize shading on lower scale structures to the north. ›Design a building mass to minimize shading south-facing facades of adjacent buildings during winter months. Articulate building mass to take advantage of solar energy. The image above shows a plaza to the left. It is shaded during peak winter hours, therefore the plaza location should be considered on the opposite side of the building. Below, the plaza is to the right; it is enhanced by solar rays during peak winter hours. 100 Design Standards for New Construction ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE IN BUILDING ELEMENTS The elements that make up a new building, including windows, mechanical systems and materials, can signifi- cantly impact environmental performance. These shall be designed to maximize the building’s efficiency, while promoting compatibility with surrounding sites and structures. New materials that improve environmental performance are permitted if they have been proven effective in this climate and are compatible with the historic context. 5.22 Use green building materials whenever possible. Such materials are: ›locally manufactured ›low maintenance ›materials with long life spans ›recycled materials 5.23 Incorporate building elements that allow for natural environmental control. Consider the following: ›operable windows for natural ventilation ›low infiltration fenestration products ›interior or exterior light shelves/solar screens above south facing windows ›green roofs SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY DEVICES Solar and wind energy devices (i.e., solar panels, wind turbines) shall be positioned to have a minimal effect on the character of Old Town. 5.24 Minimize the visual impacts of energy devices on the character of Old Town. › Equipment shall be mounted where it has the least visual impact. ›Exposed hardware, frames and piping shall have a matte finish, and be consistent with the color scheme of the primary structure. Green Roofs Green roofs provide the following benefits: ›Increase energy efficiency ›Moderate waste diversion ›Stormwater management ›Reduce heat island effect ›Improve air quality ›Provide amenity space for building users VI DESIGN STANDARDS FOR SIGNS 103Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 Overview Signs are important elements of Old Town and balanc- ing their functional requirements with the objectives for the overall character of the district is a key con- sideration. Their placement, relationship to historic features and general character are key considerations. This section provides standards that address the qualitative aspects of sign design, in terms of how signs contribute to the character of a historic district and to individual properties. Topics include: ›Treatment of Historic Signs ›Sign Installation on a Historic Building ›Design of New and Modified Signs ›Design of Specific Sign Types ›Sign Illumination Common signs types found in the district include: ›Projecting signs ›Flush wall signs ›Awning signs ›Interpretive signs ›Window and door signs Signs are important elements of Old Town and balanc-ing their functional requirements with the objectives for the overall charac-ter of the district is a key consideration. 4 4 4 Sign Code In addition to these standards, also see the Fort Collins Land Use Code, Division 3.8 Supplementary Regulations, 3.8.7 Signs. 104 Design Standards for Signs All historic signs shall be retained. Historic signs that represent the district’s evolution are also important. 6.1 Consider history, context and design when determining whether to retain a sign. A sign shall be retained when the sign is: › Associated with historic figures, events or places. ›Significant as evidence of the history of the product, business or service advertised. ›A significant part of the history of the building or the historic district. ›Characteristic of a specific historic period. ›Integral to the building’s design or physical fabric. ›Integrated into the design of a building such that removal could harm the integrity of a historic property’s design or cause significant damage to its materials. ›An outstanding example of the sign maker’s art because of its craftsmanship, use of materials, or design. ›A historically significant type of sign Flush wall signs and individual letter signs are signs that are mounted on a building wall. They do not project significantly from the surface to which they are mounted. 6.2 Leave a historic wall sign visible. ›Do not paint over a historic sign. ›There are times when some alterations to a historic wall sign may be permitted; these are: ›If the sign is substantially deteriorated, patching and repairing is permitted. ›If the sign serves a continuing use, i.e., there are older signs that still have an active business and they need to change information such as the hours of operation 6.3 Do not over restore a historic wall sign. ›Do not restore a historic wall sign to the point that all evidence of its age is lost. ›Do not significantly re-paint a historic wall sign even if its appearance and form is recaptured. 4 Leave historic wall signs visible. Treatment of Historic Signs See Also: Web link to Preservation Brief 25: The Preserva- tion of Historic Signs http://www.nps.gov/tps/how-to-preserve/ briefs/25-signs.htm 105Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 Sign Installation on a Historic Building When installing a new sign on a historic building, it is important to maintain the key architectural features of and minimize potential damage to the building. 6.4 Do not damage or obscure architectural details or other building features when installing a sign. ›No sign or sign structure or support shall be placed onto or obscure or damage any significant architectural feature of a building, including but not limited to a window or a door frame, cornice, molding, ornamental feature, or unusual or fragile material. 6.5 A sign shall not obscure character- defining features of a historic building. ›A sign shall be designed to integrate with the architectural features of a building, not distract from them. ›No sign shall be painted onto any significant architectural feature, including but not limited to a wall, window or door frame, cornice, molding, ornamental feature, or unusual or fragile material. ›No support for a sign shall extend above the cornice line of a building to which the sign is attached. A sign shall be designed to integrate with the architectural fea-tures of a building, not distract from them. This sign remains subordinate to the architectural feature since much of the mold -ing is still visible. Do not damage or obscure architectural details or features when installing signs. 44 Mount a sign to fit within existing architectural features using the shape of the sign to help reinforce the horizontal lines of the building. 8 4 106 Design Standards for Signs Whether it is attached to a historic building or as- sociated with new development, a new or modified sign shall exhibit qualities of style, permanence and compatibility with the natural and built environment. It shall also reflect the overall context of the building and surrounding area. 6.6 A sign shall be subordinate to the overall building composition. ›Design a sign to be simple in character. ›Locate a sign to emphasize design elements of the facade itself. ›Mount a sign to fit within existing architectural features using the shape of the sign to help reinforce the horizontal lines of the building. ›All sign types shall be subordinate to the building and to the street. 6.7 Sign materials shall be compatible with the architectural character and materials of the building. ›Do not use reflective materials. ›Use permanent, durable materials. 6.8 Use simple typeface design. ›Do not use hard-to-read or overly intricate typefaces. ›Use no more than two or three distinct typefaces on a sign. 6.9 Use colors that contribute to legibility and design integrity. ›Limit the number of colors used on a sign. Generally, do not use more than three colors. ›Vibrant colors are discouraged. 6.10 Using a symbol for a sign is permitted. ›A symbol sign adds interest, can be read quickly and is remembered better than written words. Use sign materials that are compatible with the architectural character and materials of the building. Design of New and Modified Signs Using a symbol for a sign is permitted. 4 4 107Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 A variety of sign types may be permitted if each sign contributes to a sense of visual continuity and does not overwhelm the context. AWNING SIGN An awning/canopy sign occurs flat against the surface of the awning material. 6.11 An awning sign shall be compatible with the building. ›Use colors and materials that are compatible with the overall color scheme of the facade. ›See page 73 for additional awning standards. INTERPRETIVE SIGN An interpretive sign refers to a sign or group of signs that provide information to visitors on natural, cultural and historic resources or other pertinent information. An interpretive sign is usually erected by a non-profit organization or by a national, state or local govern- ment agency. Interpretive signs shall comply with the design stan- dards for the sign type that is the closest match. The standards below apply to a common freestanding sign type. 6.12 Design an interpretive sign to be simple in character. ›The sign face shall be easily read and viewed by pedestrians. ›An interpretive sign shall remain subordinate to its context. 4 Although these interpretive signs are outside of the Old Town district they’re good examples of permitted interpretive signs. The signs are simple in character. Design of Specific Sign Types 4 An awning sign shall be compatible with the building. 4 4 4 108 Design Standards for Signs MURALS A mural is a sign located on the side of the building whose content, reflects a cultural, historic or environ- mental event(s) or subject matter from the district. 6.13 Mural content shall be appropriate to the district and its environs. ›The mural may not depict a commercial product brand name or symbolic logo that is currently available. 6.14 When used, a mural shall be incorporated as an element of the overall building design. ›The mural shall complement the wall on which it is placed. ›It shall not obscure key features of a historic building. 6.15 The application of a mural shall not damage historic materials. ›The use of a mural that can be removed at a later date is permitted. ›The application of a mural shall not damage the original building fabric. Generally, the hanging and/or anchoring of a mural should be reversible. ›If a masonry wall is already painted, it may be acceptable to provide a painted mural with the approval of the review authority. Mural content shall be appropriate to the district and its envi -rons. 4 4 A mural shall complement the wall on which it is placed. 4 Design of Specific Sign Types 109Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 TENANT PANEL OR DIRECTORY SIGN A tenant panel or directory sign displays the tenant name and location for a building containing multiple tenants. 6.16 Use a tenant panel or directory sign to consolidate small individual signs on a larger building. ›Use a consolidated tenant panel or directory sign to help users find building tenants. ›Locate a consolidated tenant panel or direc- tory sign near a primary entrance on the first floor wall of a building. PROJECTING / UNDER-CANOPY SIGN A projecting/under-canopy sign is attached perpen- dicular to the wall of a building or structure. 6.17 Design a bracket for a projecting/ under-canopy sign to complement the sign composition. 6.18 Locate a projecting/under-canopy sign to relate to the building facade and entries. ›Locate a small projecting/under-canopy sign near the business entrance, just above or to the side of the door. ›Mount a larger projecting sign higher on the building, centered on the facade or positioned at the corner. Design a bracket for a pro -jecting sign to complement the sign composition. The combination of the simple painted wall sign and the pro-jecting sign are complementary to each other and permitted for this building type. Locate a small projecting sign near the business entrance, just above or to the side of the door. 4 4 4 Design of Specific Sign Types 4 Use a consolidated tenant panel or directory sign to help users find building tenants. 110 Design Standards for Signs FLUSH WALL SIGN A flush wall sign is any sign attached parallel to the wall or surface of a building. 6.19 Place a flush wall sign to promote design compatibility among buildings. › Place a wall sign to align with other signs on nearby buildings. 6.20 Place a flush wall sign close to the building wall. ›Design a wall sign to minimize the depth of a sign panel or letters. › Design a wall sign to fit within, rather than forward of, the fascia or other architectural details of a building. Design of Specific Sign Types Place a wall sign to promote design compatibility among build-ings. Design a wall sign to minimize the depth of a sign panel or let-ters. 4 4 A wall sign is any sign attached parallel to the wall or surface of a building. 4 111Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 4 Design a door sign to minimize the amount of window covered. Design a window sign to minimize the amount of window covered. 4 4 WINDOW AND DOOR SIGN A window sign is any sign, picture, symbol, or combi- nation thereof, designed to communicate information about an activity, business, commodity, event, sale or service that is placed inside within one foot of the inside window pane or upon the windowpanes or glass and which is visible from the exterior of the window. 6.21 Design a window sign to minimize the amount of window covered. › Scale and position a window sign to preserve transparency at the sidewalk edge. Design of Specific Sign Types 112 Design Standards for Signs KIOSKS A sign kiosk is typically a series of configured sign panels. 6.22 A sign kiosk is prohibited within the district. ›Unless used by the city for wayfinding or for interpretive information. OTHER SIGN TYPES All sign types that are not mentioned here, but which are permitted in the district, shall adhere to the stan- dards in “Design of New and Modified Signs” in this chapter. ILLUMINATION 6.23 Include a compatible, shielded light source to illuminate a sign. › Direct lighting towards a sign from an exter- nal, shielded lamp. › Do not overpower the building or street edge with lighting. › Use a warm light, similar to daylight. › If halo lighting is used to accentuate a sign or building, locate the light source so that it is not visible. ›A sign shall be illuminated from an indirect light source. 6.24 If internal illumination is used, it shall be designed to be subordinate to the overall building composition. ›Internal illumination of an entire sign panel is prohibited. If internal illumination is used, a system that backlights text only is permitted. ›Internal illumination of an awning is prohibited; however, lights may be concealed in the underside of a canopy. Illumination 4 Direct lighting towards a sign from an external, shielded lamp. APPENDIX Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 A - 115 Historic Architectural Styles Nineteenth-Century Commercial Most nineteenth-century commercial structures are usually considered Italianate in style. However, many buildings contain a variety of detailing not associated with Italianate. These commercial buildings have been divided into four categories: the single storefront, generally twenty-five-feet wide with one entrance; the double storefront, with a width of fifty feet or more and two or three entrances; the corner building which may have entrances on two sides and sometimes a diagonal corner entrance; and the commercial block which generally covers a large area with multiple en- trances. Most nineteenth-century commercial buildings are two or three stories in height, with a flat roof and a variety of ornamental detailing. The “textbook” storefront has a recessed central entrance flanked by large display windows with kickplates, window and door transoms. The primary or roofline cornice is often bracketed with parapets, finials, or simple decorative panels. There is sometimes a secondary cornice separating the first two stories, which sometimes repeat the pattern of the upper cornice. Windows on the upper stories are generally smaller than the display windows on the street level and are usually decorated with molded sur- rounds, radiating voussoirs, or plain stone lintels. Some of the most ornate nineteenth-century com- mercial structures feature cast iron façades. These had Italianate features particularly at the cornice. Rich- ardsonian elements are also evident on some of these structures. The key to distinguishing a nineteenth-cen- tury building is the predominately glass storefront and smaller windows on the upper stories. These buildings are usually retail, offices, and hotel space. Common elements: »cast iron façade »kickplate »window transom »lintel »radiating voussoirs »bracketed cornice »secondary cornice »door transom »recessed entry Note: These style descriptions are taken from the His- tory Colorado web link at: http://www.historycolorado.org/archaeologists/ colorados-historic-architecture-engineering-web- guide AppendixA - 116 Early Twentieth-Century Commercial Early Twentieth-Century Commercial structures are generally one to five stories, with flat or slightly pitched roofs. Often constructed of blond or light colored brick, these buildings have very little ornamen- tation other than some decorative brickwork along the cornice or parapet. In some of the smaller towns, 20th century commercial structures retain some elements of 19th century commercial structures. The clear glass transoms of the nineteenth century has largely been replaced by translucent prismatic glass. Some storefront entrances of this period are flush with the façade. Others, particularly in retail establish- ments, feature deep, nearly façade-wide recesses that allow shoppers to examine window displays out of the sidewalk traffic. Common elements: »recessed or flush entrance »translucent window transom »door transom »corbelled cornice »decorative brickwork »parapet Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 A - 117 Classical Revival Classical Revival signaled a return to the classical forms of Greece and Rome following the elaborately decorated and picturesque styles of the Victorian period. Dating from the late 1890s through 1920, Clas- sical Revival represents a more subdued expression than the ostentatious or grandiose Beaux Arts style and is evident mainly on large institutional buildings in Colorado. Characteristics of Classical Revival include colossal porticos, large columns, pilasters, pedimented win- dows, and domes. The buildings are generally masonry structures of monumental proportions, using terra cotta, brick, and stone materials. Often, classical details such as large column porticos are combined with Colonial Revival elements on resi- dences, leading to some confusion as to the style. To avoid this problem, residences with classical elements are considered examples of Colonial Revival and only large institutional buildings with classical details are classified as Classical Revival. Common elements: »large columns »dome »portico »pediments »pilasters »Ionic columns »attic story »dentils »classical frieze AppendixA - 118 Richardsonian Romanesque The chief characteristic of the Romanesque Revival style is the semicircular arch, used for window and door openings as well as a decorative element along the corbel table. Other characteristics include an archivolt of compound arches and square towers of different heights and various roof shapes. A crenellated tower parapet is common. Richardsonian Romanesque, named after architect Henry Hobson Richardson (1838-1886), is charac- terized by heavy, rock-faced stone, round masonry arches, contrasting colors, transom windows arranged in ribbon-like patterns, square towers, and sparse fenestration. Most of the Richardsonian Romanesque structures are variations of the style, employing se- lected Richardsonian elements. Common elements: »semicircular arch »corbel table »archivolt »compound arch »square tower »rock-faced stone »round masonry arches »contrasting colors »transom windows in ribbon pattern Old Town Fort Collins Design Standards | July 2014 A - 119 Art Deco Art Deco is characterized by an angular, linear compo- sition, stepped or set-back facade, and polychromatic materials. Popular during the 1930s and 1940s, apart- ment buildings, school, and commercial buildings all over Colorado exhibit elements of this style. Geomet- ric forms are the most common stylistic expressions. Broken cornice lines, low relief geometrical designs, spandrel panels, architectural sculptures, polychro- matic materials and a vertical emphasis are also charac- teristic. Decorative façade elements include chevrons, zigzags, stylized floral and geometric motifs. Common elements: »linear composition »polychromatic material »stepped fronts »broken cornice line »geometric forms Moderne Moderne, also called Art Moderne or Streamline Moderne, saw popularity in the 1930s and early 1940s. Restrained Moderne bridged the gap between the flamboyant Art Deco and the functional International Style of the 1940s and 1950s. Smooth stucco exteriors, rounded corners, and curved metal canopies all gave the impression of a sleek and modern building. Port- holes, taken directly from the luxury liners of the time period, found their way onto buildings, most often applied to garages, bus terminals, and airports. Construction slowed down significantly with the onset of World War II and the restrictions placed on various materials. As Moderne faded, simple and stark build- ings in the International Style emerged, reflecting the sparse times in which they were constructed. Common elements: »stucco exterior »flat roof »horizontal emphasis »rounded corners »smooth surfaces »glass block »speed lines »little ornamentation »curved metal hoods »porthole opening »vertical emphasis This structure, originally an Italianate commercial building, was remodeled in 1936 in the Art Deco Style. AppendixA - 120 Factory/Warehouse Warehouse buildings are often composed of large, rectangular masses. The primary material is brick with accents of stone masonry, wood or metal. Detailing was usually simple with decorative features including door surrounds, window hoods, modillions, keystones and elaborate cornices. Flat roofs are most common; however, gable roofs screened by parapet walls are also seen. Double-hung windows with 1/1, 2/2 and 4/4 patterns are characteristic. Raised loading docks for handling goods are common; some project from the facade while others are inset behind the building plane. Loading bay doors and openings were typically rectan- gular. Metal or wood canopies sheltering the loading dock are also typical. Common elements: »simple form »flat roof »loading docks at rear »aligned windows Some of the web versions of the Preservation Briefs differ somewhat from the printed versions. Many illustrations are new and in color; Captions are simplified and some complex charts are omitted. To order hard copies of the Briefs, see Printed Publications . Home > How to Preserve > Preservation Briefs > 25 Signage Terra cotta wheel with Studebaker banner, 1926. Lakewood, Ohio. Photo: Frank Wrenick. PRESERVATION BRIEFS 25 The Preservation of Historic Signs Michael J. Auer Historic Sign Types and Practices Sign Regulation Preserving Historic Signs New Signs and Historic Buildings Summary and References Reading List Download the PDF "Signs" refers to a great number of verbal, symbolic or figural markers. Posters, billboards, graffiti and traffic signals, corporate logos, flags, decals and bumper stickers, insignia on baseball caps and tee shirts: all of these are "signs." Buildings themselves can be signs, as structures shaped Neon first appeared in signs in the 1920s, and reached its height of popularity in the 1940s. Photo: Peter Phillips. like hot dogs, coffee pots or Chippendale highboys attest. The signs encountered each day are seemingly countless, for language itself is largely symbolic. This Brief, however, will limit its discussion of "signs" to lettered or symbolic messages affixed to historic buildings or associated with them. Signs are everywhere. And everywhere they play an important role in human activity. They identify. They direct and decorate. They promote, inform, and advertise. Signs are essentially social. They name a human activity, and often identify who is doing it. Signs allow the owner to communicate with the reader, and the people inside a building to communicate with those outside of it. Signs speak of the people who run the businesses, shops, and firms. Signs are signatures. They reflect the owner's tastes and personality. They often reflect the ethnic makeup of a neighborhood and its character, as well as the social and business activities carried out there. By giving concrete details about daily life in a former era, historic signs allow the past to speak to the present in ways that buildings by themselves do not. And multiple surviving historic signs on the same building can indicate several periods in its history or use. In this respect, signs are like archeological layers that reveal different periods of human occupancy and use. Historic signs give continuity to public spaces, becoming part of the community memory. They sometimes become landmarks in themselves, almost without regard for the building to which they are attached, or the property on which they stand. Furthermore, in an age of uniform franchise signs and generic plastic "box" signs, historic signs often attract by their individuality: by a clever detail, a daring use of color and motion, or a reference to particular people, shops, or events. Yet historic signs pose problems for those who would save them. Buildings change uses. Businesses undergo change in ownership. New ownership or use normally brings change in signs. Signs are typically part of a business owner's sales strategy, and may be changed to reflect evolving business practices or to project a new image. Signs also change to reflect trends in architecture and technology: witness the Art Deco and Depression Modern lettering popular in the 1920s and 1930s, and the use of neon in the 1940s and 1950s. The cultural significance of signs combined with their often transitory nature makes the preservation of historic signs fraught with questions, problems, and paradoxes. If the common practice in every period has been to change signs with regularity, when and how should historic signs be kept? If the business is changing hands, how can historic signs be reused? The subject is an important one, and offers opportunities to save elements that convey the texture of daily life Once commonplace, the three balls symbolizing the pawnbroker are now rare. Photo: NPS files. from the past. This Brief will attempt to answer some of the preservation questions raised by historic signs. It will discuss historic sign practices, and show examples of how historic signs have been preserved even when the business has changed hands or the building itself has been converted to a new use. Historic Sign Types and Practices Pre-Nineteenth Century American sign practices originated largely in Europe. The earliest commercial signs included symbols of the merchant's goods or tradesman's craft. Emblems were mounted on poles, suspended from buildings, or painted on hanging wooden boards. Such symbolic signs were necessary in a society where few could read, although verbal signs were not entirely unknown. A sheep signified a tailor, a tankard a tavern. The red and white striped pole signifying the barbershop, and the three gold balls outside the pawnshop are two such emblems that can occasionally be seen today. (The barber's sign survives from an era when barbers were also surgeons; the emblem suggests bloody bandages associated with the craft. The pawnbroker's sign is a sign of a sign: it derives from the coat of arms of the Medici banking family.) Flat signs with lettering mounted flush against the building gradually replaced hanging, symbolic signs. The suspended signs posed safety hazards, and creaked when they swayed in the wind: "The creaking signs not only kept the citizens awake at night, but they knocked them off their horses, and occasionally fell on them too." The result, in England, was a law in 1762 banning large projecting signs. In 1797 all projecting signs were forbidden, although some establishments, notably "public houses," retained the hanging sign tradition."(1) By the end of the eighteenth century, the hanging sign had declined in popularity. Flat or flush-mounted signs, on the other hand, had become standard. Like symbolic signs, however, the tradition of projecting signs has survived into the present. Nineteenth Century Signs and Sign Practices Surviving nineteenth-century photographs depict a great variety of signs. The list of signs discussed here is by no means exhaustive. Fascia signs, placed on the fascia or horizontal band between the storefront and the second floor, were among the most common. The fascia is often called the "signboard," and as the word implies, provided a perfect place for a sign—then as now. The narrowness of the fascia imposed strict limits on the sign maker, however, and such signs usually gave little more Objects associated with a business continue to be used as signs. Photo: NPS files. than the name of the business and perhaps a street number. Similar to fascia signs were signs between the levels of windows across the upper facade. Such signs were mounted on horizontal boards or painted on the building. Signs of this type tended to use several "lines" of text, the name of business and short description, for example. The message, reading from top to bottom, sometimes covered several stories of the building. Other painted signs presented figures, products, or scenes. Such signs were typically more vertical than horizontal in emphasis. Whether such painted signs featured text or images, they became major features of the building, as their makers intended them to be. The building itself often became a backdrop for the sign. Signs in the form of plaques, shields, and ovals were used on many nineteenth-century buildings. Such signs had the advantage of being easily replaced as tenants came and went. They also easily incorporated images as well as lettering. Hanging or projecting signs, both lettered and symbolic, were also common in the nineteenth century, although less so than previously. Projecting signs were often paired with another at a 45-degree angle for increased visibility. Occasionally a sign would stretch out from the building across the sidewalk, supported by a post at the street. Goldleaf signs, and signs painted or etched on glass in windows, doors and transoms were quite common. Porcelain enamel signs were also very popular in the latter half of the nineteenth century and into the mid-twentieth century. Signs carved from stone or wood also appeared frequently, especially on institutional buildings. Painted shutters and even window shades provided additional advertising space. Posters found their way into display windows when they weren't pasted onto the building. Sidewalk signs or "sandwich boards" offered another chance to catch the eye of any passerby not watching the graphics overhead. Nineteenth-century tenants looking for additional advertising space found it in unexpected places. They used the entrance steps to mount signs in a variety of ways: Handrails, risers, skirts, and balusters sported signs that gave businesses on upper levels a chance to attract notice. Awnings offered other opportunities for keeping a name before the public. The fringe or skirt of the awning, as well as the panel at the side were the usual places for a name or street number. Flags, particularly hung from the upper floors, and banners, sometimes stretching across the sidewalk, also appeared on buildings. Rooftop signs appeared with greater frequency in the second half of the nineteenth century than previously. Earlier rooftop signs tended to be relatively simple—often merely larger versions of the horizontal signs typically found on lower In the 1930s and 1940s, signs built into storefronts became popular. This example is from Guthrie, Oklahoma. Photo: NPS files. levels. Late in the century the signs became more ornate as well as more numerous. These later rooftop signs were typically found on hotels, theaters, banks and other large buildings. The sign types described here were not used in isolation. Window and awning signs attracted sidewalk pedestrians and people in the street. Upper level signs reached viewers at greater distances. If signs were numerous, however, they were nonetheless usually small in scale. As the century wore on, signs increased in size and scale. Wall signs several stories high were not uncommon in the second half of the century. This development reflects changes in urban life as the century headed to its close. Cities were experiencing rapid population growth. Buildings became bigger and taller. Elevated trains and electric trolleys increased the pace of city life. And when it comes to signs, speed alters scale. The faster people travel, the bigger a sign has to be before they can see it. Twentieth Century Signs and Sign Practices The advent of the twentieth century approximately coincided with the coming of electricity, which gave signs light and, later, movement. Illuminated signs were not unknown before electricity. An advertisement printed about 1700 mentioned a night time sign lit by candles, and in 1840 the legendary showman P.T. Barnum built a huge sign illuminated by gas.2 But electricity was safer and cheaper than candles, kerosene and gas. Its widespread use gave signs a prominence they retain today: illuminated signs dominate the streets at night. Electricity permitted signs to be illuminated by light shining onto them, but the real revolution occurred when lightbulbs were used to form the images and words on signs. Lightbulbs flashing on and off made new demands on the attention of passersby. Lightbulbs blinking in sequence could also simulate movement. Add this property to the mix, and a dramatic transformation of American streets resulted. Moving signs were not unknown prior to the advent of electricity, for wind-driven signs had made their appearance in the nineteenth century. But electricity gave signs an unparalleled range of motion. This movement added yet another element to the life of the street. Neon is another great twentieth-century contribution to the signmaker's art. "Neon," coined from the Greek word for "new," is a "new gas." It has the useful property of glowing when an electric charge passes through it. (Argon, krypton, xenon and helium share this property. Only neon and argon, however, are typically used in commercial signs.) Encased in glass tubes shaped into letters or symbols, neon offered signmakers an opportunity to mold light into an infinite variety of shapes, colors, and images. Combined with an electric timer, the neon tubing could present images moving in succession. This Ogden, Utah, sign is a superb example of neon. Photo: NPS files. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the country turned its attention to outer space, as in this example in Long Beach, California. Photo: Peter Neon first appeared in signs in the 1920s, and reached its height of popularity in the 1940s. The first documented neon commercial sign in the United States was at a Packard Motor Car dealership in Los Angeles in 1923.3 After a period of decline, it underwent a renaissance, beginning in the 1970s. Artists experimented with neon as a conscious art-form, and several notable architects further helped in its revival.4 Renewed interest in this colorful medium also sparked interest in preserving historic neon signs. Along with such developments as the coming of electricity and then neon, stylistic movements influenced twentieth-century signs. In particular, Art Deco and Streamlined Moderne affected not just buildings, but their signs as well. Architects working in these styles often integrated signs and buildings into a unified design. This was particularly true of storefronts built using pigmented structural glass, commonly known as "Carrara glass," and porcelain enamel on steel panels. These materials allowed words and images to be etched into the glass or enamel, or to be constructed in different colors and patterns as part of an overall design for the building. Such storefronts were popular from the 1920s into the 1940s. As the century advanced, new styles took hold. The late 1950s brought signs with fins, star bursts, and other images reflecting a new fascination with outer space. In the decades after World War II signs were also transformed by a group of materials now known generically as "plastic." Plastic had several advantages over wood, metal and other traditional sign materials. As the name indicates, "plastic" can take almost any shape. It can also take almost any color. Plastic is translucent. Lit from behind, it appears to glow. It is relatively durable. Above all, it is inexpensive, and can be mass produced. Plastic quickly became the dominant sign material. Another profound influence on signs in this period stemmed from business trends rather than from technological breakthroughs or design movements: the rise of chain stores and franchises. National firms replaced many local businesses. Standard corporate signs went up; local trademarks came down. The rise of mass culture, of which the national chain is but one expression, has meant the rise of standardization, and the elimination of regional differences and local character. The decline of gold-leafing and other traditional sign techniques contributed to these trends. Mass-produced signs have replaced local signs that differed from owner to owner and from signmaker to signmaker. The result is not just sameness, but impersonality as well: It is becoming rarer, for example, to find owners' names on signs. Whether the trend toward sameness can successfully be resisted is yet to be seen. (Some crafts, such as gold-leafing and porcelain enameling, for example, Phillips. This fading sign was painted in Baltimore in 1931 or 1932. It survives from the campaign to enact the 21st amendment to the United States Constitution, which repealed prohibition. Photo: NPS files. have experienced a revival of sorts.) But the preservation of historic signs is one way to ensure that at least some of these expressions of local history continue to enliven our streets. Sign Regulation Historic commercial areas have customarily been a riot of signs. Yet if clutter has ample precedent, so do efforts to control it. Early attempts to regulate signs in this country include those of professional associations of advertisers, such as the International Bill Posters Organization of North America, founded in St. Louis in 1872.5 However, early efforts by municipalities to enact sign regulations met with disfavor in the courts, which traditionally opposed any regulatory effort based on aesthetic concerns. Early successes in the legal arena, such as the 1911 case, St. Louis Gunning Advertising Company v. City of St. Louis, were realized when proponents of sign controls argued that signs and billboards endangered public health and safety. Yet gradually courts found merit in the regulation of private property for aesthetic reasons. In 1954 the U.S. Supreme Court handed down the landmark decision, Berman v. Parker, in which the court declared: "It is within the power of the legislature to determine that the community should be beautiful as well as healthy, spacious as well as clean, well balanced as well as carefully patrolled." 6 With the blessing of the courts, communities across the nation have enacted sign controls to reduce "urban blight." And where historic buildings are concerned, the growth of local review commissions has added to the momentum for controls in historic districts. Typically, sign controls regulate the number, size and type of signs. In some cases, moving or projecting signs are prohibited. Often such ordinances also regulate sign placement—owners are told to line up their signs with others on the block, for example. Materials, likewise, are prescribed: wood is encouraged, plastic discouraged or forbidden altogether. Sign controls often specify lighting sources: indirect illumination (light shining onto the sign) is often required instead of neon tubing, bare lightbulbs, or "backlighting," used in most plastic signs. Some ordinances forbid lighting completely. (Neon, especially, is still held in disfavor in some areas.) Finally, ordinances sometimes require signs to be "compatible" in color and other design qualities with the facade of the building and the overall appearance of the street. Existing signs frequently do not meet requirements set forth in sign controls. They are too big, for example, or project too far from the building. Typically, sign ordinances permit such "nonconforming" existing signs to remain, but only for a specified period, after which they must be removed. If they need repair before then, or if the business changes owners, they must likewise be removed. Signs for Bull Durham Tobacco once covered Sign controls offer communities the chance to reduce visual blight. They can also assist in producing both a new visibility and a new viability for historic commercial districts. Yet sign ordinances are not without problems. Sign controls satisfy contemporary ideas of "good taste." But "bad taste" has ample historic precedent. And in any case, tastes change. What is tasteful today may be dated tomorrow. Sign controls can impose a uniformity that falsifies history. Most historic districts contain buildings constructed over a long period of time, by different owners for different purposes; the buildings reflect different architectural styles and personal tastes. By requiring a standard sign "image" in such matters as size, material, typeface and other qualities, sign controls can mute the diversity of historic districts. Such controls can also sacrifice signs of some age and distinction that have not yet come back into fashion.7 Neon serves as an instructive example in this regard: once "in," then "out," then "in" again. Unfortunately, a great number of notable signs were lost because sign controls were drafted in many communities when neon was "out." Increasingly, however, communities are enacting ordinances that recognize older and historic signs and permit them to be kept. The National Park Service encourages this trend. Sign as Icon Signs often become so important to a community that they are valued long after their role as commercial markers has ceased. They become landmarks, loved because they have been visible at certain street corners—or from many vantage points across the city—for a long time. Such signs are valued for their familiarity, their beauty, their humor, their size, or even their grotesqueness. In these cases, signs transcend their conventional role as vehicles of information, as identifiers of something else. When signs reach this stage, they accumulate rich layers of meaning. They no longer merely advertise, but are valued in and of themselves. They become icons. Preserving Historic Signs Historic signs can contribute to the character of buildings and districts. They can also be valued in themselves, quite apart from the buildings to which they may be attached. However, any program to preserve historic signs must recognize the challenges they present. These challenges are not for the most part technical. Sign preservation is more likely to involve aesthetic concerns and to generate community debate. Added to these concerns are several community goals that often appear to conflict: retaining diverse elements from the past, encouraging artistic expression in new signs, zoning for aesthetic concerns, and reconciling business requirements with preservation. Preserving historic signs is not always easy. But the intrinsic merit of many signs, as well as their contribution to the overall character of a place, make the effort worthwhile. Observing the guidelines given below can help preserve both business and history. walls all over the country. Photo: Jack E. Boucher, HABS, NPS.Retaining Historic Signs Retain historic signs whenever possible, particularly when they are: associated with historic figures, events or places. significant as evidence of the history of the product, business or service advertised. significant as reflecting the history of the building or the development of the historic district. A sign may be the only indicator of a building's historic use. characteristic of a specific historic period, such as gold leaf on glass, neon, or stainless steel lettering. integral to the building's design or physical fabric, as when a sign is part of a storefront made of Carrara glass or enamel panels, or when the name of the historic firm or the date are rendered in stone, metal or tile. In such cases, removal can harm the integrity of a historic property's design, or cause significant damage to its materials. outstanding examples of the signmaker's art, whether because of their excellent craftsmanship, use of materials, or design. local landmarks, that is, signs recognized as popular focal points in a community. elements important in defining the character of a district, such as marquees in a theater district. Maintaining and Repairing Historic Signs Maintenance of historic signs is essential for their long-term preservation. Sign maintenance involves periodic inspections for evidence of damage and deterioration. Lightbulbs may need replacement. Screws and bolts may be weakened, or missing altogether. Dirt and other debris may be accumulating, introduced by birds or insects, and should be cleaned out. Water may be collecting in or on sign cabinets, threatening electrical connections. The source of water penetration should be identified and sealed. Most of these minor repairs are routine maintenance measures, and do not call for special expertise. All repairs, however, require caution. For example, electricity should be turned off when working around electric signs. More extensive repairs should be undertaken by professionals. The sign industry is a large and active one. Sign designers, fabricators and skilled craftsmen are located throughout the country. Once in danger of being lost altogether, gold leaf on glass and porcelain enamel are undergoing revivals, and the art of bending neon tubes is now widely practiced. Finding help from qualified sources should not be difficult. Before contracting for work on historic signs, however, owners should check references, and view other projects completed by the same company. Major repairs may require removal of the sign to a workshop. Since signs are sometimes damaged while the building is undergoing repair, work on the building should be scheduled while the sign is in the shop. (If the sign remains in place while work on the building is in progress, the sign should be protected.) Repair techniques for specific sign materials are discussed below (see "Repairing Historic Sign Materials"). The overall goal in repairs such as supplying missing letters, replacing broken neon tubing, or splicing in new members for deteriorated sections is to restore a sign that is otherwise whole. Recognize, however, that the apparent age of historic signs is one of their major features; do not "over restore" signs so that all evidence of their age is lost, even though the appearance and form may be recaptured. Reusing Historic Signs If a building or business has changed hands, historic signs associated with former enterprises in the building should be reused if possible by: keeping the historic sign—unaltered. This is often possible even when the new business is of a different nature from the old. Preferably, the old sign can be left in its historic location; sometimes, however, it may be necessary to move the sign elsewhere on the building to accommodate a new one. Conversely, it may be necessary to relocate new signs to avoid hiding or overwhelming historic ones, or to redesign proposed new signs so that the old ones may remain. (The legitimate advertising needs of current tenants, however, must be recognized.) Keeping the old sign is often a good marketing strategy. It can exploit the recognition value of the old name and play upon the public's fondness for the old sign. The advertising value of an old sign can be immense. This is especially true when the sign is a community landmark. relocating the sign to the interior, such as in the lobby or above the bar in a restaurant. This option is less preferable than keeping the sign outside the building, but it does preserve the sign, and leaves open the possibility of putting it back in its historic location. modifying the sign for use with the new business. This may not be possible without destroying essential features, but in some cases it can be done by changing details only. In other respects, the sign may be perfectly serviceable as is. If none of these options is possible, the sign could be donated to a local museum, preservation organization or other group. Repairing Historic Sign Materials Porcelain Enamel Porcelain enamel is among the most durable of materials used in signs.8 Made of glass bonded onto metal (usually steel) at high temperatures, it keeps both its high gloss and its colors for decades. Since the surface of the sign is essentially glass, porcelain enamel is virtually maintenance free; dirt can be washed off with soap and water and other glass cleaners. Porcelain enamel signs can be damaged by direct blows from stones and other sharp objects. If both the enamel surface and the undercoat are scratched, the metal surface can rust at the impact site. Because the bond between glass and metal is so strong, however, the rust does not "travel" behind the glass, and the rust is normally confined to localized areas. The sign edges can also rust if they were never enamelled. To treat the problem, clean the rust off carefully, and touchup the area with cold enamel (a type of epoxy used mostly in jewelry), or with enamel paints. These tubes in this amusement park's sign were broken and the surrounding "metal cans" needed work also. See below. Photo: Stan Fowler. Dents in porcelain enamel signs should be left alone. Attempting to hammer them out risks further damage. Goldleaf or Gilding Goldleaf or gilding is both elegant and durable. These properties made it among the most popular sign materials in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Surface-gilded signs (for example, gilded raised letters or symbols found on the exterior) typically last about 40 years. Damage to these signs occurs from weather and abrasion. Damage to gilded signs on glass normally occurs when the protective coating applied over the gilding is removed by harsh cleaning chemicals or scratched by scrub brushes. The sign can then flake upon subsequent cleanings. Historic gilded signs can be repaired, typically by regilding damaged areas. An oil size is painted on the surface. The gold leaf is applied when the surface has become sufficiently "tacky." Similarly, historic "reverse on glass" goldleaf signs can be repaired—by experts. A sample of the flaking sign is first taken to determine its composition. Reverse on glass signs use goldleaf ranging from 12 to 23 karats. The gold is alloyed with copper and silver in varying amounts for differences in color. (Surface gilding—on raised letters, picture frames and statehouse domes—uses 23 karat gold. Pure gold, 24 karat, is too soft to use in such applications.) The damaged portions of the sign are then regilded in the same manner as they were done historically: the inside surface of the glass is coated with a gelatin; gold leaves about three inches square are then spread over the area. The new letter or design is then drawn in reverse on the new leaf, and coated with a backing paint (normally a chrome yellow). With the new design thus sealed, the rest of the leaf is removed. The sign is then sealed with a clear, water-resistant varnish. Gilded signs, both surface and reverse on glass, can be cleaned gently with soap and water, using a soft cloth. Additionally, for glass signs, the varnish backing should be replaced every seven years at the latest. Neon Neon signs can last 50 years, although 20-25 years is more typical. When a neon sign fails, it is not because the gas has "failed," but because the system surrounding it has broken down. The glass tubes have been broken, for example, thus letting the gas escape, or the electrodes or transformers have failed. If the tube is broken, a new one must be made by a highly skilled "glass bender." After the hot glass tube has been shaped, it must undergo "purification" before being refilled with gas. The glass and the metal electrode at the end of the tube are heated in turns. As these elements become hot, surface impurities burn off into the tube. The resulting vapor is then removed through "evacuation"—the process of creating a vacuum. Only then is the "neon" gas (neon or mercury-argon) added. Neon gives red light, mercury-argon produces blue. Other colors are produced by using colored glass and any of dozens of phosphor coatings inside the tube. Green, for example, can be produced by using mercury-argon in yellow glass. Since color is so Workers prepare the "metal cans" from a sign for re-mounting. Photo: Larry Kanter. Neon fabricators are installing the new tubing in the repaired and remounted cans. Photo: Larry Kanter. important in neon signs, it is vital to determine the original color or colors. A neon studio can accomplish this using a number of specialized techniques. A failing transformer can cause the neon sign to flicker intensely, and may have to be replaced. Flickering neon can also indicate a problem with the gas pressure inside the tube. The gas may be at too high or too low a pressure. If so, the gas must be repumped. Repairs to neon signs also include repairs to the surrounding components of the sign. The "metal cans" that often serve as backdrops to the tubing may need cleaning or, in case of rust, scraping and repainting. As with gilded signs, repair of neon signs is not a matter for amateurs. New Signs and Historic Buildings Preserving old signs is one thing. Making new ones is another. Closely related to the preservation of historic signs on historic buildings is the subject of new signs for historic buildings. Determining what new signs are appropriate for historic buildings, however, involves a major paradox: Historic sign practices were not always "sympathetic" to buildings. They were often unsympathetic to the building, or frankly contemptuous of it. Repeating some historic practices, therefore, would definitely not be recommended. Yet many efforts to control signage lead to bland sameness. For this reason the National Park Service discourages the adoption of local guidelines that are too restrictive, and that effectively dictate uniform signs within commercial districts. Instead, it encourages communities to promote diversity in signs—their sizes, types, colors, lighting, lettering and other qualities. It also encourages business owners to choose signs that reflect their own tastes, values, and personalities. At the same time, tenant sign practices can be stricter than sign ordinances. The National Park Service therefore encourages businesses to fit their sign programs to the building. The following points should be considered when designing and constructing new signs for historic buildings: signs should be viewed as part of an overall graphics system for the building. They do not have to do all the "work" by themselves. The building's form, name and outstanding features, both decorative and functional, also support the advertising function of a sign. Signs should work with the building, rather than against it. new signs should respect the size, scale and design of the historic building. Often features or details of the building will suggest a motif for new signs. This hanging pig is delightful, even without its neon. Holes show where tubing was attached. It has been a local landmark in Baltimore's Fells Point neighborhood for over 60 years. Photo: NPS files. sign placement is important: new signs should not obscure significant features of the historic building. (Signs above a storefront should fit within the historic signboard, for example.) new signs should also respect neighboring buildings. They should not shadow or overpower adjacent structures. sign materials should be compatible with those of the historic building. Materials characteristic of the building's period and style, used in contemporary designs, can form effective new signs. new signs should be attached to the building carefully, both to prevent damage to historic fabric, and to ensure the safety of pedestrians. Fittings should penetrate mortar joints rather than brick, for example, and signloads should be properly calculated and distributed. Summary and References Historic signs once allowed buyers and sellers to communicate quickly, using images that were the medium of daily life. Surviving historic signs have not lost their ability to speak. But their message has changed. By communicating names, addresses, prices, products, images and other fragments of daily life, they also bring the past to life. With halting steps I paced the streets, and passed the sign of "The Crossed Harpoons" —but it looked too expensive and jolly there. . . . Moving on, I at last came to a dim sort of light not far from the docks, and heard a forlorn creaking in the air; and looking up, saw a swinging sign over the door with a white painting upon it, faintly representing a tall straight jet of misty spray, and these words underneath — "The Spouter Inn: —Peter Coffin." The creaking wooden sign in Moby Dick identifies public lodging. But it also does a great deal more than that. It projects an image. It sets a mood and defines a place. The ability to convey commercial and symbolic messages is a property of all signs, not just those in novels. Every sign hanging outside a door, standing on a roof, extending over a storefront, or marching across a wall transmits messages from the sign maker to the sign reader. Mixed in with names, addresses, business hours and products are images, personalities, values and beliefs. NOTES 1. Bill Evans and Andrew Lawson, Shopfronts. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1981, p. 109, 114. 2. Charles L.H. Wagner, The Story of Signs: An Outline History of the Sign Arts from Earliest Recorded Times to the Present "Atomic Age". Boston: Arthur MacGibbon, 1954, p. 37. 3. Rudi Stern, Let There Be Neon. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1979, p. 19. 4. Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour, Learning from Las Vegas. Rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977. 5. George H. Kramer, "Preserving Historic Signs in the Commercial Landscape: The Impact of Regulation." (Unpublished Masters Thesis: University of Oregon, 1989), p. 15. This section on sign regulation is heavily indebted to this work. See especially Chapter 2, History of Sign Regulation and Chapter 3, Mechanics of Sign Regulation, pp. 7-60. 6. Berman v. Parker involved the condemnation of an older building for an urban renewal project. The decision "ironically would prove to be a major spur to a new wave of local preservation laws...." Christopher J. Duerksen, ed. A Handbook on Historic Preservation Law. Washington, D.C.: The Conservation Foundation and The National Center for Preservation Law, 1983, p. 7. 7. A balanced approach to sign controls is offered by Peter H. Phillips, "Sign Controls for Historic Signs," PAS Memo, November 1988. (Published by American Planning Association, Washington, D.C.). 8. See John Tymoski, "Porcelain Enamel: The Sign Industry's Most Durable Material," Signs of the Times, December 1990, pp. 6671. For goldleaf, see October 1984 and November 1990 special issues of Signs of the Times. An excellent short "course" in neon evaluation is offered in Neon: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, by Paul R. Davis, Identity, Spring 1991, pp. 5659. Acknowledgements The author gratefully acknowledges the invaluable assistance of Beth Savage, National Register of Historic Places. The author is also indebted to Rebecca Shiffer of The Society for Commercial Archeology, and to other colleagues in the cultural resources programs of the National Park Service, sign artists in private practice, and professionals and preservationists in a number of organizations. These include staff of the Technical Preservation Services Branch, directed by H. Ward Jandl, especially Kay Weeks, Anne E. Grimmer, Sharon C. Park, and Thomas C. Jester; staff of the National Park Service Regional Offices, especially Michael Crowe, Thomas Keohan, Catherine Colby and Christopher Jones; deTeel Patterson Tiller and Stephen Morris, Interagency Resources Division; Caroline Bedinger, Historic American Engineering Record; Catherine Lavoie and Sara Leach, Historic American Buildings Survey, and Stan Fowler of Glen Echo Park. Significant contributions were also made by Peter Phillips, Yuma County Planning Department; Pratt Cassity of the National Alliance of Preservation Commissions; Betsy Jackson, Doug Loescher and Kennedy Smith of the National Trust for Historic Preservation; Richard Longstreth, George Washington University; Richard Wagner, David H. Gleason Associates, Inc.; Michael Jackson, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency; Vance Kelley, Kansas State Historical Society; William Pencek, Maryland Historical Trust, Chere Jiusto, Montana Historical Society, and Gerron Hite and Stan Graves, Texas State Historical Commission (the latter on behalf of the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers). The following artists and professionals active in the sign industry offered publications, photographs, technical material, and advice: Lynn Baxter and Tod Swormstedt, ST Publications; Kent Smith, Kent Smith Signs; Craig Kraft, Kraft Studios; Larry Kanter, Neon Projects; Len Davidson, Davidson Neon Design; Thomas Ellis, The Enamelist Society; Timothy Pugh, the Porcelain Enamel Institute; William Adair, Goldleaf Studios. This publication has been prepared pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to develop and make available information concerning historic properties. Technical Preservation Services (TPS), Heritage Preservation Services Division, National Park Service prepares standards, guidelines, and other educational materials on responsible historic preservation treatments for a broad public. October 1991 Reading List DiLamme, Philip. American Streamline: A Handbook of Neon Advertising Design. Cincinnati: ST Publications, 1988. Evans, Bill and Andrew Lawson. Shopfronts. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1981. The Gilder's Manual. Washington, D.C.: The Society of Gilders, 1991. (Reprint of The Gilder's Manual; A Practical Guide to Gilding in All its Branches. New York: Excelsior Publishing House, 1876.) Liebs, Chester. Main Street to Miracle Mile: American Roadside Architecture. Boston: Little, Brown and Company/ New York Graphics Society, 1985. National Main Street Center. Main Street Guidelines: Signs for Main Street. Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1987. Phillips, Peter H. "Sign Controls for Historic Signs," PAS Memo. Chicago: American Planning Association, November 1988. Smith, Kent. Gold Leaf Techniques. Cincinnati: ST Publications, 1989. Stage, William. Ghost Signs: Brick Wall Signs in America. Cincinnati: ST Publications, 1989. Stern, Rudi. Let There Be Neon. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1979. (Rev. 1988). DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 192010 HISTORIC PRESERVATION REVIEW BOARD AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA OFFICE OF PLANNING NOTICE OF FINAL RULEMAKING The D.C. Office of Planning and the Historic Preservation Review Board, pursuant to the authority set forth in section 10 of the Historic Landmark and Historic District Protection Act of 1978, effective March 3, 1979, (D.C. Law 2-144; D.C. Official Code § 6-1109), Mayor's Order 79-50, dated March 21,1979, section 6 of Mayor's Order 83-119, dated May 6,1983, section III(B)(8) of Reorganization Plan No.1 of 1983, effective March 31, 1983, and section 402(b) of the Fiscal Year 2001 Budget Support Act of2002, effective October 19,2000 (D.C. Law 12-172; 47 DCR 6308), hereby adopts the following new Chapter 25 "Standards for Signs, Awnings, Canopies, and Marquees" to lOA DCMR, Historic Preservation, upon publication of this notice in the D.C. Register. The purpose of the new chapter is to establish standards for the design and placement of signs, awnings, canopies, and marquees on historic properties. An earlier version of this proposed rulemaking was published in the D.C. Register on November 23, 2007 at 54 DCR 11257. Title lOA DCMR, Historic Preservation, is amended as follows: A. A new Chapter 25, "Standards for Signs, Awnings, Canopies, and Marquees" is added to read as follows: CHAPTER 25 STANDARDS FOR SIGNS, AWNINGS, CANOPIES, AND MARQUEES Secs. 2500 General Provisions 2501 Permit Requirements 2502 Permit Application Procedures 2503 General Principles for Signage 2504 General Standards for Signage 2505 Appropriate Sign Types 2506 Prohibited Sign Types 2507 Design Characteristics of Appropriate Signs 2508 Signs for Historic Residential Properties 2509 Signs for Historic Institutional Properties 2510 Signs for Non-Contributing Buildings and Sites 2511 Master Plans for Signage 2512 Temporary Signs 2513 Vintage and Historic Signs 2514 Awnings: General Principles 2515 Awnings: Specific Criteria 2516 Canopies: General Principles 2517 Canopies: Specific Criteria 2518 Marquees: General Principles 2519 Marquees: Specific Criteria 2599 Defmitions 2500 GENERAL PROVISIONS 2500.1 This chapter addresses historic preservation requirements for sign age and related building features, including awnings, canopies, and marquees, which typically serve as locations for signage. 002281 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 • NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 2500.2 Signs, awnings, canopies, and marquees on historic property shall comply with the requirements ofthis chapter and the applicable provisions of the D.C. Building Code. 2500.3 Signage and related building features subject to review under the Shipstead-Luce Act or the Old Georgetown Act shall be submitted to the Commission of Fine Arts for review before a permit is issued, and shall comply with applicable sections ofthe D.C. Building Code, including the specific limitations pertinent to those review areas. 2500.4 The Historic Preservation Review Board and Historic Preservation Office may also review signage and related building features subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission ofFine Arts. 2500.5 Signage and related building features in the Chinatown Overlay District are subject to review by the Chinatown Steering Committee pursuant to 10 DCMR, Chapter 24. 2500.6 Signage and related building features located in or projecting into public space are subject to review by the Public Space Committee ofthe District Department of Transportation pursuant to 24 DCMR, Chapters 1 and 2. 2500.7 As provided in lOA DCMR § 9900, terms specific to this chapter are defined in § 2599. Other terms used throughout Title lOA are defined in Chapter 99. 2501 PERMIT REQUIREMENTS 2501.1 Notwithstanding the limitations and exemptions stated in the D.C. Building Code, a permit is required for the erection, painting, repainting, placement, replacement, hanging, rehanging, alteration, repair, or change of a sign larger than one (1) square foot in size on the exterior of a building on historic property or located within the first eighteen (18) inches inside a glazed opening of a building on historic property. 2501.2 Signs on historic property that are not subject to regulation under the D. C. Building Code or required to meet the permit requirements stated in the D.C. Building Code shall be issued permits based on their compliance with the requirements ofthis chapter. 2501.3 Notwithstanding the other requirements of this chapter, signs bearing non-commercial statements of fact, belief, or personal or political opinion that are posted on privately owned historic property shall be issued permits if the proposed method of installation would not destroy or irreparably damage the historic property and would not prevent the maintenance ofthe property in good repair as provided in § lOb of the Act. Such signs shall remain subject to the requirements and prohibitions applicable to dangerous and obstructive signs in 12A DCMR § 3107.13 and 3107.14 .. 2501.4 A permit is required for the erection, placement, replacement, hanging, rehanging, alteration, refacing, repair, or change of an awning, canopy, or marquee on historic property. 2501.5 A permit is required for a permanent sign on historic property relating to the sale, rental, 002282 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 lease, or management of the premises. 2501.6 A permit is not required for a temporary real estate sign on historic property six (6) square feet in area or less, or any sign on historic property that is one (1) square foot in area or less. 2501.7 A permit application for a sign, awning, canopy, or marquee on historic property shall comply with the application requirements of the D.C. Building Code and §§ 306 through 313 of this title, and shall include the following: (a) A completed D.C. Application for Construction Permit on Private Property and D.C. Application for Public Space (if applicable), signed by the applicant or building owner; (b) Good quality photographs of the building or site, showing the entire fa9ade and close-ups of the area where work is proposed, adequate to document the building or site's existing appearance; (c) A scaled or dimensioned drawing of the proposed sign, awning, canopy, or marquee accurately indicating dimensions, materials, colors, graphics, copy, type of illumination, and method of attachment; (d) Scaled or dimensioned plans, photo illustrations, or elevation drawings as necessary to show the proposed work as it would appear on the building or site; (e) A section drawing, ifthe application is for an awning, canopy, or marquee; and (f) If requested, a sample of the finish material(s). 2502 PERMIT APPLICATION PROCEDURES 2502.1 An applicant shall submit permit application materials to the Permit Processing Division of the Department of Consumer and Regulatory Affairs (DCRA) for transmittal to the Mayor's Agent pursuant to the Act as further described in Chapter 3. 2502.2 Upon receipt of the permit application and the results of any required review by the Commission of Fine Arts, the HPO shall review the application under the authority delegated in § 321, and take action as appropriate. 2502.3 lfthe application does not meet the requirements of this chapter, and the HPO is not able to resolve the deficiencies directly with the applicant, the HPO shall prepare the case for review by the Board as provided in Chapter 3. 2503 GENERAL PRINCIPLES FOR SIGNAGE 2503.1 Signs are a prominent visual element of many historic properties, serving an important role in identifying or advertising businesses, institutions, building occupants, or other entities. The location and design of signage also influences the perception of historic 002283 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 192010 buildings and districts. Well-designed and well-maintained signs add interest and variety to historic building facades and streetscapes and can enhance the image and attractiveness of a historic district. Oversized, poorly designed, or poorly maintained signs can result in visual clutter and detract from the overall appearance of historic property. 2503.2 Different historic buildings impose different constraints and may require varied signage solutions. Signage needs also vary by use. For instance, the requirements for a large department store, a small neighborhood retailer, a church, and a home occupation will differ, and signs for each should be tailored to the specific character of each building and entity. 2503.3 Different historic districts and neighborhoods have specific characteristics and qualities that may require varied signage solutions. For instance, Chinatown, Downtown, 18th Street in Adams Morgan, Georgetown, U Street, and many of the neighborhood commercial strips throughout the city have their own historical traditions and distinctive current characteristics that should be recognized and respected. 2503.4 Special considerations apply to residential and institutional signage. Signs are not typically a prominent visual element on historic residential buildings, and commercial signage is strictly limited by the D.C. Building Code within residential and special purpose zoning districts. Commercial signage is also unsuited to historic institutional buildings, which express their function primarily through architectural imagery and symbolism. 2503.5 Signs are an incidental element on buildings and in the landscape, and total signage on a property should maintain a deferential balance with historic architecture. Historic buildings were often designed to limit signage to specific areas defined by an architectural frame. Much less commonly, signage was designed as a prominent fa9ade element on some mid-20th century commercial buildings, but those signs typically relied on superb graphics and design flair to convey a stylish image. 2503.6 Vintage and historic signs contribute to the character and significance of historic buildings and districts. Many were integrally designed with historic facades. Historic signage that has survived for many decades is often the only visual reminder of long­ forgotten businesses and modes of commercial advertising. 2503.7 Sign types developed for suburban highway-oriented environments are not compatible with urban historic districts. Billboards, rooftop signs, pole-mounted gas station signs, and other overscaled advertising designed to be viewed at high speed or from a great distance are generally not appropriate on historic properties or in historic streetscapes. 2503.8 The visual impact of strong color, intense lighting, supergraphics, and other branding elements can be crucial in judging whether signage is appropriate for historic property. Standardized corporate branding, typically developed without regard to local character and context, is often not appropriate for historic buildings and districts and may need to be substantially modified to be compatible with a specific building or district. 002284 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57· NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 2503.9 Signs are an opportunity for stylistic imagination and graphic excellence. High artistic quality is strongly encouraged. 2504 GENERAL STANDARDS FOR SIGNAGE 2504.1 Signage shall be appropriate to the building, site, or historic district it will affect. Signage shall relate to, take advantage of, and be compatible with the building's particular composition, scale, design features, and architectural character. It shall be designed with sensitivity to adjacent historic properties, the landscape of historic sites, and the streetscape of historic districts, especiaIJy when placed in public space. 2504.2 Signage shall be appropriate to the identified or advertised use. Its scale and design character shall be commensurate with the size and nature ofthe entity and its location. 2504.3 Signs on historic property shall be primarily oriented toward and promote the pedestrian environment. 2504.4 Redundant or repetitive signs which clutter, overwhelm, or visually detract from a building fa~ade, storefront, or site are not permitted. 2504.5 Signs shall be lightweight in feeling and appearance. Signage or signage elements like raceways that are boxy, bulky, or out of scale with historic buildings and districts are not permitted. 2504.6 Signs that graphically or symbolically express a business or institution, or that express creativity, diversity, or individuality are encouraged. 2504.7 Branding, color branding, or overpowering visual effects that detract from or overwhelm the architecture or historic character of a building or district are not permitted. 2504.8 Signs should be well designed and fabricated of high quality materials. Professional design and fabrication are strongly encouraged. 2505 APPROPRIATE SIGN TYPES 2505.1 Signage shall be of a type appropriate to the affected historic building, site, or district. The specific characteristics of the historic building, site, or district shall determine what sign types are appropriate in each instance. 2505.2 The following sign types, when properly designed and installed, may be appropriate for a historic property, depending on its design, setting, and characteristics: (a) Banner signs; (b) Blade signs; (c) Channel letter signs; (d) Halo lit signs; (e) Hanging signs; 002285 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. S7 -NO. 12 MARCH 192010 (f) Painted signs; (g) Panel signs; (h) Pin-mounted signs; (i) Plaques, markers, and medallions that are commemorative, interpretive, or informational in nature; G) Projecting signs; (k) Raceway signs; (1) Reverse channel signs; (m) Routed signs; (n) Signs on the valance of an awning or canopy; (0) Three-dimensional signs; and (p) Window signs. 2505.3 The following sign types are typically not appropriate for historic buildings and districts: (a) Internally-illuminated, plastic-faced box or cabinet signs; (b) Electronic signs, flashing signs, and other signs with moving text or images; (c) Moving or rotating signs; (d) Pole-mounted signs more than ten (10) feet in height; and (e) Prohibited signs, as defined in § 2506. 2506 PROHIBITED SIGN TYPES 2506.1 Billboards and special signs as defined in § 2599 are not permitted on historic property. 2506.2 Roof signs and revolving signs are not permitted on historic property, except for vintage, historic, or replica signs as provided in § 2513. 2506.3 Televisions and video monitors are not permitted as signage on historic property. 2507 DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS OF APPROPRIATE SIGNS 2507.1 In reviewing an application for signage, the HPO and Board shall evaluate the architecture and design of the building and site, and determine whether the proposed sign is compatible with respect to type, placement, size, material, copy, illumination, and installation. The HPO shall assist applicants in evaluating historic properties for appropriate signage. 2507.2 Sign placement shall be consistent with the following criteria and considerations: (a) A sign may be placed only on a portion ofthe building occupied by the person, business, or entity to which it relates. (b) A sign band, fascia, or other storefront or building area designed to accommodate signage is the preferred location for sign placement. (c) In the absence of a sign band or fascia, a flat continuous wall surface, unbroken 002286 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 by decorative detailing and windows, is an appropriate location for signage. (d) A storefront or show window may be an appropriate location for a sign provided it does not visually overwhelm the storefront or obscure its transparency. (e) A sign shall not conceal or cover over a character-defining architectural feature, such as a window or door surround, cornice, pilaster, or other decorative or ornamental feature. (f) A sign shaH not conceal or cover over a window or transom. A window sign within a transom or a channel letter sign on top of a show window may be appropriate provided it does not substantially cover the transom. (g) A sign shall not conceal or cover over a significant site or landscape feature. Sign placement shall avoid known or likely archaeological features. (h) A sign shall not project more than forty-two (42) inches beyond the building line or building restriction line. A projecting, hanging, blade, or banner sign shall maintain a minimum clearance of eight (8) feet above grade. 2507.3 Sign size shall be consistent with the following criteria and considerations: (a) A sign shall be sized appropriately for its location on a building or site. Signage in a historic district should be generally consistent with the prevailing size of comparable signage in the district. (b) The maximum size and area limitations established by the D.C. Building Code apply to signs on historic property. Further limitations on size and area may be necessary to achieve compatibility with a historic property or district. (c) The appropriate size of a sign on historic property shall be determined by and tailored to the specific characteristics ofthe building or site, the location ofthe sign on the building or site, and if applicable, the character ofthe surrounding historic district. (d) A sign installed on a sign band, fascia, or show window shall fit within the area specifically designed for its installation. (e) The aggregate area of all window signs within a storefront or show window shall not exceed twenty percent (20%) of the surface area of that element. 2507.4 Sign material shall be consistent with the following criteria and considerations: (a) Signage shall be constructed of durable, exterior-grade materials that will retain a high quality appearance. (b) Painted wood or metal, and other sign materials and finishes that are consistent in character with materials and finishes on the affected building, district, or site are 002287 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 192010 encouraged. (c) Shiny plastic and other sign materials and finishes that are not found on or are out of character with the affected building, district, or site are prohibited unless unusual circumstances make them clearly acceptable at the specific building or location. 2507.5 Sign copy shall be consistent with the following criteria and considerations: (a) Sign copy shall not detract from the visual character ofthe historic building or district. Generally, copy should be kept simple and the number of words or symbols should be limited to keep the sign easily legible, graphically clear, and free of clutter. (b) Sign copy should be legible but not out of scale for the historic building or district. Lettering shall be no more than eighteen (18) inches in height unless a variation is dictated by the specific characteristics of the building and the placement of the sign. (c) A sign listing services, goods, web sites, phone numbers, or other detailed information shall be no larger than three (3) square feet in size. (d) Signage using Chinese characters and design elements is encouraged in the Chinatown Overlay District. 2507.6 Sign illumination shall be consistent with the following criteria and considerations: (a) Sign illumination shall not detract from a historic building or district. At a minimum, illumination of a sign on historic property shall comply with the applicable provisions of the D.C. Building Code. (b) Low-level illumination for signage is encouraged as a general principle. Intense or overpowering illumination can render an otherwise compatible sign inappropriate for historic property. (c) Sign illumination shall be appropriate for the location, setting and character of the specific building and site. Certain types of facilities, such as theaters and public buildings, may warrant greater levels of illumination. (d) The large internally illuminated surface areas of box signs are generally not appropriate for signs on historic property. Internally illuminated channel letter signs are more appropriate and are encouraged as an alternative. (e) Signs with a diffused source of illumination, such as halo-lit channel letter signs, are encouraged. (f) Any exterior source of illumination shall direct the light onto the sign, and shall be appropriately shielded to prevent light and glare from shining in the eyes of 002288 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGls'rER VOL, 57· NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 pedestrians. (g) Spot lights, hanging lamps, and decorative fixtures may be acceptable methods of external illumination, if the light source is appropriately shielded and of low intensity. (h) Sodium vapor, mercury vapor, or other metal halide light sources are generally too bright for illuminating signs on historic property and are not permitted. (i) Neon signs may be permitted if appropriate for the building or district. The use of neon or continuous light-emitting diode (LED) strips as decorative trim or as a building outlining element is not permitted except in the Chinatown area of the Downtown Historic District. G) Sign illumination shall be by steady light only. Pulsing, blinking, or flashing lights are not permitted. 2507.7 Sign installation shall be consistent with the following criteria and considerations: (a) Signage shall be installed in a manner that minimizes permanent damage to a building. On masonry buildings, signage shall be attached through mortar joints, rather than through masonry units, whenever possible. (b) Signage shall be installed in a neat and workmanlike manner. (c) Electrical conduit, transformers, and other electrical equipment for lighting of exterior signs shall be concealed. Raceways shall be as compact as practicable and painted or finished to blend with the wall color behind. (d) Ground-mounted signs shall be installed to avoid damage to known or likely archaeological features. 2508 SIGNS FOR HISTORIC RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES 2508.1 Signs are not typically a prominent visual element on historic residential buildings. In order to preserve the character and setting of historic residential buildings, signage on these buildings and in historic residential areas shall not be visually intrusive, overwhelming, or incompatible with the significant historic characteristics of the particular building, site, and context. 2508.2 Commercial advertising on historic property in residential and special purpose zoning districts shall comply at a minimum with the pertinent limitations in the D.C. Building Code. The Board may impose further limitations in size or other characteristics if necessary to achieve compatibility with a historic landmark or district. 2508.3 Signage for a historic apartment building or an apartment building in a portion of a historic district zoned for residential use shall be limited to the name and address of the building. 002289 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 192010 2508.4 The preferred location for apartment building signage is at the building entrance, either on a canopy, marquee, or adjacent flat wall surface. A small ground-mounted building identification sign may be permitted for a historic apartment building, an apartment building within a historic district, or historic property within a special purpose zoning district. 2508.5 A permanent sign on historic property relating to the sale, rental, lease, or management of the premises is limited to two (2) square feet in size. 2508.6 Illuminated signage is discouraged in portions of a historic district zoned for residential use. Illumination may be permitted if it is determined acceptable for the specific building and setting. Any permitted illumination shall consist of soft, steady white light only. 2509 SIGNS FOR mSTORIC INSTITUTIONAL PROPERTIES 2509.1 Historic civic, institutional, religious, and educational properties generally have a very different character from historic commercial properties. Government offices, courts, churches, synagogues, schools, colleges, libraries, and other institutional or quasi­ institutional structures like banks and corporate offices were typically designed to express their function primarily through the imagery and symbolism of their architecture. Signage on a historic institutional property shall be consistent with and respectful of the image and architecture of the property. 2509.2 The preferred solution for signage on historic institutional properties is to retain any existing. historic signs or to add signage ofthe same or a similar type if needed. 2509.3 The preferred design for bulletin sign boards for historic institutional properties is the the traditional style consisting of permanent identification and non-illuminated or front­ lit changeable letters set behind glass against a solid background. 2509.4 Ground-mounted identification and bulletin signs may also be permitted for historic institutional properties. 2509.5 Signs for historic institutional properties shall be subject to the following provisions: (a) Traditional institutional building signage shall be placed at an architecturally appropriate location like a frieze or wall surface next to or above an entrance. The determination of an appropriate location is dependent on the architecture of the specific historic building. (b) Ground-mounted institutional signs shall be located where they do not obscure public views of the building, its entrance, or other significant architectural or site features. Ground-mounted signs shall not be raised on masonry piers. (c) Institutional signage shall be sized appropriately to its location on the historic building or site. A bulletin sign should not exceed twenty (20) square feet in 002290 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 area, calculated to include any architectural supports such as piers, bases, and frames. (d) Institutional signs shall be constructed of materials appropriate for the building, site, or district. Signs of metal, wood, stone and other materials compatible with the building or district are encouraged. Signs of synthetic materials, such as shiny plastic, that are not compatible with the building or district are not permitted. (e) Institutional signs shall be illuminated in a manner consistent with and appropriate for their setting. Internally illuminated signs are prohibited unless unusual circumstances make them clearly compatible with the specific building or location. 2509.6 Signs on historic institutional properties that are within or adjacent to historic districts shall be designed in a manner that minimizes the impact of institutional signage, such as the level of illumination, on adjacent historic properties. 2509.7 Signs for properties within a historic complex or campus should be coordinated to convey that the properties are or were historically related. Owners of these campuses and complexes are encouraged to develop a master plan for signage, pursuant to § 2511. 2510 SIGNS FOR NON-CONTRIBUTING BUILDINGS AND SITES 2510.1 Signage on non-contributing buildings and sites can materially affect the streets cape of historic districts. These signs should be appropriate for the building or site where they are located and shall not detract from the character of historic districts, landmarks, or sites. 2510.2 Signage on a non-contributing building shall be generally consistent with the character ofthe historic district, landmark, or site. 2510.3 New pole-mounted signs on gas stations or other facilities are not permitted to exceed ten (10) feet in height. Removal of existing pole-mounted signs and replacement with ground-mounted signs or other appropriate signage is encouraged. 2511 MASTER PLANS FOR SIGNAGE 2511.1 The development of a coordinated master plan for signs is encouraged where a building, complex, or institution houses multiple tenants or activities requiring several signs, or where signs will be installed on multiple properties that were historically or architecturally related. 2511.2 A master plan for signage shall be submitted to the Board for review according to the provisions for concept design review outlined in Chapter 3. 2511.3 If the Board approves a sign master sign to be in effect for a specific period, the HPO shall adhere to the provisions of the plan in delegated approvals for the duration of the 002291 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 192010 plan. 2512 TEMPORARY SIGNS 2512.1 Temporary signage serves a legitimate practical purpose and has little or no lasting impact on the character ofhistoric property. HPO shall apply the criteria in this section when reviewing temporary signs under the authority delegated in § 320 ofthis title. 2512.2 HPO shall routinely approve temporary signage to be installed for less than ninety (90) days or that is less than twenty (20) square feet in size, provided it is installed in a manner that does not cause permanent damage to historic property. 2512.3 HPO shall review a temporary sign to be installed for more than ninety (90) days or that is more than twenty (20) square feet in size according to the standards and criteria for permanent signs. HPO may grant greater flexibility in terms of size, placement, type, shape, material, and copy, provided that the sign is installed in a manner that does not cause permanent damage to historic property. 2512.4 A temporary sign may be denied if it is plainly and unnecessarily incompatible with the architecture and characteristics of the building, site, or district, or if its installation is likely to cause permanent damage to historic property. 2512.5 The permit application for a temporary sign shall indicate the period oftime during which the sign is to be displayed. The permit for a temporary sign is not valid beyond its stated duration. 2513 VINTAGE AND HISTORIC SIGNS 2513.1 Vintage and historic signs express distinctive characteristics or aesthetics of an earlier period and provide character to historic property. The Board and HPO shaH evaluate vintage and historic signage for its significance and for preservation when it may be affected by proposed construction work. 2513.2 A vintage sign should be considered for preservation or reuse where feasible. 2513.3 A historic sign that is integral to the design of historic property, such as a sign that is carved or etched into masonry or included as part of the design of a parapet or cornice, shall be retained. 2513.4 A historic sign that is not integral to the design of historic property, such as the ghost of a painted sign, shall be retained where feasible. 2513.5 Replication or installation of a close copy of a documented historic sign is considered an appropriate preservation treatment unless it clearly conflicts with the D.C. Building Code or the Board's design standards. Documentation ofthe historical appropriateness of a proposed sign may consist of early photographs, original drawings, or similar sources. 002292 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 192010 2514 AWNINGS: GENERAL PRINCIPLES 2514.1 Awnings provide weather protection and may also identifY or decorate buildings. Awnings shade windows and storefronts and can shelter pedestrians, but as a secondary function, they also provide an area for identifYing the name or trade of an occupant. 2514.2 Awnings and their associated signage can significantly affect the appearance and architectural character of a historic building or district. Improper awning installation can also cause permanent damage to the materials and ornamentation ofhistoric facades. 2514.3 Awnings are not signs and should not be used as substitutes for effective signage or solely as branding elements. 2514.4 The appropriateness ofa specific awning depends in part upon the historic district, building type, or business type involved. Awning design should reflect the specific character ofthe affected landmark, building or district. 2514.5 Historically, the retractable shed awning was the type used almost exclusively on Washington buildings. Barrel-vaulted awnings were less commonly used for arched openings, and more intricate and fancier quarter-round awnings were infrequently used. 2514.6 Replication of a documented historic awning or pattern of awnings is considered an appropriate preservation treatment unless it clearly conflicts with the D.C. Building Code or the Board's design standards. Documentation of the historical appropriateness of a proposed awning or awnings may consist of early photographs, original drawings, or similar sources. 2515 AWNINGS: SPECIFIC CRITERIA 2515.1 Awning design, placement, and type shall respect, take advantage of, and be compatible with the particular composition, design features, and architectural style of the historic property where it is installed. 2515.2 An awning shall be compatible in shape, size, scale, material, illumination, and method of installation with the character of the historic property to which it is attached. 2515.3 Any signage characteristics of an awning shall be compatible with the character of the affected historic property and district. 2515.4 Awning location and configuration shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) An awning shall be placed only on a portion of the building occupied by the person, business, or entity to which it relates. (b) An awning shall relate to a single architectural feature, whether a storefront, window opening, or door opening. An awning shall not be designed as a continuous element that spans multiple storefronts, window openings, or door 002293 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57· NO. 12 MARCH 192010 openings. (c) An awning shall relate to and fit within the masonry opening or frame ofthe storefront, window, or door where it is located. (d) An awning shall not cover or obscure or cover over an ornamental or character­ defining feature of a historic property. (e) Excessive use of awnings is inappropriate and can make commercial advertising detract from a historic property. Repetitive awnings used as signage or branding on upper floor windows are not appropriate. 2515.5 Awning type and shape shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) A shed-style awning is generally the most appropriate form for a flat-topped opening. A barrel-vaulted awning is usually appropriate only for an arched opening. A quarter-round awning is typically appropriate only for an architecturally elaborate fac;ade or storefront. (b) An awning shall not have a compound shape, such as a shed awning with a barrel­ vaulted midsection. (c) An awning should not be bulky or boxy in appearance. An open-sided configuration is encouraged in order to make the awning appear lightweight and to increase visibility of the window. (d) Operable and retractable awnings are preferred because this reinforces their accessory nature and allows greater visibility ofthe building when they are raised. (e) An awning should be consistent with the prevailing proportions of other awnings in the streetscape. Its angle of slope should be moderate, and neither so steep that the top ofthe awning looks like a billboard, nor so shallow that the awning looks like a shelf or marquee. (f) The underside of an awning shall not be enclosed or boxed in with fabric or other material, unless justified by the specific circumstances of the building or awning installati on. 2515.6 Awning dimensions shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) An awning shall be appropriate in size and scale for the historic building to which it is attached. (b) An awning shall be sized to fit the opening where it is installed. (c) The projection of an awning shall be appropriate for the building to which it is attached. No awning shall project more than sixty (60) inches beyond the building line or building restriction line. 002294 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57· NO. 12 MARCH 192010 (d) An awning shall maintain a minimum clearance of eight (8) feet above the ground. 2515.7 Awning materials shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) An awning shall be covered only with canvas, woven acrylic or similar fabric materials. Metal and shiny or glossy materials like vinyl and plastic are not permitted. (b) A single solid color material is preferred for awnings. Striped or patterned awnings are discouraged and are not permitted if they would visually detract from the character ofthe historic building or district. 2515.8 Awning signage characteristics shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) The valance of an awning is an appropriate location for signage. Signage shall generally be limited to lettering no taller than twelve (12) inches. (b) A discreet logo may be allowed on the slope of an awning if also permitted by the building code official. (c) An awning shall not be used as an oversized sign. An awning or pattern of awnings shall not be used to create supergraphics or branding that is overpowering or detracts from the historic character of the building or district. 2515.9 Awning illumination shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) An awning shall not be lighted except as part of general storefront illumination. Translucent backlit awnings and under-mounted lighting of an awning are not permitted. (b) A sign on the valance of an awning shall not be illuminated. (c) Unobtrusive storefront lighting fixtures may be attached to the underside of an awning. 2515.10 Awning installation shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) An awning shall be attached to a building in a manner that causes the minimum permanent damage. Typically, an awning should be attached to a window frame or storefront surround. (b) Attachment of awning frames through masonry is prohibited except in unusual circumstances where it is unavoidable due to specific characteristics ofthe building. 2516 CANOPIES: GENERAL PRINCIPLES 002295 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 2516.1 Canopies historically provided shelter and weather protection for the entrance to a building. Canopies also shaded show windows and sidewalks in a manner no longer permitted by construction codes. 2516.2 A canopy is appropriate where weather protection is a primary consideration. A canopy should not be used primarily as an enlarged sign background or to extend commercial signage across a sidewalk. 2516.3 A canopy at the entrance to a large historic apartment or hotel building can enhance the sense of arrival and welcome created by the architectural treatment of the building entrance. A canopy in a historic commercial streetscape can detract from its character by obstructing views of building facades and adding excess clutter and signage. 2516.4 The appropriateness of a specific canopy depends in part upon the specific characteristics of the historic district, building type, or business type involved. 2517 CANOPIES: SPECIFIC CRITERIA 2517.1 Canopy design, placement, and type shall respect, take advantage of, and be compatible with the particular composition, design features, and architectural style of the historic property where it is installed. 2517.2 A canopy shall be compatible in shape, size, scale, material, illumination, and method of installation with the character of the historic property to which it is attached. 2517.3 A canopy shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) An entrance, storefront, or sidewalk cafe may be an appropriate location for a canopy. (b) A canopy shall relate to and fit within the masonry opening or frame of a door or storefront. A barrel-vaulted canopy is only appropriate for an arched opening. (c) A canopy shall not conceal or cover over a door surround or other significant architectural feature of a building. (d) A shed style canopy should have open sides to increase visibility of the building or its entrance. (e) The projection of a canopy shall be proportional to the building and appropriate to the streetscape where it is located. (t) A canopy shall maintain a minimum clearance of eight (8) feet above grade. (g) A canopy shall be finished with canvas, woven acrylic or a similar fabric material. Vinyl, plastic, and other shiny or glossy finish materials are not permitted. 002296 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 (h) Translucent backlit canopies are not pennitted. Under-mounted downlighting may be pennitted on opaque canopies. (i) A canopy shall be attached to a building in a manner that does not cause pennanent damage. Typically, a canopy should be attached to a door frame or storefront fascia. Attachment of canopy framing through masonry is prohibited unless justified by the specific characteristics ofthe building. 2517.4 Signage on a canopy shall be consistent with the following criteria and considerations: (a) An entrance canopy is an appropriate location for building or occupant identification and the property's address. (b) Commercial signage is not pennitted on the side of a canopy facing the direction of pedestrian travel along a sidewalk. (c) Signage on a canopy shall not be illuminated. 2517.5 Entrance canopies that extend to the public sidewalk or curb are generally not appropriate unless associated with a large-scale commercial establishment, hotel or apartment building. Entrance canopies in other circumstances may be allowed if justified as appropriate given the specific characteristics of the building. 2517.6 Replication of an original or historic canopy is considered an appropriate preservation treatment. Documentation ofthe historical appropriateness of a proposed canopy may consist of early photographs, original drawings, or similar sources. 2518 MARQUEES: GENERAL PRINCIPLES 2518.1 Marquees are penn anent architectural elements traditionally associated with and only appropriate only for larger buildings of a public or semi-public nature, such as apartment houses, hotels, department stores, theaters, and office buildings. Marquees provide shelter, weather protection, and architectural embellishment, and can also include identifying signage at the building entrance. 2518.2 Unlike an awning or canopy, a marquee is a more pennanent architectural element applied to a building. Adding a marquee to a historic building is usually not appropriate if one never existed, but a marquee is often appropriate for large-scale new construction in a historic district. A marquee may be appropriate for a larger building but is generally not appropriate for a smaller building or single-family house. 2519 MARQUEES: SPECIFIC CRITERIA 2519.1 A marquee shall be compatible with the character of the historic property or district where it is installed. A marquee attached to a historic building shall respect, take advantage of, and be compatible with the building's particular composition, design features, and architectural style. 002297 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 2519.2 A marquee shall be compatible in size, scale, shape, type, material, and illumination with the character of the historic property to which it is attached. 2519.3 A marquee shall be placed at a height appropriate to its function as shelter. Typically, the suitable location for a marquee is directly above entrance doors and below the level of transoms. A marquee shall not be placed high above a building entrance to create a grandiose effect. 2519.4 A marquee is an appropriate location to identify a building, occupant, or address. Signage on a marquee shall be consistent with the following criteria: (a) Signage on a marquee shall be commensurate with the nature ofthe establishment it identifies. (b) Signage for an apartment building or public institution should be restrained and usually not illuminated. (c) Signage for a commercial building or theater may be more prominent and brightly illuminated. 2519.5 A marquee shall not conceal or cover over important decorative elements of a door surround or other significant characterwdefining features of a historic bUilding. 2519.6 A marquee shall be attached in a manner that limits permanent alteration to the affected building as much as possible. A marquee shall be designed to fit around, rather than penetrate, decorative door surrounds or other character-defining elements. 2519.7 A marquee that is original, architecturally distinctive, or historically significant shall be retained. 2519.8 Replication of a missing original or historic marquee is encouraged. Documentation of a historic marquee may consist of early photographs, original drawings, or similar sources. 2519.9 A marquee shall be professionally designed and fabricated of durable, high quality materials. 2599 DEFINITIONS 2599.1 As used in this chapter, the following terms shall have the meanings ascribed below: Advertisement: The use of any image, text, logo, symbol, color, or other form of public announcement to encourage a commercial transaction or to market a business, entity, or commodity. Awning: An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a covering is attached. 002298 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 • NO. 12 MARCH 192010 Banner: A hanging sign, typically of fabric, which may be hung perpendicular or parallel to the face of a building. Billboard: A permanent signboard or structure on which lettering or images can be attached or posted, as further defined in the D.C. Building Code. Blade sign: A vertically-oriented, double-faced projecting sign that hangs perpendicular to the fa9ade of a building, allowing copy on both sign faces. Box sign: A plastic-or acrylic-faced sign mounted on a box or cabinet that houses a source of internal illumination; also called a "cabinet sign." Branding: The use of signs, logos, symbols, figures, shapes, colors, or other elements individually or collectively, to market a business or identify it as part of a larger corporate entity. Bulletin sign: A free-standing or wall-mounted sign box, usually constructed of metal with a hinged glass face, housing a letterboard for changeable copy. Cabinet sign: A plastic-or acrylic-faced metal sign mounted on a box or cabinet housing a source of internal illumination; also called a "box sign." Canopy: An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is supported by the building to which it is attached and at the outer end by at least one stanchion. A canopy is comprised of a rigid structure over which a covering is attached. Channel letter sign: A sign consisting of individually formed letters, which may include illumination within each letter or many be mounted on a continuous raceway. Color branding: The use of a color or colors associated with a business or entity as a means to convey its identity. Copy: The use, amount, and size of lettering, numbers, or imagery on a sign. Fascia: A plain, flat horizontal band, typically part of a storefront cornice, intended for sign placement; also called a "frieze" or "sign band." Flag sign: A fabric panel with signage displayed or configured as a flag. Frieze: The portion ofthe fa9ade that is typically just above or at the top of a storefront which provides an area for signage; also called a "fascia" or "sign band." Ground-mounted sign: A free-standing sign that is located within the public space, yard, or landscape of a property; also called a "monument sign." Halo lit sign: A sign of an opaque material illuminated from behind to form a "halo" of light around the silhouetted letters or symbols. 002299 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 Hanging sign: A double-faced sign that projects perpendicular from the face of a building, allowing copy on both sign faces, and which typically hangs from an overhead bracket. Historic sign: A sign that is original to a building, historically significant, or at least fifty (50) years old and which has features, qualities, or associations that may warrant preservation. Marquee: A permanent roofed structure attached to and supported by the building to which it is attached and that projects into the public right-of-way. Monument sign: A free-standing, ground-mounted sign. Moving sign: A sign that displays three-dimensional, moving, rotating, flashing, animated, or changing images or text, and is propelled by wind, solar or electric power. Painted sign: A sign painted directly onto the face or other element of a building. Panel sign: A one-sided sign mounted on a flat wall surface. Pin-mounted sign: A sign composed of individual letters or other components attached to a panel or building by pins or screws. Pole-mounted sign: A free-standing sign mounted on a single tall pole or pylon, typically located within the site or landscape of a property, and frequently used to advertise auto-related businesses. Projecting sign: A double-faced sign that projects perpendicular from the face of a building, allowing copy on both sign faces. Raceway sign: A sign consisting of individual channel letters mounted on a horizontal or vertical structural raceway element that houses electrical conduit for illumination. Real estate sign: A sign announcing the sale, rent, or lease ofland or premises. Reverse channel sign: A sign where individual letters or images are cut in to an opaque panel allowing the letters or images to be illuminated when back lit. Roof sign: A sign that is mounted on the roof of a building, as defined further in the D.C. Building Code. Routed sign: A sign, typically of wood, into which letters or images are carved or routed. Sign or Signage: A physical medium or display, including its structure and component parts, used to advertise, identifY a person, object, or entity, or to provide information, consisting of words, letters, figures, designs, symbols, numbers, illumination, or projected images. Sign band: A plain, flat horizontal band at the top of a storefront intended for sign placement; also called a "fascia" or "frieze." 002300 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA REGISTER VOL. 57 -NO. 12 MARCH 19 2010 Special sign: A sign that is erected, hung, placed, posted, painted, displayed or maintained on an outside, exterior wall or surface of a building pursuant to a Special Sign permit issued pursuant to the D.C. Building Code, and as further defined in the D.C. Building Code. Symbol: A recognizable image, icon, logo or other graphic representation for a business, service, institution or other object or entity. Temporary sign: A sign erected for a limited and defined period of time. Three-dimensional sign: A sign, symbol, icon, object, or logo that is sculptural or three­ dimensional in form. Vintage sign: A sign less than fifty (50) years old which may have distinctive characteristics or aesthetic qualities that lend character to a building or district. Window sign: A sign that is hung, etched, painted, or mounted inside a glass storefront, door, window, or transom. B. Section 9901 of Chapter 99 is amended by adding the following two new definitions: Building code or D.C. Building Code: Title 12A ofthe District of Columbia Municipal Regulations, also known as the Building Code Supplement. Building code official or building official: The person authorized and directed to enforce the provisions ofthe building code and the construction code. Construction code or D.C. Construction Codes: Titles 12 and 13 of the District of Columbia Municipal Regulations. 002301 6. Guidelines for Signs | 10501-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO 6. GUIDELINES FOR SIGNS Sign Design on Landmark Structures and in Historic Districts This chapter includes: • Introduction .......................................................................................................................... Page 106 • Overall Signage Considerations ..................................................................................... Page 107 • Landmark Design Review ................................................................................................ Page 109 • General Principles for Sign Planning ............................................................................ Page 112 • Treatment of Historic Signs .............................................................................................. Page 118 • Sign Types .............................................................................................................................. Page 122 »Wall Signs .................................................................................................................................. Page 122 »Ground Signs ........................................................................................................................... Page 123 »Canopy & Awning Signs ....................................................................................................... Page 124 »Arcade Signs............................................................................................................................. Page 125 »Window & Door Signs ........................................................................................................... Page 126 »Projecting Signs ...................................................................................................................... Page 127 ILLUSTRATIONS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT The design guidelines include many photographs and diagrams to illustrate acceptable or unacceptable approaches. The illustrations are provided as examples and are not intended to indicate the only options. If there appears to be a conflict between the text of the design guidelines and a related illustration, the text shall prevail. KEY TO ILLUSTRATION SYMBOLS A checkmark on an illustration indicates an approach that is generally appropriate. An asterisk on an illustration indicates an approach that may be acceptable in some contexts or situations. An X mark on an illustration indicates an approach that is generally inappropriate. 106 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS INTRODUCTION Signs are used to identify the location of a business and attract customers. Signs should be both integral to a building’s design and noticeable to customers. This chapter provides guidelines for signage for historically designated buildings and properties within a historic district, including: • The treatment of historic signs on an individually-designated landmark structure or any property in a historic district • The location and design of new signs on an individually-designated landmark structure or any property in a historic district • The installation of new signs on an individually-designated landmark structure or structure in a historic district Figure 29 on page 119 and Figure 30 on page 121 delineate the types of signs typically reviewed by the Landmark Preservation Commission and Landmark Preservation staff. Information on how to plan signage is provided in an effort to help property owners and applicants develop signage proposals that both meet owner needs while being compatible with historic buildings and districts. 6. Guidelines for Signs | 10701-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO Overall Signage Considerations 132. This signage was installed to limit impacts to character defining features of the building, such as the cast iron columns. 133. This building has an original sign band centered over the front door which would be a good signage loca- tion for a future user. OVERALL SIGNAGE CONSIDERATIONS When planning signage for a building: 1. Establish objectives for signage Signage should provide clear, legible information about a business while also appealing to prospective customers. A signage plan should demonstrate forethought in the design, size, placement and graphic format of each sign to ensure an integrated signage strategy and design. Every proposed sign should have a purpose. Refer to the “Signage hierarchy for commercial buildings” on page 111 to help plan signs for historic buildings and districts. 2. Limit impacts on character-defining features A building’s historic architecture, such as its cast iron columns and decorative banding, is important to protect. These features may also be a major draw to customers and provide a unique business identity. Plan signage to highlight, rather than cover or physically impact, these elements. 3. Find original sign locations on a building Step back and examine a building from across the street. Does it have a recessed or framed horizontal band over the storefront or below the roof parapet? Does the building have large shop windows? Many historic and even modern buildings are designed with sign bands. Similarly, large shop windows were intended for pedestrian scale advertising. Use of these originally designed sign spaces will ensure that new signage is well integrated into a building’s architecture. Signage on historic buildings and districts should serve the needs of businesses, and also be compatible with historic buildings and the surrounding context. Vibrant well- designated signage can create visual interest, enhance the historic streetscape, and promote business activity. Signage may have significant impacts on historic buildings and the urban environment. Thoughtful planning is important to ensure that signage achieves business goals while complementing historic buildings and districts. Historic design review and approval is required for signs similar to other projects in historic districts and for individually designated landmark structures. The historic design review process ensures signage serves business needs while also enhancing historic building architecture and surroundings. Sign Band 108 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS Overall Signage Considerations (continued) 134. Ensure sign compatibility with building and site. Due to the building’s architectural details, this building offered few locations for signage. The awning and window signage reinforces the building’s architecture. 135. The signage for this non-residential use took into consideration the impacts of proposed signage on the mostly residential block. OVERALL SIGNAGE CONSIDERATIONS (continued) 4. Ensure sign compatibility with building and site Consider what type and size of signage would best fit the architecture and scale of a historic building. What signage would best relate to a building’s original vertical and horizontal patterns? Are the proposed signs made of high quality materials that correspond with the building and its surroundings? Appropriately placed and sized signage, crafted of durable materials, can reinforce the architecture of a historic building and its surroundings, and attract customers. Conversely, maximizing signage may often lead to visual clutter that does not promote business activity. 5. Consider impacts on the block Is the building located in a historic district next to other historic buildings? Is the building in a residential setting? Consider placing signs at the same height and similar façade locations as adjacent commercial buildings to provide an integrated block appearance. When located next to residential uses, consider the visual impact, as well as the potential “light spray” impacts, of signage. 6. Create graphic interest A generic sign box does little to acknowledge a business’ location in a unique historic district or on an historic landmark site. Ensure that any proposed signage lives up to its historic landmark or district location, and is distinctive. In most cases, this translates into signage that is creative and visually interesting, providing pedestrians with a sense of curiosity and delight. 6. Guidelines for Signs | 10901-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO Landmark design review of signs follows the design review process delineated in Figure 6 (Chapter 1) of these guidelines. The design guidelines in this chapter provide the parameters by which signs proposed for historic buildings and districts are evaluated. Applicants complete and submit a landmark sign review application and checklist to begin the design review process. Small signs that meet landmark design guidelines may be administratively approved by city staff. Projecting shaped signs and comprehensive sign plans require review by the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission. See “Administrative Review for Signs” on page 110. In addition to historic design review, signage proposals must meet zoning requirements. The Denver Zoning Code provides standards and requirements for signs throughout the city. See “Denver Zoning Code Sign Standards” at right for more information. Historically designated properties have an additional landmark design review requirement overlaid upon the basic zoning requirements. The landmark design review process can be more restrictive than zoning, and may result in less signage (smaller signs, fewer signs, etc.) than ordinarily allowed under zoning parameters. Additional city permits and approvals may also apply. See “Denver Sign Permitting” to the right for more information. DENVER ZONING CODE SIGN STANDARDS Article 10 of the Denver Zoning Code sets forth base standards for signs, including permitted sign: »Types »Location »Quantity »Area »Height »Illumination Sign requirements vary by zone district. Most signs require zoning permits to ensure compliance with district sign standards. Historic design review supplements zoning requirements and, at times, may be more restrictive. Some sign types allowed by zoning may not be appropriate for a historic building. DENVER SIGN PERMITTING In addition to landmark design review, most signs in historic districts and on individually designated properties require a zoning permit. Additional permits and approvals may also be needed, depending on the sign type and design, including: »Construction permits »Electrical permits »Public Works Encumbrance permits (sign poles and posts in public rights-of-way) »Public Works Occupancy permits (temporary signs, ) Denver’s Development Services has published a customer guide on signage to help applicants plan sign projects, and to navigate design review and permit requirements. Landmark Design Review 110 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS Landmark Design Review (continued) ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW FOR SIGNS Small wall, window, door, awning, arcade, projecting blade and ground signs that meet these design guidelines and all other city requirements, such as zoning, qualify for administrative review and approval. Projecting shaped (iconic) signs that conform to an approved comprehensive sign plan also qualify for the administrative review and approval process. All other signs require Landmark Preservation Commission review and approval. Landmark Preservation staff is solely responsible for determining whether landmark preservation design guidelines are met. Examples of signs eligible for administrative review are shown on this page. 136. Examples of signs approved through an administrative review process. 6. Guidelines for Signs | 11101-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO Sign Hierarchy 1. Primary signage – limited size, strategically placed, typically viewed from longer distances, often located above entrance or storefront. Typically 1 sign per business. 2. Secondary Signage – typically provides additional information at smaller size than primary signage. Viewed from shorter distances, smaller in scale and at pedestrian level. Typically 1 to 3 signs per business. 3. Iconic Signage – creates visual interest for pedestrians and enhances the urban environment. Viewed from walkable distances, small to medium scale projecting shape signs, with artistic three- dimensional imagery. Typically 1 sign per business. When planning signage for commercial buildings it is important to understand the purpose that each sign can play, and to consider the hierarchy and scale of signs types, messages and designs. “Layering” information will help visitors obtain the information they need, while also ensuring that every proposed sign has an objective. With a few exceptions, most building signage plans should provide for both primary and secondary signage. This signage should be attractive and visually interesting. Iconic shaped signs add an extra layer of artistry and appeal, and can help to convey the unique personality and character of the building occupant. For civic and institutional buildings, and residential buildings converted to residential uses, the signage hierarchy typically doesn’t apply since these uses typically have less signage. For more information, see Figure 30 on page 121. Figure 28: Sign Hierarchy SIGNAGE HIERARCHY FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 112 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS GUIDELINES FOR SIGN PLANNING 6.1 Plan signage on a building and site carefully to achieve historic compatibility. a. Plan thoughtfully to ensure that design, size, placement and graphic format of signs are integrated and compatible with the building and site. b. Coordinate signage size, location and placement on a building to correlate with other adjacent buildings and the surrounding context. c. Use a variety of signage types to create visual interest and appeal as shown in the sign hierarchy diagram in “Figure 28:” on page 111 . d. Do not use both a projecting shaped sign and a projecting blade sign for the same business. e. Convey new information for each additional sign type added in order to create visual interest and prevent sign redundancy. f. Design signage to attract customers, but to also be subordinate to the historic architecture and surroundings. g. Design wayfinding signage to correspond with the design, materials and quality of other signage on a building or site, but at the minimum size necessary to achieve wayfinding goals. General Principles for Sign Planning 137. Use a variety of sign types to create visual interest. This business used a projecting iconic sign, an awning sign and window signage. INTENT STATEMENTS 6a To encourage diverse signage that attracts customers and enhances the pedestrian experience 6b To create a visually-interesting and attractive streetscape 6c To plan signage that works in concert with historic buildings and historic districts 6d To minimize signage impacts on historic buildings and the surrounding historic context 138. The projecting signs on this block are of similar size and all mounted at the same height. 6. Guidelines for Signs | 11301-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO GUIDELINES FOR SIGN PLANNING (Continued) 6.2 Create signage to enhance the visual interest and pedestrian scale of historic buildings and their surroundings. a. Design signs to be human-scaled rather than automobile-oriented so they are easily viewed by pedestrians at sidewalk level. b. Create signs that are attractive and readable during the day and at night. c. Use signs to highlight pedestrian entrances to businesses and multi-family buildings. d. Design signs to enhance impact on the pedestrian realm, not to maximize square footage or number of signs allowed by zoning. e. Provide small pedestrian-friendly signs off alleys when customers are anticipated to access alleys for services. (Consider truck traffic, garbage pick- up and security in design and placement of signage.) f. Consider street trees and other streetscape amenities when determining signage design and placement. 6.3 Coordinate signage on buildings with multiple tenants. a. Use a tenant panel or directory sign at first floor level to identify upper-floor tenants. b. Do not use more than three sign types per tenant and/or building if possible. c. Coordinate sign locations, types and sizes to create consistency in business identification among multiple tenants. d. Do not use projecting signs for upper-story tenants. 139. Coordinate sign locations, types and sizes to create consistency among mul- tiple tenants in one building, such as the multiple retail tenants in this building. General Principles for Sign Planning 140. Create signs that are attractive and readable during the day and at night. This sign is not very readable in the day time. 114 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS GUIDELINES FOR SIGN PLANNING (Continued) 6.4 Locate signage on a commercial building consistent with traditional signage patterns. a. Locate signs at the pedestrian first-floor level of the building at or near the business entry. b. Place a sign above or near the primary entrance to an establishment, preferably in a traditional location such as a historic sign band or in large storefront windows. c. For new buildings, only locate signs above the first floor level if: (1) sign location is integrated into the building’s design, and (2) it is essential to identify a primary tenant, and (3) location is limited to one location per façade, and typically just below roof cornice. d. Integrate signage into the architectural design of new buildings, particularly sign bands and canopies at building entries. 6.5 Plan signage to emphasize and reinforce a building’s architecture. a. Use simple signage that does not compete with a building’s design b. Design signs to reinforce a building’s articulation and rhythm, and aesthetic features. c. Design signs to be in scale with and in proportion with a building’s façade and its historic context. d. Do not remove, alter, cover or visually obstruct historic architectural features, such as windows, columns or decorative horizontal banding. SIGNS General Principles for Sign Planning (continued) 142. Do not remove, alter, cover or visually obstruct historic architec- tural features, such as windows, columns or decorative horizontal banding.141. Locate signs at or near the business entry. 6. Guidelines for Signs | 11501-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO General Principles for Sign Planning (continued) GUIDELINES FOR SIGN PLANNING (Continued) 6.6 Plan signs to fit the architecture and site of residential, civic and institutional buildings. a. See Figure 30 on page 121 for types of signage typically appropriate for residential, civic and institutional buildings. b. When planning signs for residential, civic and institutional buildings, limit signage to one or possibly two traditional types that fit existing architecture and the site. c. Use simple unlit or externally lit individually lettered wall signs for civic and institutional buildings when signage may be installed without covering or damaging historic building fabric. d. Limit the scale of signage for residential buildings converted to commercial uses to one or two sign types, and limit sign sizes to be residential in scale. e. Avoid use of internally lit signage for these building types. 143. Limit the size of signage for residential buildings converted to commercial uses to be residential in scale. 144. This office, located in a residential setting, has limited its signage to two sign types: a ground mounted sign and a small wall sign by the front door. 116 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS 146. Remove remnants of old signage that will not be reused, such as the unused sign bracket in the upper right of this photo, and do not run exposed conduit on the exterior of the building. General Principles for Sign Planning (continued) GUIDELINES FOR SIGN PLANNING (Continued) 6.7 Design signs to minimize visual clutter for a historic building and district. a. Maximize sign impact and minimize visual clutter by limiting the number of signs per use to three whenever possible. b. Do not overpower a historic building or district with repetitive signs on a historic façade or site. c. When planning signage for a new use, remove remnants of old signage that will not be reused, such as sign brackets and conduit, and appropriately patch any resulting damage or holes. 6.8 Create signs using high quality materials and finishes that complement the durable materials found on historic buildings. a. Use permanent, durable materials such as metals, metal composites, and other high quality materials. b. Avoid using reflective materials. c. Do not use signs with plastic faces, although acrylic may be used for lettering and logos adhered to storefronts and for push-through letters. d. Create well crafted signs of high quality construction with durable finishes. e. Use newly created materials if they meet the intent of the design guidelines in this chapter. 145. These photos show well crafted signs of high quality construction with durable finishes. 6. Guidelines for Signs | 11701-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO 147. Direct lighting toward a sign from an external shielded lamp if possible. Use simply designed unobtrusive lamps, such as these contemporary fixtures. 148. Use halo (left), push-through letters (right), LED and neon lighting (below) for signs when externally focused lighting is not possible. GUIDELINES FOR SIGN PLANNING (Continued) 6.9 Preserve the character-defining features of a historic building when installing a sign. a. Limit physical damage to historic buildings caused by the installation of signs. b. Install sign brackets into mortar joints or wood materials, rather than into masonry or cast iron. c. Minimize the number of sign anchor points when mounting into masonry if no other option exists. d. Use an existing sign bracket, if possible. 6.10 Locate and design sign illumination to minimize impacts on a historic building and its surrounding context. a. Direct lighting toward a sign from an external shielded lamp if possible. b. Do not use an internally-lit plastic or glowing box. c. Use halo, push-through letters, LED or neon for lighting signs when externally focused lighting is not possible. d. Use a warm temperature of light, similar to daylight. e. Locate the light source for signs so that it is not visible on a building façade. f. Do not install exposed conduit, races or junction boxes on the primary elevation of a building. g. Avoid casting light on adjacent properties or upper-floor residences. h. Use simply designed unobtrusive lamps, such as goose neck lamps or simple contemporary fixtures, for external lighting sources. i. Do not use flashing signs as defined by the Denver Zoning Code or electronic digital readerboard signs (even if not flashing) since these signs are typically incompatible with historic building and district character. General Principles for Sign Planning (continued) 118 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS 149. Leave a historic painted wall sign exposed. Treatment of Historic Signs GUIDELINES FOR TREATMENT OF HISTORIC SIGNS 6.11 Maintain an existing historic sign. a. Retain an existing historic sign (generally regarded as a sign located on a building for 50 years or more), where one or more of the following applies: (1) The sign is associated with historic figures, events or places, (2) Provides evidence of the history of the product, business or service advertised, (3) Contributes to the history of the building, surroundings or historic district, (4) Is integral to the building’s design or physical fabric, (5) Is attached in a way that removal could harm the integrity of a historic property’s design or damage its materials, (6) Is an outstanding example of the sign maker’s art because of its craftsmanship, use of materials or design, or (7) Is recognized as a popular focal point in the community. b. Repair and keep historic signs, such as neon signs, functional whenever possible. Encourage replication or recreation of missing historic signage when all of the following applies: (1) The signage contributes to the history of the building, surroundings or historic district, (2) The recreation of this signage will not physically damage historic building materials or require removal of other historic building features that have significance in their own right, (3) The signage is reasonably associated with the new use, (4) The missing signage is well-documented and sufficient information exists to accurately recreate it, (5) The signage will enhance and be compatible with historic building architecture. 6.12 Preserve a historic painted wall sign. a. Leave a historic painted wall sign, or “ghost sign” exposed. b. Do not restore a historic wall sign unless the sign is in extremely poor condition since over-restoration can cause confusion over the age of the building and the sign, and the time period featured in the sign. INTENT STATEMENT: 6e To preserve historic signs to maintain the character and history of Denver’s historic commercial buildings and districts PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC SIGNS For more information on the preservation of historic signs, refer to National Park Service Preservation Brief 25: The Preservation of Historic Signs. 150. Retain and repair historic signs, such as neon signs. 6. Guidelines for Signs | 11901-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO Traditional sign types in Denver are illustrated below and on the following page. The sign types are described for informational purposes and do not necessarily illustrate sign locations or designs that would be compatible for all specific circumstances in Denver. Most commercial buildings should have both primary and secondary signage. See the sign hierarchy in Figure 28 on page 111 for more information. PRIMARY SIGNAGE Sign Types for Commercial Buildings 1. Wall Sign A sign attached to or painted on the outside of a building. Wall signs are typically mounted flush in the traditional sign band above a storefront. Other wall signs can be mounted flush or within 2 feet of the wall surface. 2. Canopy Sign A sign printed or affixed to the fascia of a canopy, often providing functional shade and protection. Typically found over entrances for commercial warehouse buildings. Permitted as a wall sign. 3. Arcade Sign A sign attached to the roof or wall of an arcade and located totally within the outside limits of the arcade structure. Arcade signs are typically unlit or externally lit two-dimensional signs 6 square feet or less in size. These signs can be mounted either parallel to the wall in an entry arcade or perpendicular to the wall in a longer arcade. Figure 29: Sign Types for Commercial Buildings 7 5 3 4 1 8 6 2 120 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS 4. Awning Sign A sign printed or affixed to the surface of an awning. The signage lettering appears incidental and is limited to 10 square feet per awning face. Awning signage may be primary signage in some cases. 5. Projecting Blade Sign A sign attached to and projecting from the wall of a building or hanging from a bracket. Typically two-dimensional with external lighting and 6 square feet or less in size. Primary signs in some cases, such as small businesses with minimal storefronts. See “Special Provisions for Projecting Signs” on page 128. 6. Window and Door Signs A sign or symbol located on a window pane or within 3 feet of the interior of a business intended to be seen from the street. Typically provides secondary information and comprises 20 percent or less of each window’s area. 7. Directory Sign A wall or ground sign indicating the names and locations of three or more building tenants on a consolidated panel. Also called a joint identification sign. 8. Projecting Shaped Signs An iconographic three-dimensional sign attached to and projecting from the wall of a building, typically perpendicular to a façade. These signs are typically 12 square feet or less in face area. See “Special Provisions for Projecting Signs” on page 128. OTHER SIGNS WHICH ARE WORKS OF ART A painting or mural located on the side of a building provided the city considers it a sign which is a work of art, generally with no more than five percent of the sign area displaying the name or logo of the sponsoring organization. SECONDARY SIGNAGE Figure 29: Sign Types for Commercial Buildings (continued) 6. Guidelines for Signs | 12101-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO Occasionally, signage is needed for historic residential structures converted to commercial uses, or for civic and institutional buildings. Identification signs should be minimal, limited to one or two signs per building, as well as directional information as needed. These signs should also be externally lit, with halo lighting appropriate in some cases. Because of the unique architecture and circumstances of each situation, signs are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The sign types are described for informational purposes and do not necessarily illustrate sign locations or designs that would be compatible for all specific circumstances. Sign Types for Residential, Civic & Institutional 1. Wall Sign A sign attached to the outside of a building, typically adjacent to the front door. Unlit or externally shielded lighting. Typically 6 square feet or less in size. This could be primary or secondary signage. 2. Ground Sign A sign, usually up to 5 feet in height, and no more than 20 square feet total, extending from the ground but not attached to any part of a building. 3. Door Signs A sign or symbol located on a door. Typically provides secondary information and comprises 4 square feet or less of the glass area. 4. Directory Sign A wall or ground sign indicating the names and locations of three or more building tenants on a consolidated panel. Also called a joint identification sign. This could be primary or secondary signage. Figure 30: Sign Types for Residential, Civic & Institutional 2 4 1 3 122 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS Sign Types 151. When using an existing sign band, provide space between the sign and the sign band edge. Keep sign flush with painted or pin mounted letters. 152. A slightly arched sign can still be considered a wall sign if it extends off the wall plane by 2 feet or less. This wall sign does not obstruct architectural details of the building. GUIDELINES FOR WALL SIGNS 6.13 Design wall signs to compliment a historic building a. Use wall signs in combination with a projecting sign or window signage. b. Painted, individually lettered or solid backed wall signs made of one or two durable materials, such as aluminum, bronze or high quality man made materials, are generally appropriate. c. When using an existing sign band, provide space between the sign and the sign band border or edge to follow a traditional application. d. When using an existing sign band, keep signage flush to the wall surface. e. Do not design wall signs that project in front of adjacent architectural details, such as a wall band frame. f. Do not use internally lit boxes. g. When designing signs outside of sign bands, signs can have a little more depth, typically up to 31/2 inches. Deeper signs often have a clunky appearance and are not subordinate to the architectural details of the structure. h. Consider a slightly arched wall sign that is not flush on the wall, extending up to 2’ off the wall plane, on a large undecorated wall surface outside of a wall band. i. Mount directory signs for upper-story tenant on wall next to entry providing access to these businesses. j. Design directory signs as flush-mounted unlit or externally lit signs. k. Consider a wall sign at a recessed entry (sign is parallel to wall), particularly when there are limited opportunities for primary signage elsewhere on the building. In these cases: (1) Design well crafted artful signs, preferably with artful shapes. (2) Do not design signs that cover or significantly obstruct views of architectural features. (3) Light externally if possible. If internal lighting is preferred, use halo lighting with a hidden or unobtrusive light source, and a slender design, generally inches 31/2 inches depth or less. INTENT STATEMENTS 6f To ensure wall sign designs enhance the architectural character of a building and its context PROHIBITED SIGN TYPES Certain sign types are not allowed in Denver by the Denver Zoning Code. These include: »Rooftop signs. »Signs that flash, blink, fluctuate or which are animated (specific exceptions apply). »Signage advertising products or services via a television set or monitor mounted in or on a storefront. »Digital reader signage. »Temporary banners on upper floors or railings in public rights-of-way. »Signs advertising a business or product available at a different or off-site location. Wall Signs 6. Guidelines for Signs | 12301-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO 153. Design a ground mounted sign to be subordinate in size to the historic building and to use a simplified design. 154. When night time illumination is needed, use focused external il- lumination whenever possible, particularly in residential settings. GUIDELINES FOR GROUND SIGNS 6.14 Use a ground mounted sign for civic and institutional buildings, and for residences converted to commercial uses. a. Place ground mounted signs in a location that is readable from the street and appropriate for the building and it surroundings. b. Design ground mounted signs to be subordinate in size to the historic building and in scale with a building’s architectural elements. c. Limit ground mounted signs to one per site (except in unusual circumstances). d. Use ground mounted signs for single or multiple tenants. e. Design signs to be compatible with the architectural design and materials of the building f. Do not design monument signs to be so elaborate that they replicate or upstage the architecture of a historic building or its surroundings. Simplified designs of historic architectural elements or contemporary designs are preferred. g. Use individual letters whenever possible to provide dimension and visual interest. h. When night time illumination is needed, use focused external illumination, particularly in residential settings. i. Do not use internally lit plastic or plastic-looking boxes. j. For ground signs, limit signs to 5 feet in height and 20 square feet or less total square footage, with sign size dependent on scale of structure, site and surroundings. Larger ground signs may be appropriate for buildings located on large sites and campuses. Sign Types INTENT STATEMENTS 6g To maintain the visual qualities and ambience of a building, site and surrounding context when adding ground signage Ground Signs 124 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS 155. Use a canopy sign on a warehouse or industrial building where one would be traditionally found. GUIDELINES FOR CANOPY & AWNING SIGNS 6.15 Use canopy signs to accent entries. a. Use a canopy where one existed historically or on warehouse and industrial buildings where one would be traditionally found. See “Guidelines for Awnings & canopies” on page 53 for more information on appropriateness of adding canopies. b. Use canopy signs as primary or secondary signage. c. Do not cover or remove architectural details when mounting signage to a historic canopy. d. When adding signage to canopies, either keep signage contained within the outer limits of the canopy or mount above or below canopy. 6.16 Use awning signage to enhance a storefront. a. Use awnings as secondary signage to accent an entry or window. b. Limit signage on awnings to text on bottom horizontal band of awning of front face of awning (not on awning returns), and to 10 square feet in area per awning face. c. Use traditional triangular shaped awnings to frame a storefront window or door. d. Do not use arched or bubble shaped awnings. e. Do not add logos to awnings. f. Use high quality canvas and similar high quality materials for awnings. g. Do not use plastic or shiny materials for awnings. h. Use awnings as primary signage in unusual circumstances only. i. Ensure that awning signs have a minimum 3’ depth to provide a traditional appearance and to offer shade for merchandise and pedestrians alike. j. See “Other Guidelines That Apply to Civic Buildings” on page 54 for more information. Sign Types INTENT STATEMENTS 6h To accent and reinforce historic architectural features with canopy and awning signage 6i To avoid adversely affecting the character of a historic building or district when adding canopy and awning signage 156. Use traditional triangular shaped awnings comprised of high quality canvas to frame a storefront window or door. Canopy & Awning Signs 6. Guidelines for Signs | 12501-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO GUIDELINES FOR ARCADE SIGNS 6.17 Use arcade signs for businesses with entries located through arcades a. Hang signs from arcade roofs using simple brackets and either unlit or indirectly lit. b. Limit hanging arcade signs to one per business, typically no more than 6 square feet in size and no more than 31/2 inches in depth. c. Keep arcade sign shapes simple when hanging perpendicular to a wall plane underneath a long arcade. d. Design hanging arcade signs to fit within the columns and/or walls supporting the arcade, and to provide significant space between the sign and the columns and/or walls supporting the arcade. e. Do not cover columns, supports or other architectural details. f. Do not mount signage to decorative columns, supports or other architectural details of the structure or arcade. g. Ensure signage is scaled to be compatible with architectural features. h. An arcade sign may be mounted parallel to the building front inside an entry arcade. See Guideline 6.13 on page 122. Sign Types INTENT STATEMENTS 6j To complement the architecture of a pedestrian arcade with compatible arcade signage. 157. The photo shows a traditional arcade sign hanging perpendicular to the wall. 158. An arcade sign may be mounted parallel to the building front inside an entry arcade. Arcade Signs 126 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS 159. Use painted individual lettering for window signage. GUIDELINES FOR ARCADE SIGNS 6.18 Use storefront windows as supplemental signage while also maintaining transparency to and from a business. a. Plan window signage to draw the pedestrian’s eye into a business and to create additional interest. b. Use painted, individual lettering or other transparent forms, rather than signs with solid backing or banding in most cases. c. Use window signage to provide supplemental information on products, services and atmosphere such as “Fresh Oysters, Fine Dining and Fun Times,” not available on other sign types. d. Avoid repeating business wording and logos in every window when this information already exists on other signs. e. Ensure that signage covers no more than 20 percent of a window area to ensure visual transparency in and out of shop windows. f. Limit opaque and solid materials to no more than 10 percent of a window’s area, and place appropriately to avoid blocking visibility in and out of a window. 6.19 Apply simple business identification signage to entry doors. a. Use door signage to identify business name, address, hours of operation and a possible logo if needed. b. Limit signage on doors to 4 square feet in area. c. Use individual or printed lettering with clear backing applied to glass, rather than solid backed signs if possible. Sign Types INTENT STATEMENTS 6k To create pedestrian interest with informative and visually appealing window and door signage. 6l To prevent visual clutter, and ensure high visibility both in and out of a storefront Window & Door Signs 160. 153. When designing a window sign, limit opaque and solid materials to no more than 10 percent of the sign area to avoid blocking visibility in and out of the window. 6. Guidelines for Signs | 12701-27-16 — DENVER, COLORADO 161. Projecting iconic signs should be three-dimensional objects which are sculp- tural. These signs display abstracted and exaggerated forms. 162. Create eye-catching and well-crafted three-dimensional objects for iconic projecting signage. This sign contains more literal images of the service provided by this tenant. GUIDELINES FOR PROJECTING SIGNS 6.20 Design projecting shaped signs to be three-dimensional iconographic images to attract pedestrian attention. a. Create eye-catching and well-crafted three-dimensional objects to portray a business’ persona or service with as few words as possible. b. Design shaped signs so that the image, rather than words, are visible from the street or further down the block. c. Keep wording and logos to a minimum on a three-dimensional object, but ensure any wording is readable. The wording should not be main business signage for the use. d. Propose projecting signs to be sculptural, three-dimensional objects which are either literal forms or abstracted interpretations. Abstracted, exaggerated or embellished interpretations of literal forms are preferred. e. Limit rectangular forms, cut-out logos or built-up layers of flat stock to the minority of the overall sign area. f. Design projecting signs to be a maximum of 12 square feet in surface area for each sign face g. Design projecting signs with an overall sign volume (= height x length x depth) exceeding 12 square feet to encourage a shaped sign that is a true three- dimensional object. h. Limit shaped projecting signs to one per façade or business, except for corner buildings where visibility cannot be gained from both streets without an additional sign. i. Use simple bracket designs that serve as a backdrop to hold the three- dimensional imagery. j. For lighting, refer to Guideline 6.10 on page 117. k. Use projecting shaped signs in downtown zone districts. See “Special Provisions for Projecting Signs” on page 128. Sign Types INTENT STATEMENTS 6m To enliven the pedestrian environment with unique, expressive and iconic shaped signage (particularly in downtown Denver) 6n To create visual interest with creative blade signs that compliment and enhance the historic architectural character of a building and its environs (outside of downtown Denver) 6o To ensure projecting signs match the architectural quality and materials of historic buildings, and reinforce historic building and district character Projecting Signs 128 | 6. Guidelines for Signs DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR LANDMARK STRUCTURES & DISTRICTS GUIDELINES FOR PROJECTING SIGNS (Continued) 6.21 Encourage creatively designed projecting blade signs. a. Use blade signs outside of downtown zone districts, although projecting shaped signs are still preferred. See “Special Provisions for Projecting Signs” on this page. b. Do not use a projecting blade sign in combination with a projecting shaped sign. c. Craft built-up and cut-out imagery, as well as objects projecting outside of the rectangle or circle, to create an artful appearance. d. Limit projecting signs to one per façade or business, except for corner buildings where two signs are appropriate (one on each façade). e. Design blade signs to be a maximum of 6 square feet in area and no more than 2 inches in depth. f. Use more ornate brackets consistent with building architecture to reinforce a specific design. g. When lighting is required, use external lighting sources, such as unobtrusive gooseneck or contemporary lamps. h. Do not use projecting blade signs in downtown zone districts. Projecting shaped signs are required in downtown zone districts. See Guideline 6.20 on page 127 and “Special Provisions for Projecting Signs” at left for more information. SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR PROJECTING SIGNS Two types of projecting signs (signs generally mounted perpendicular to a wall) are described in these guidelines: projecting blade signs and projecting shaped (iconic) signs. Projecting blade signs are the more conventional two- dimensional “shingle signs” used by small businesses and traditionally mounted outside a front doorway. In contrast, projecting iconic signs are typically three- dimensional signs which are shaped, vibrant and artful. See Figure 28 for examples of both projecting sign types. The Denver Zoning Code allows projecting signs for most commercial areas in the city. Historic building occupants located in downtown zone districts are required to use projecting iconic shaped signs when projecting signs are desired. These signs help to create a unique downtown shopping and commercial experience. Projecting blade signs are allowed for commercial buildings in most other areas of the city where commercial uses are allowed. Additional information on allowed sign types can be found in the Denver Zoning Code. Sign Types Projecting Signs (continued) 163. When using blade signs, design and install signs with an artful appearance. These signs are generally unlit or indirectly lit.