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Item 7A - University Hill Historic District_National Register M E M O R A N D U M April 5, 2017 TO: Landmarks Board FROM: Lesli Ellis, Comprehensive Planning Manager James Hewat, Senior Historic Preservation Planner Marcy Cameron, Historic Preservation Planner SUBJECT: University Hill Historic District, National Register of Historic Places Nomination PURPOSE: As a Certified Local Government, the Landmarks Board is requested to review and comment on the attached draft National Register Nomination for the University Hill Commercial District in Boulder. BACKGROUND: In January 2014, the Boulder City Council made it a priority to improve the quality of life on University Hill for its residents, visitors and businesses. The University Hill Reinvestment Strategy provides a framework for pursuing the improvements, with the city acting as a catalyst for sustained public/private partnerships and private investment over the long term. The City Council vision for University Hill includes: business and residential diversity; arts; multimodal access; health and safety; stakeholder partnerships; and code enforcement. In April of 2014, the City Council expressed its support for the University Hill Reinvestment Strategy, including exploring National Register District designation as a way to provide property owners with financial and other incentives to rehabilitate historic properties in the area. After an open house and meetings with individual property owners, the city hired consultants Tom and Laurie Simmons of Front Range Research Associates, Inc. to prepare a National Register District nomination. Property owners of designated properties (local, state or national listing) are eligible for state and federal historic preservation tax credits for restoration and rehabilitation projects. The nomination will be presented to the Colorado State Historic Preservation Board on May 19, 2017. If the State Board votes to approve the nomination, the documentation will be forwarded to the Keeper of the National Register for consideration of Listing. The meeting is open to the public and will be held at the Colorado History Center, Colorado Room, at 1200 Broadway in Denver. The meeting begins at 10:00 a.m. and public comments are welcome concerning the eligibility of nominated properties. ANALYSIS: The nominated University Hill Commercial District was surveyed in 1994 and 2008, and was found to be potentially eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. Four properties have been designated as local landmarks: The Fox-Rialto Theater (1135 13th St.), the Flatirons Theater (1089 13th St.), Silver and Gold Cleaners/Payne’s Shoe Shop (1143 13th St.) and the Kinsley Building (1155 13th St.). The nominated boundary of the historic district encompasses the 1100 block of 13th Street, as well as properties along Pennsylvania Avenue, College Avenue and Broadway. The district is comprised of 24 buildings, all dating from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and associated with the commercial, social and entertainment history of the area in Boulder known as “the Hill.” Eighteen of the twenty-four buildings are found to be contributing to the historic district. The period of significance is proposed to extend from 1906 until 1970. The district is nominated under Criterion A, for its association with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history, specifically in the areas of commerce, social history and entertainment/recreation: The Boulder University Hill Commercial District is locally significant under Criterion A in three areas of significance. It is significant in the area of Commerce for its role as a neighborhood business district, housing a variety of businesses serving the surrounding residential area and students at the adjacent University of Colorado. The area is also significant for Social History as an area attracting generations of University of Colorado students for a variety of social interactions on its streets and sidewalks and in its many bars and restaurants, stores, and other facilities. It is further significant in the area of Entertainment/Recreation for its range of large and small venues offering live music and film to students and residents. The period of significance for Criterion A for Commerce and Social History extends from ca. 1906-08 (the beginning of its development as a commercial/social area) to 1970 (the year a riot shook the area and damaged buildings). The period of significance for Entertainment/Recreation from 1926 (the opening of the Rialto Theater) to 1967 (a date fifty years before the present). RECOMMENDATION: Staff recommends that the Landmarks Board vote to forward a recommendation for the nomination of the University Hill Commercial District to the National Register of Historic Places. Staff will prepare a letter to submit to History Colorado summarizing the Board’s comments. ATTACHMENTS: Attachment A: Sketch Map Attachment B: National Register of Historic Places Registration Form Attachment A: Sketch Map NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service 1 National Register of Historic Places Registration Form This form is for use in nominating or requesting determinations for individual properties and districts. See instructions in National Register Bulletin, How to Complete the National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. If any item does not apply to the property being documented, enter “N/A” for “not applicable.” For functions, architectural classification, materials, and areas of significance, enter only categories and subcategories from the instructions. Place additional certification comments, entries, and narrative items on continuation sheets if needed (NPS Form 10-900a). 1. Name of Property historic name Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District other names/site number The Hill / 5BL.13302 2. Location street & number 1087 to 1213 13th St., 1111 to 1135 Broadway St., 1220 to 1301 Pennsylvania Ave., and 1307 to 1321 College Ave. N/A not for publication city or town Boulder N/A vicinity state Colorado code CO county Boulder code 013 zip code 80302 3. State/Federal Agency Certification As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended, I hereby certify that this X nomination request for determination of eligibility meets the documentation standards for registering properties in the National Register of Historic Places and meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60. In my opinion, the property X meets does not meet the National Register Criteria. I recommend that this property be considered significant at the following level(s) of significance: national statewide X local Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer Signature of certifying official/Title Date Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, History Colorado State or Federal agency/bureau or Tribal Government In my opinion, the property meets does not meet the National Register criteria. Signature of commenting official Date Title State or Federal agency/bureau or Tribal Government 4. National Park Service Certification I hereby certify that this property is: entered in the National Register determined eligible for the National Register determined not eligible for the National Register removed from the National Register other (explain:) _________________ Signature of the Keeper Date of Action United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 2 5. Classification Ownership of Property (Check as many boxes as apply.) Category of Property (Check only one box.) Number of Resources within Property (Do not include previously listed resources in the count.) Contributing Noncontributing X private building(s) 18 6 buildings X public - Local X district 0 0 district X public - State site 0 0 site public - Federal structure 0 0 structure object 0 0 object 18 6 Total Name of related multiple property listing (Enter “N/A” if property is not part of a multiple property listing) Number of contributing resources previously listed in the National Register N/A 0 6. Function or Use Historic Functions (Enter categories from instructions.) Current Functions (Enter categories from instructions.) COMMERCE AND TRADE/restaurant COMMERCE AND TRADE/restaurant COMMERCE AND TRADE/specialty store COMMERCE AND TRADE/specialty store COMMERCE AND TRADE/business COMMERCE AND TRADE/business DOMESTIC/multiple dwelling DOMESTIC/multiple dwelling EDUCATION/education-related RECREATION AND CULTURE/music facility RECREATION AND CULTURE/theater RECREATION AND CULTURE/music facility 7. Description Architectural Classification (Enter categories from instructions.) Materials (Enter categories from instructions.) MODERN MOVEMENT foundation: OTHER: Commercial/Early Twentieth Century walls: BRICK Commercial STONE/sandstone OTHER: Commercial/House with Commercial Addition roof: ASPHALT other: United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 3 Physical Description Summary The 6.2-acre Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District is located in central Boulder, Colorado, with the campus of the University of Colorado lying to the east and north across Broadway Street and historic residential areas to the west and south.1 The district comprises a compact commercial area of twenty-four one- to two-and-a-half-story, mostly brick buildings dating from the late nineteenth century to the early post-World War II period of the twentieth century. Historic uses of the buildings have included retail shops, housing, restaurants and bars, and entertainment and recreation venues attracting college students and neighborhood residents. Eighteen of the district’s twenty-four buildings are assessed as contributing. The nominated area, which maintains very good historic physical integrity from its ca. 1906-08 to 1970 period of significance, is closely associated with the university and its students. Elaboration The University Hill Commercial Historic District, widely known as the “Hill,” is a recognized and familiar location within the city of Boulder for local residents, tens of thousands of former university students, and visitors to Boulder. The commercial district is a distinct geographic area due to its continuous street walls of commercial buildings, compact area, non-rectilinear blocks caused by the angled alignment of Broadway Street, and proximity and ties to the University of Colorado campus. The nominated area comprises a neighborhood business area principally serving students, faculty, and staff at the University of Colorado (CU) campus to the east and inhabitants of the University Hill neighborhood to the south and west. In addition, some of the Hill’s entertainment venues draw patrons from the broader city and region. The elevation of the area at 13th Street and College Avenue (approximately 5,460’) is perceptibly higher than that of the campus to the east (5,413’ at Norlin Library), thus its “hill” designation. College and Pennsylvania avenues slope downward from west to east and 13th Street from south to north. The focus of the nominated area is the 1100 block of 13th Street, which contains two-thirds of the district’s resources (see Sketch Map and Photographs 1 through 3). At the north and south ends of the block 13th Street is intersected by two east-west avenues—Pennsylvania Avenue to the north and College Avenue to the south (Photographs 4 and 5). Broadway Street, following a north-northwest alignment, forms the east boundary of the district. Broadway Street’s orientation necessitated the angled, dogleg shape of the alley between it and 13th Street. The district’s remaining eight resources are in the 1100 and 1200 blocks of 13th Street (one and two buildings, respectively); along Broadway Street (four buildings); and on Pennsylvania Avenue (one building). The commercial buildings of the district display common characteristics, including brick construction; a height of one to two-and-a-half stories; large storefront display windows, and recessed entrances. Original construction dates of buildings extend from ca. 1895 to 1965. The nominated area includes three examples of a House with Commercial Addition, recognized by History Colorado as a special use type. The area transitioned from a residential area to a commercial one. In some instances, rather than demolishing existing dwellings, “the housing is adapted to meet commercial and retail needs through the construction of commercial storefront additions. The additions, usually on the façade, front the street edge. The storefronts generally resemble most of the other commercial buildings along the street.”2 The original houses were used as the residence of the owner, for commercial uses, or as apartments. Three buildings—Tulagi, the University Hill Building, and the Flatirons Theater—display stonework evocative of those buildings designed in the 1920s and 1930s by noted architect Charles Klauder on the university campus, reflecting distinctive elements of what is often called the “University of Colorado style.” These buildings visually strengthen the tie between the business area and the campus. The district further features a few examples of Modern construction in the 1100 block of Broadway Street, including the 1960/1980 Art Hardware Building, the 1963 University Hill Building, the 1965 Colorado Bookstore, and the Flatirons Theater at 1087-91 13th Street. 1 The south faceblock of College Avenue is not in the district due to alterations of historic buildings and new construction. 2 History Colorado, House with Commercial Addition, http://www.historycolorado.org/oahp/house-commercial-addition (accessed 30 January 2017). The three resources of this type are: 1101-07, 1163-65, and 1203-073 13th Street. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 4 Sidewalks in the district are concrete and contain numerous trees of varying ages. Along the west side of the 1100 block of 13th Street the sidewalk has been raised above street level. Both sides of the street in that block now feature decorative metal rail fences dividing pedestrians from vehicles. A number of bars and restaurants have outdoor seating areas separated from the public sidewalk by metal railings. The sidewalk bordering Broadway Street is wider and lined with a series of small trees. The nominated area contains one paved surface parking lot with a capacity of thirty to thirty-five cars. A ca. 1895 building was razed in 1983 to create the lot. Resources within the District All resources within the district are buildings and are described below in order of contributing and noncontributing status. Within each section resources are listed in street address order, with entries including historic and current name, date of construction/major addition, state identification number, resource number, photographic reference, architectural description, major alterations, and historical background. Table 1 contains a listing of all resources within the district. Building histories and identification of alterations to buildings were compiled using: Boulder City Directories; Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1906-1960; Boulder County Assessor real property records; R. Laurie and Thomas H. Simmons, University Hill Commercial District: Historic Overview and Historic District Evaluation (1994) and University Hill Commercial Area: Historic District Re-evaluation, memorandum (2008); History Colorado Historic Building Inventory Record, Re-evaluation, and Architectural Inventory forms; City of Boulder, building permit files; and Boulder Carnegie Branch Library for Local History collections, including Boulder County Assessor Collection (Appraisal Cards and Photographs), Boulder Daily Camera clipping collection, historic photographs, and oral histories. Unless otherwise footnoted, the principal source for the historical background are the History Colorado Historic Building Inventory Record, Re -evaluation, and Architectural Inventory forms. Footnotes are included for the histories where significant other sources are used. CONTRIBUTING RESOURCES Street Address: 1087-91 13th Street Historic Name: Flatirons Theater Current Name: S & G Classic Barbershop, Rose Hill Wine & Spirits, 7-Eleven, Beat Cycle, Cost Cutters Year Built: 1950 State ID Number: 5BL.10532 Resource Number: 1 Photograph 6 Boulder Local Landmark: 2012-01 (Ordinance 7847) Description. This two-story 1950 theater, designed by Byron Hale Kaufman and erected by William Hammer, displays an asymmetrical three bay façade (east wall) with the stone-clad central bay housing the lobby flanked by taller brick flat-roof tower-like bays containing first-story storefronts. A curved northeast corner of the building faces the intersection of College Avenue and 13th Street. Originally, the large space behind the lobby to the west was occupied by a one-thousand-seat theater and a rear scenery storage area. The concrete block building is clad with orange brick, including decorative courses and panels of brickwork, and University of Colorado-style sandstone masonry.3 The storefront of the taller south bay (1087) displays large plate glass display windows and an inset entrance adjacent to the theater. Above the storefront the bay is unfenestrated and clad with orange wire-drawn brick to the south and a slightly taller sandstone-clad section to the north. The central theater has a sandstone façade, with the first story including display cases, a glass block panel, and a two-part metal frame window at the corner south of inset area that was the lobby entrance and now has a metal frame glazed door and plate glass windows. A wide horizontal band of weatherboard siding extends above the first story, and a projecting angled marquee shelters the glazed area. Above the weatherboard, the wall is clad with sandstone and contains a narrow ribbon of five windows with a shared concrete surround. A full-width shed roof overhang shelters the central bay. The north storefront has an inset entrance adjacent to the theater and display windows that wrap around the curved northeast corner. Above the storefront the 3 University of Colorado-style stonework refers to the sandstone masonry popularized in Boulder by the buildings designed by architect Charles Z. Klauder that featured the use of local sandstone laid so the “fractured face of the masonry extends outward beyond the mortar joint as much as two inches in places, providing textural highlight and shadow to wall surface.” CU Heritage, “Architecture,” cuheritage.org/exhibits/architecture. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 5 unfenestrated wall has a slightly taller sandstone-clad section adjacent to the theater and brick on the remainder. The curved northeast corner of the building is elaborated with a panel of brick laid in stacked header bond. The north wall includes two additional brick panels, with the westernmost above three small panels of glass blocks. Four storefronts are surmounted by stucco panels and a brick panel is at the west end of the wall. The rear wall is stucco and the south wall is orange brick with an adjacent building abutting it. Alterations. The original theater marquee was replaced at some point between 1965 and 1986.4 The horizontal window band on the façade originally contained glass blocks. The original lobby entrance area is modified to create a storefront. In 2013 storefronts were installed on the secondary (north) wall of the building. Historical Background. Journalist Laurence T. Paddock reported the first private residence on University Hill, the 1891 Amelia Perry House, was razed to build this theater in 1950. Contractor William Hammer erected the $141,730 theater with more than 1,000 seats for Flatirons Theater, Inc., owned by Claude Graves and Wilbur Williams. Claude Graves and his father-in-law, William Menigh, had started the State Theater, the first independently-owned motion picture facility in Boulder, in a remodeled grocery store on Pearl Street. They later sold that theater to the Fox Intermountain chain, the owner of all the other movie facilities in Boulder. Graves then left Boulder to work in Albuquerque, where he met Wilbur Williams. The partners were associated with the Westwood Theater in Denver. Graves returned to Boulder to manage the Flatirons. Graves and Williams also operated the Holiday and Motorena drive-ins in Boulder. Graves was associated with the Flatirons until the partners sold all of their movie theater holdings in 1966, including the lease on the Flatirons building, to Calin Smith of Cheyenne, Wyoming. Due to inadequate classroom space in the 1960s and 1970s, the University of Colorado utilized nearby buildings on the Hill for classes, including the theater. In 2007, developer Mark Young converted the theater to residential and retail uses.5 Street Address: 1100-06 13th Street/ 1307-21 College Avenue Historic Name: Stoffle’s Restaurant, Randall Shop, Kauffman’s Beauty Shop Current Name: The Corner, Tribal Rites, Brazil on the Hill, Cheba Hut, The Barber Joint Year Built: 1927-28 and 1935 State ID Number: 5BL.2880 Resource Number: 2 Photographs 4 and 7 Description. This brick building was erected in two stages as University Hill evolved from a residential to a commercial area. The older component was built facing 13th Street as a 1926 two-story flat-roof commercial addition to an older house; the house itself was razed in 1935 to build a one- and two-story wing along College Avenue. The older component of the building has painted brick walls, an angled southwest corner facing the intersection of 13th Street and College Avenue, a brick beltcourse, and brick courses elaborating the cornice. The first story of the west wall contains a paneled wood door accessing the upper story at the north end, two five-part windows with plate glass, and a glazed area with plate glass and an entrance at the south end. Metal hoods project from the wall above two sections of an outdoor seating area adjacent the building. The upper story has an enframed concrete panel with four widely spaced one-over-one-light windows. The angled wall contains a glazed metal frame glazed door with sidelights and a transom on the first story and a single window on the upper story. The south wall of the original first story has two glazed areas between brick piers and the upper story has two windows set in an enframed concrete panel. A metal hood projects outward on the first story above an outdoor seating area. The addition fronting on College Avenue is painted brick, attaches to the east wall of the earlier building, and has a flat roof with projecting courses of brick elaborating the cornice and a belt course. This part of the building has one bay aligned with the south wall of the older building, an angled wall leading to an inset area with a single-light window, and a projecting wing with a storefront with large plate glass display windows flanking a center entrance on the first story, which is sheltered by a full-width hood. The second story has two widely separated one-over-one-light windows and a corbelled sill course. 4 Flatirons Theater, Boulder, Colorado, www.cinematreasures.org. Pictures of marquees for 1965 and 1986 are posted on the website. 5 Boulder Outdoor Cinema, “Holiday Drive-in Theater History,” www.boulderoutdoorcinema.com, accessed on 16 March 2008; Alicia Wallace, “Mixed-use Plan for Hill Theater,” Daily Camera, 7 December 2006, www.dailycamera.com accessed on 17 March 2008. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 6 The one-story section to the east displays a corbelled brick cornice (a continuation of the sill course to the west) and three storefronts. The west storefront has a center entrance flanked by bands of plate glass windows; an outside seating area bordered by a metal railing is in front of the windows. The second storefront contains an inset off-center entrance and a six-light window with black sash with the transom area covered with corrugated metal. The east storefront has an off-center entrance with a metal frame glazed door and a display window with the transom area covered with corrugated metal. Alterations. Between ca. 1958 and 1990 the storefronts had been altered and the brick on the western portion of the building painted. The sixteen-over-one light sash and transom windows of the upper story of the older building were replaced with one-over-one-light windows between 1990 and 2008. Non-historic simulated shake hoods on the older building were replaced with two open metal hoods on the west wall and south wall and a fabric awning on the angled wall between 2008 and 2016. Outdoor eating areas enclosed by metal railings were added in front of the south and west walls of the older building during the same period. The inset area on the south has a window replacing what was a door. Historical Background. A pre-1906 two-story brick corner house (addressed 1106 College Avenue) was the first building on this site. Sisters Addie and Alice Green lived in the house and rented rooms to boarders. The Greens were associated with the house through at least 1918. In 1926, J.E. Moore lived in the residence. The house received a two-story brick commercial addition facing 13th Street in 1927-28. W. Merton Stoffle, who had previously operated the University Hill Grocery Store at 1118 13th Street, may have been responsible for the construction of the addition. By 1932, Stoffle’s Restaurant operated at 1100 13th Street, while Stoffle resided in the attached house. In 1935, the house was razed and a one- and two-story commercial building along College Avenue was erected. The 1935 construction followed the same style and materials as the 1927-28 building. Together, the two phases of construction comprise the present building. Early tenants of the 1935 addition along College Avenue included the Randall Shop (a women’s clothing store) at 1309 College and Gladys O. Kauffman’s beauty shop at 1311 College Avenue. In 1929, the Harry C. Owen family from Clarinda, Iowa, established the Owen Sandwich Shoppe on the west side of 13th Street near College Avenue, which became a “home away from home” for students. According to an article in the Daily Camera, the restaurant was “one of those last, informal, ‘pay when you can’ types of businesses where your word was your meal ticket.”6 The café’s original location apparently did not have a sufficiently high volume of business, and the shop struggled there. Then Harry Owen’s wife, Fariba, and son, Donald, purchased Stoffle’s business across the street, moved the restaurant, and saw business improve dramatically. The café operated here until 1966, and was followed by Charcoal Chef Res taurant and Dairy Queen (by the early 1970s). At 1106 13th Street in 1955, Mrs. Belva Hoke operated the Budget Alterations Shop, sharing the address with Hillcrest Studios. In 1994, tenants included: Dairy Queen and Budget Alterations (upstairs) in 1100 13th Street; K&K Fine Silver Jewelry at 1305 College; the Wave clothing store at 1307 College; Off Campus Cuts hair salon at 1319 College; and Kevin R. Rowan, optometrist at 1321 College. Street Address: 1101-11 13th Street Historic Name: Belser House, McDowell Studios Current Name: The Point Café, Scrooge Maki, Wild Side Smoke Shop, Three Oaks Apartments Year Built: ca. 1895 (house), ca. 1949-50 (commercial additions) State ID Number: 5BL.10533 Resource Number: 3 Photograph 24 Description. This house with commercial addition is composed of a ca. 1895 two-and-a-half-story hipped roof painted brick residence with a raised rock-faced painted stone foundation and a one-story flat-roof commercial addition dating to ca. 1949-50 on the east wall of the first story. The upper story of the front of the house (east), visible above the addition, features a lower, projecting, hipped roof bay at the north end. The bay includes a one-over-one-light wood window with a painted rock-faced stone lintel on the north and a band of multi-light wood windows on the south that wraps onto the south wall. A small shed-roof dormer is on the roof. The south bay of the second story displays a sash and transom window with a painted, rock-faced stone lintel. 6 Boulder Daily Camera, 9 October 1975. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 7 The south wall of the house is fully visible and has one one-over-one-light wood window with a rock-faced stone lintel and narrow stone sill on each story at the east end. Near the center of the wall on the first story is an entrance to the apartments in the building with a glazed metal frame door, sidelights, and a transom. A t an intermediate level above the entrance are two round arch wood windows with interlocking stone voussoirs and a massive rock-faced stone sill. A wide shed-roof dormer is above. A two-story, flat-roof, brick projection at the west end of the wall has paired four-light casement windows on each story of its south wall and one-over-one- light windows on each story of its west wall (all have rock-faced sills). The remainder of the west wall contains a segmental arch central entrance facing a raised stoop and segmental arch windows with drip molds and stone sills on each story. A central shed-roof dormer is on the roof. An asphalt parking area is situated in the southwest corner of the parcel, bordered by a sandstone wall topped with a wrought iron railing to the south. The north wall is notable for containing a central two-story brick bay window with one-over-one-light windows with rock-faced stone lintels and a wide shed-roof dormer above it. The one-story flat-roof commercial addition on the east contains three storefronts. The southern storefront has arched brick parapets on the east, south, and southeast. There is a flat hood above the storefronts on the south and east walls; the parapet is angled at the southeast corner. There are red brick piers at each end of the building and red brick at the southeast corner; the remaining walls have sections of orange brick and tan sandstone laid in University of Colorado style. Triple one-over-one-light windows are on the south and east walls. The entrance is off-center on the south wall. The middle storefront has a parapet with a broken pediment, walls and end piers of variegated tan sandstone, and a full-width fabric awning. Four plate glass windows are adjacent to a glazed metal frame door. The north storefront has a curvilinear parapet and orange brick walls between two red brick end piers. A corrugated metal hood extends across the storefront, sheltering a glazed metal frame door and two plate glass windows. The three storefronts all offer outside seating areas with decorative metal railings. Alterations. This large corner house was remodeled into apartments in 1945, probably when the dormers and southwest two-story projection were added. A one-story commercial addition was built on the east in 1949 and 1950. Between 1994 and 2008 the commercial additions were remodeled with new façades. The house portion is substantial in scale and remains fundamentally intact. Historical Background. This building consists of a historic house and a later commercial addition facing 13th Street. Carl William Belser and Susan Mishler Belser erected the house about 1895. Carl W. Belser, was born in New Washington, Ohio, in 1860, and received his early education from his father, an Evangelical Lutheran minister. He entered the University of Michigan at the age of 17, receiving B.A. and M.A. degrees. During 1884-1887, he taught Latin at Carthage College in Illinois. In 1887, he married Susan Mishler, also a graduate of the University of Michigan. Following their wedding, the couple traveled in Scotland and then settled in Leipzig, Germany, where Carl Belser received his doctorate. A daughter, Hulda L., was born in Germany in 1888. In 1889, Carl became an instructor of German at the University of Michigan, later serving as chair of Oriental languages. Children Lois Gertrude (1890) and Carl Delitzich (1892) were born in Michigan. The family moved to Colorado hoping to improve Mr. Belser’s health in 1893. At that time, many considered the state a haven for those suffering from respiratory diseases, including consumption (tuberculosis). The Belsers settled in Boulder, where Mr. Belser served as Professor of Latin at the University of Colorado for five years and a fourth child, Marie Ernestine, was born in 1895. In 1898, Professor Belser suffered from a relapse of consumption brought on by “a sharp cold spell” and spent a few weeks at a sanitarium before his death. The university acknowledged that Belser “has been keenly appreciated and his memory will be cherished by colleagues on the faculty and by the students.”7 For his funeral, university students marched en masse to the Belser house and to the cemetery. Susan Belser, who was born in Pearl City, Illinois, about 1863, lived in the house into the 1910s. The 1900 U.S. Census indicated Mrs. Belser earned an income through taking in five boarders, whose occupations included a retired farmer and physician. By the time of the 1920 Census, the Belsers lived at 1135 Lincoln Place. At that time, Susan Belser was retired, Carl had graduated from CU and was a mining engineer, and Ernestine served as a high school teacher. In the early 1930s, Mrs. Belser lived in Lima, Peru, with her 7 Silver and Gold, 28 January 1898. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 8 daughter, Ernestine, and son-in-law, G.E. Danielson, an engineer. She returned to Boulder, where she died in 1933. The 1920 U.S. Census recorded that Joy B. Moore lived in this house with her brother Joseph, who was a cattle stockman. Joy Moore rented rooms in the house to boarders. In 1945, owner and resident Lester Showalter received a building permit to remodel the house into apartments. The house received a $3,000 one-story commercial addition composed of tile and cinderblock at the corner of 13th Street and College Avenue in 1949. McDowell Studios, photography (1107 13th) appeared here in the 1949 city directory. Richard D. Parkins owned the building from 1950 through at least 1970. He added a two- unit commercial addition north of the original addition in 1950. The one-story section of the building served a number of businesses over the years. The corner unit (1101 13th) housed the Fish Bowl in 1955, followed by the Corner Kitchen in 1961, Mr. Shoe Box during 1967-1973, and Pacific Actionwear in 1983. In 1994, the space housed Espresso Roma. McDowell Studios remained at 1107 13th until the mid-1960s, when Mason Owens Photography became a tenant. Three shoe stores (Goody Two Shoes in 1973, J.W. Fox ladies’ shoes in 1975, and the Fifth Avenue West shoe shop in 1983) were subsequent tenants. In 1994, the City of Boulder University Hill Services Office occupied the storefront. The third unit (number 1109 or 1111 13th) housed the Hillside Variety Store, which remained at the address until the late 1960s, after which the Hillside Shop operated in the space. In 1994, Josh and John’s Ice Cream occupied the store. In the 1930s, the house was known as “The Elms,” while in 1994 the house was known as the Oaks Apartments and addressed 1225 College Avenue. In 2008 Espresso Roma Café and Salvaggio’s Deli were located here. In 2016, the remodeled storefronts contained The Point Café, Scrooge Maki, and Wild Side Smoke Shop, with the Three Oaks Apartments in the older house section. Street Address: 1110 13th Street Historic Name: University Cafeteria, Stewart’s Shoe Shop, Lesch Jewelry Current Name: Fat Shack Year Built: ca. 1919-21 State ID Number: 5BL.2881 Resource Number: 4 Photograph 8 Description. This two-story commercial building is enframed with banded end piers and crowned with a broken pediment. The first story has an off-center inset double door (glazed and metal frame) entrance flanked by display windows (two wide of plate glass on the south and one narrow of plate glass on the north) with variegated brick below. A black awning with signage extends across the façade. The upper story walls are composed of variegated brown and red bricks. Four one-over-one-light windows are flanked by fluted wood pilasters and have block dentils lintel trim. A rectangular panel defined by slightly projecting bricks is present above the windows and has a round wood ornament above each window. Alterations. The decorative window surrounds on the second story were added between ca. 1958 and 1990. The broken pediment, banded wood end piers, and second-story wood window ornamentation were present in 1990. This alteration may have occurred after the 1984 construction of the AT&T Building in New York City that popularized the post-modernist broken pediment design.8 In 1990 the first story had two storefronts (the building was addressed as 1110-12 13th Street), whereas now there is only one storefront. The transom windows were reconfigured to four lights with an aluminum frame. After 2008 the walls below the display windows displayed variegated brick. Historical Background. The two-story brick and cinderblock building at 1110-12 13th Street was built between 1919 and 1921, but the address does not appear in city directories until 1932. This apparently stems from the fact that the University Cafeteria at 1114 13th Street expanded into the first floor of this building upon its completion. The current address was not used until the restaurant reduced its space in the early 1930s. The 1932 to 1938 city directories list Stewart’s Shoe Shop and William F. Lesch, jeweler, as occupants. Stuart’s Jewelry occupied the 1112 storefront from 1949 through at least 1975. The other storefront (1110) housed Shu-Re-Ne-Re, a shoe repair business listed in the 1955 and 1960 city directories, followed by Anglen’s Shoe Service in the 1965-1975 city directories. A 1950 building permit indicated that Clyde Wiltse owned the 8 Leland M. Roth, American Architecture: A History (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2001), 497. Roth concluded Philip Johnson’s design for the AT&T building in New York marked “his rise to the status of superstar in the architectural world.” United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 9 building, while an old appraisal card noted that Bushey & Bushey owned the building in 1955. A 1990 survey form listed Bill Cronin Goldsmith and the Greek Spirit Store as the occupants of the building. Nancy K. and J.W. Buchanan, Jr., of Boulder owned the building at that time. Street Address: 1116 13th Street Historic Name: University (or U of C) Cafeteria, William L. Beach Offices Current Name: Alforat Mediterranean Restaurant Year Built: 1913 State ID Number: 5BL.2904 Resource Number: 5 Photograph 9 Description. This 1913 two-story commercial building has walls composed of tan magnesium bricks with red mortar joints. The single storefront enframed by brick end piers with stone trim contains a center, inset entrance with a glazed metal frame door, sidelight, and transom. The entrance is flanked by plate glass display windows with variegated brick below. There is a full-width metal storefront lintel topped by a rowlock course of brick. The transom area is covered. To the north on the first story is a solid panel door with a glass block transom leading to the stairs to the second floor. The upper story has a red sandstone sill course shared by two sets of paired one-over-one-light double-hung sash windows flanked by wood pilasters supporting pedimented lintels with circular ornaments. There is brick banding on the wall above the windows and five inset green tile ornaments. A projecting bracketed metal cornice extends across the top of the wall. Alterations. The bracketed cornice is shown in a 1971 photograph of 13th Street and appears to be original, while the second-story wood window ornamentation was added after that date. The storefront display windows replace other non-historic windows observed in 2008. An outside seating area enclosed with a metal railing was added between 1990 and 2008. Historical Background. Prominent Boulder resident William L. Beach may have built this two-story brick commercial building (erected in 1913 according to the county assessor and originally addressed 1114 -16 13th Street), and he is listed as an occupant through 1923. Beach was active in mining west of Boulder at Sugarloaf and Wallstreet before moving to the city in 1902. He and his wife, Grace, lived just southeast of the Hill commercial area at 1036 14th Street. In the 1930s, Beach donated twenty-two lots in the 900 block of 13th Street to the city for a public park on University Hill. Aside from Beach, the principal early tenant in the two- storefront building was the University Cafeteria (or U of C Cafeteria), which appeared in city directories from 1921 through 1932. Building permits of the early 1930s indicate Bushy and Bushy were owners of the building. When the next building to the south (1110-12 13th Street) was built in the late teens or early 1920s, the restaurant expanded to fill the first floor of that building. Since the late 1940s, a number of small retail and service shops have occupied the space. City Directories of 1955-70 indicate The Roes gift and women’s clothing store in 1114 13th, while the Don Carlson Studio (photography) occupied 1116 13th Street. The Logos Book Store operated in the building in 1973, followed by Trade-A-Tape and Records in 1983 and 1990. In 1994, Bolo Bagels occupied the building. Street Address: 1118 13th Street Historic Name: Morgan & Hedbloom Grocers, University Hill Grocery Current Name: Meow Meow Year Built: 1911 State ID Number: 5BL.2882 Number: 6 Photograph 10 Description. This 1911 two-story commercial building has buff-color brick walls and red sandstone trim. Corner brick piers with stone trim enframe a single storefront with an entrance to the south and a band of three -part display windows to the north; below the windows is painted concrete. A full-width metal lintel with rosettes extends above the storefront. The upper story has a brick sill course and four round-arch one-over-one-light windows with rock-faced red sandstone sills. The windows feature compound arches with dentils. Short brick pilasters with corbelled bases enframe the upper wall, which has moldings with dentils and a corbelled brick cornice. Based on a historic assessor appraisal card photograph from ca. 1958, the pedestrian door to the north is associated with 1124-28 13th Street. Alterations. The storefront was altered between ca. 1958 and 1990. The current appearance of the building dates to at least 1990. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 10 Historical Background. This two-story brick commercial building was erected in 1911 according to county assessor records and housed a succession of grocery stores through the late 1960s. The 1913 city directory indicates that Morgan & Hedbloom (David B. Morgan and J.L. Hedbloom), grocers, were operating in the building. In 1916, grocers Rethlefsen & Stephens began conducting business here. W. Merton Stoffle operated the University Hill Grocery Store in the building from about 1918 through at least 1938. After briefly housing the Model Grocery, the University Hill Grocery reappeared, which was operated by O.R. Easley from 1944 until 1968. Later businesses at this site included: Three Kings’ Delicatessen (1970), Discount Records (1973), Budget Tapes and Records (1983), and Art to Go in 1990. The 1994 occupant of the building was Jacque Michelle Apparel and Home Décor. Meow Meow, a gifts, clothing, and art prints business, is now housed here. Street Address: 1129 13th Street Historic Name: Tulagi Current Name: Tulagi, Boss Lady Pizza, Corepower Yoga Year Built: 1951 State ID Number: 5BL.10536 Resource Number: 10 Photograph 11 Description. Constructed in 1951 this building features a tall parapet wall displaying a composition of variegated University of Colorado-style sandstone frequently utilized in the district. The front portion of the building is two stories and the remainder is double-height one-story. A shallow gabled roof covers the building. The angled inset center entrance area contains two glazed doors with wide sidelights and a transom. Flanking the entrance are large plate glass windows; a secondary inset entry door with a fabric awning is located at the north end of the building. A broad, asymmetrical, triangular canopy with curved edges clad in patterned metal is suspended above the first story. The second story contains four simulated sixteen-light windows and three narrow simulated eight-light windows.9 Centered above the upper windows is the name “Tulagi” in metal script illuminated with numerous small lights. The side walls are concrete block. Alterations. Historic photographs of the building show large glass block panels on the first and second stories at the south end of the façade and three small windows on the second story. The entrance area on the first story had a single door with an eight-light window to the north. The name “Tulagi” appeared in script on the upper portion of the front, but in a narrower and more flowing style than today. Alteration of these elements occurred between 2004 and 2007 as the building was converted from a nightclub to retail functions. Historical Background. Tulagi, a popular music venue and drinking establishment, evolved from a wartime business known as the Anchorage Nite Club, started at 1135-37 13th Street (Rialto/Fox Theater Building) by Hitoshi Ogata in 1943. According to University of Colorado Archivist David Hays, the club offered chop suey, beer, and juke box dancing and was popular with members of the U.S. Navy Japanese/Oriental Language School at the university. By 1949, Ray Imel acquired the business, which was renamed as the Anchorage Bar & Grill and no longer featured dancing. In 1951, Imel and Rex Bailey opened Tulagi Night Club in the newly constructed building at 1129 13th Street. The name Tulagi came from a World War II Pacific island campaign. Imel and Bailey commissioned construction of this building, which replaced a two-story pre-1906 brick house that had been the residence of Sigma Nu Fraternity in 1918 and Acacia Fraternity in the 1920s. The new $50,000 two-story building featured a native sandstone and glass block façade, an angled metal canopy sheltering the entrance, and cinder block side walls. The interior, with a seating capacity of 250 couples, included a bar and ballroom on the main floor and another large room on the upper floor. Some observers believed that beer consumption at University Hill’s Tulagi and the Sink (a bar a few storefronts north) outdistanced any other place in the country. In 1969, the owner of the Sink bought Tulagi and hired Chuck Morris as its manager. Under his leadership, Tulagi hosted some of the best known musical performers in the country, including the Eagles, Linda Ronstadt, Bonnie Raitt, and Miles Davis. In 2003, the state seized the building for unpaid taxes and its owners sold the business and its liquor license to the owners of the Fox Theater. In 2005, owner Rockrimmon Real Estate remodeled the interior and the façade to serve retail operations. In 2007, Which Wich sandwich shop moved into the building as its first retail tenant. The principal tenants in 2016 were Boss Lady Pizza and Corepower Yoga. 9 The windows are not true divided lights; the illusion of divided lights is provided by material applied to the window interior mimicking mullions and stiles. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 11 Street Address: 1130-34 13th Street Historic Name: Greenman’s University Store Current Name: University Hill Market and Deli Year Built: 1911 State ID Number: 5BL.2884 Resource Number: 11 Photograph 12 Description. This two-story flat-roof building was built in the shape of a trapezoid to conform to the alignment of an alley to the north and east. The front and north walls are composed of variegated brown and tan magnesium brick. The center inset entrance contains a multi-light wood door with sidelights and is flanked by plate glass display windows with red Roman brick below. The transom area of the façade is covered. A fabric awning extends across the storefront and a wood signband is above it. The upper story displays eight evenly spaced one-over-one-light, double-hung sash wood windows with gauged brick lintels and a continuous sill course of tan sandstone. A decorative brick panel above the windows contains insets of green tile with a foliate design. The building is crowned by a projecting, bracketed metal cornice. One display window on the north wall is filled with red Roman brick, and the remainder of the wall of brown and tan brick is unfenestrated on the first story. Three brick panels are at the top of the first story. The upper story continues the design of the front wall and contains two wood windows flanking a blank brick window. Alterations. Between ca. 1958 and 1990, the fabric awning on the front was replaced with a metal hood , the storefront transom was covered, brick was added under the storefront windows, and the storefront window on the alley was bricked-in. The building appears unchanged since 1990. Historical Background. Alfred A. Greenman built this two-story brick building, known as Greenman’s University Store, in 1911. Before he completed this building, Greenman persuaded the city to widen 13th Street north of College Avenue, arguing “Boulder will not always be a horse and buggy town and we will need wider streets.”10 Greenman and fellow University Hill developer William L. Beach attempted to foster a degree of design uniformity by agreeing to build only two-story commercial buildings on 13th Street. Greenman reportedly purchased the Sigma Alpha Epsilon House at 1201 13th Street “to control growth of business buildings on University Hill.”11 A native of Pennsylvania, Greenman came to Boulder in 1890 and became a prominent businessman and civic leader. He attended the university and entered the book and drugstore trade, operating a drug, book, and stationery business on Pearl Street with Marc N. Maxwell. Greenman eventually took over the business, which continued to operate after the University Hill store opened. Greenman served as mayor during 1909-11 and as president of the Chautauqua Association board for more than thirty-five years. He was active in organizing the Chamber of Commerce and served as a member of the city’s park and planning commission for many years. Greenman’s University Store opened in September 1911 and initially specialized in textbooks, stationery, and athletic goods. After the university opened its own bookstore in the basement of Macky Auditorium in 1922, Greenman’s stopped selling books and expanded its food and drug lines with a pharmacy and ice cream fountain. The Daily Camera reported, “the pretty new ice cream fountain recently installed by the University book and drugstore is now ready for service and is in charge of an expert mixologist. The fountain is one of the prettiest and most sanitary in town and will, no doubt, draw a large share of the soft drink trade.”12 The store was said to be the first on the Hill to feature toasted sandwiches, and it served fifty to seventy-five breakfasts each morning during the late 1910s and 1920s. In the 1920s, Greenman’s was one of the students’ favorite places for “coking,” or the consumption of soft drinks and conversation. Alfred Greenman’s brother, Ernest M. Greenman, managed the University Hill store, becoming sole owner in 1941 following Alfred’s 1939 death. During 1938-1943, the university community attempted to convince Greenman’s and Quine’s Drugs to end years of refusing to serve African Americans at their soda fountains. In 1943, both became targets of stand-ins by black students. After further pressure from the university, the drugstores decided to provide equal service to blacks and other minorities. In 1945, Ernest Greenman sold the drugstore to Mr. and Mrs. W.E. Smith, but he continued to work in the firm as a clerk until at least 955. W.E. 10 Boulder Daily Camera, 3 October 1939. 11 Boulder Daily Camera, 3 October 1939. 12 Boulder Daily Camera, 9 October 1975. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 12 Smith had been associated with the business since 1913. In July 1964, Smith announced that Greenman’s University Store would sell its merchandise and close. Subsequent businesses in the building included Audiophile Records and Components (1965), the College Shop (1966), King of the Hill Candy (1973), and Old Chicago Arcade (1983). Stella’s College Market occupied the building between 1990 and 1994, and the University Hill Market and Deli is the current tenant. Street Address: 1135 13th Street Historic Name: Rialto Theater Current Name: Fox Theater Year Built: 1926, 1962 State ID Number: 5BL.2885 Resource Number: 12 Photograph 13 Boulder Local Landmark: 2002-02 (Ordinance 7204) Description. Erected in 1926 as the Rialto, this theater was remodeled to its current appearance in 1962. The two-story commercial building is distinguished by a tall, flat, white metal screen attached it its original brick wall (which is reported to remain intact underneath).13 Metal letters lighted in neon on the screen announce the theater’s name, Fox. Projecting from the base of the screen is a lighted triangular metal marquee. The walls of the first story are clad with stucco. The central, inset lobby entrance area displays double glazed metal frame doors with transoms. The projecting theater ticket booth is angled to face the north end of the lobby entrance area. The south storefront includes a band of short metal frame windows and a glazed metal frame door with a transom that is on an angled wall facing the theater entrance area. North of the theater entrance area, a former storefront now displays three small covered openings and an off-center solid panel single entry door painted with a mural. Alterations. The façade was remodeled in 1962 when the building became the Fox Theater, with metal panels and a marquee installed. The first story received stucco cladding and the windows of the north storefront were covered between 1990 and 2008. These changes probably date to 1992, when the theater was renovated and reopened as a live music venue. Historical Background. William Beach, who owned and developed other properties on the Hill, sold this property to Adrian G. Diez in April 1926. Diez secured a building permit and erected a theater that year. The City of Boulder landmark designation application for this building notes conflicting accounts over whether the Rialto offered vaudeville acts, film, or possibly both. Diez sold the building to the Curran-Isis Theatres Company in 1927 who operated it only for a short time due to a lack of business. They sold to another theater chain, but the building stood vacant in 1932. From 1938-40 Buffalo Club Dancing was located here. In 1943 John Hart opened the Anchorage, a recreation center that offered music and dancing. It operated here through at least 1949 when it was the Anchorage Bar and Grill. In 1951 the building was remodeled into Ted’s Buff Café and Cafeteria, described as “Boulder’s most modern eating house.”14 In 1961-62, the building was reborn as the 450-seat Fox Theater, with a new façade and marquee. In 1991 the Pyramid Group (composed of Don Strasburg, Jon O’Leary, Dicke Sidman, James Hambleton, and Dave McKenzie) acquired the property and converted it into a concert hall, focusing on national musical performances. In January 2017 the Boulder Daily Camera reported: “National publications often rank the venue as one of the best clubs in the country. . .. The Fox Theatre’s renowned sound system has appeared on national touring band’s albums — from Leftover Salmon to Leo Kottke to Cowboy Junkies. In the early days of the Dave Matthews Band, the group filmed the video for ‘What Would You Say’ at the Fox.”15 Street Address: 1138-44 13th Street Historic Name: G&S Kash-Karry Grocery, Paddock’s Men’s Furnishings, Payne Shoe Repair, University Hill Cleaners and Dyers, Tryon Confectionery, Beach-Johnson Apartments (second floor) Current Name: Doomd Ink, Full Cycle Cellular, Lollicup, Apartments (second floor) 13 Ruth McHeyser, Director of Long Range Planning, and Deon Wolfenbarger, Memorandum to Landmarks Preservation Advisory Board regarding 1135 13th Street/Fox Theater, 3 April 2002, on file City of Boulder, Planning, Housing & Sustainability Department, Boulder, Colorado. 14 McHeyser and Wolfenbarger, memorandum, 13th3 April 2002. 15 Boulder Daily Camera, 9 January 2017. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 13 Year Built: 1923 State ID Number: 5BL.2887 Number: 13 Photograph 14 Description. This large orange and brown wire-drawn brick building has two stories, a flat roof, and four storefronts on the front (west). The northern three storefronts are flanked by brick piers, while the south storefront has a wood pier at the southwest corner. Each storefront contains different window styles: 1144 at the north end displays a wood door with a large rectangular light and a single tall two-part wood display window with a wood panel and a louvered wood vent below; 1142 has an inset entrance with a wood door with a large rectangular light and short two-part windows with a band of stucco above and red Roman brick below; 1140 contains an inset entrance with a solid panel wood door with a small rectangular light and large multi-light wood display windows with wood below; and 1138 on the south has an inset entrance with a metal frame glazed door and large plate glass display windows with beadboard siding below. A full-width flat metal hood extends across the front, suspended from above with ties to a full-width metal storefront lintel. The transom panels above the hood contain small, square, clear and green prism lights in a metal framework on the northern two storefronts, while the other two storefronts have transoms filled with three dark glass lights. The original transom design with green glass lights is present on the south wall of #1138 above a wood display window. There are twelve one-over-one-light, double-hung sash wood windows on the second story grouped in twos. A continuous rowlock sill course of brown brick extends along the façade and slightly projecting brown bricks delineate panels on the north and south above the windows. A central raised parapet contains a rectangular vent with decoratively shaped blocks. The top of the front wall has metal coping and metal panels covering areas where molded metal cornices were removed. The north wall is unfenestrated on the first story and the sill course is extended on the second story, which has two windows toward the east; the building steps in at the northeast corner. The south wall has two covered wind ows on the first story toward the east, while the upper story displays the sill course and three windows flanking a central entrance with wood surround and metal stairs. Alterations. The aluminum awning dates to 1957; the hood shows damage at the southwest corner. Between the late 1950s and 1990, large molded metal cornices on its front and two end parapets were removed. The multi-light stained glass storefront transoms on the south end of the building were replaced with plate glass by 1990. This building appears unchanged since 1990. Historical Background. A few new commercial buildings were constructed in University Hill during the 1920s and 1930s, including this two-story brick building. Its 1923 construction altered the course of the alley lying east of 13th Street. The alley had previously intersected the street at an acute angle; the new building forced the alley to jog and meet the street at a right angle. Original tenants of the building included G&S (later A&B) Kash-Karry Grocery, P.B. Paddock’s men’s furnishings, J.M. Payne shoe repair, University Hill Cleaners and Dyers, and E.J. Tryon confectionery. The 1926 city directory lists the Beach-Johnson Apartments on the second floor of the building, and a building permit of the same year indicates Beach & Johnson were the owners. Developer William L. Beach appears to have been involved in the building’s construction, and owned the building with Caroline W. Johnson, proprietor of the apartments. Beach was active in mining west of Boulder in the Sugarloaf and Wallstreet areas before moving to the city in 1902. He and his wife, Grace, lived just southeast of the Hill commercial area at 1036 14th Street. In the 1930s, Beach donated twenty-two lots in the 900 block of 13th Street to the city for a public park on University Hill. In the mid-1930s, the cleaners and men’s store departed and the Casa Grande Café began operating. The A&B Grocery conducted its business here until the mid-1940s, while the Casa Grande (1142) continued at this location through the mid-1950s. Other tenants in 1955 included Tasty Bake Shop (1138), Best Beauty Shop (1140), and Melody Mart Records (1144). In 1960, the following firms were located here: Randall Shop, women’s clothing (1138); Colorado Woolen Co., men’s clothing (1140); Hilltop House Restaurant (1142); and Aber’s Melody Mart (1144). The Beach-Johnson Apartments were still listed on the upper floor. Robert A. Aurand is shown as the owner of the property on the old assessor’s appraisal card and building permit applications of the 1960s. In 1965 through at least 1975, the College Shop women’s clothing occupied 1138 13th Street. In 1965, Don Hale’s men’s clothing was listed in the city directory at 1140 13th, followed by Adair’s Ltd. in 1970. Bennett’s Pizza House occupied 1142 13th in 1965, followed by La Siesta Gift Shop in 1970. In 1965, DE Exchange, used general merchandise occupied 1144 13th. City directory listings from the 1970s and United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 14 1980s refer to the structure as the Aurand Building. The building’s 1994 occupants included: Roach Galleries (here since at least 1973), DE Exchange (here since at least 1965), Serendipity, and Council Travel. Street Address: 1149 13th Street Historic Name: Nix Barber Shop Current Name: Taco Junky and Tequila Bar Year Built: ca. 1932-35 State ID Number: 5BL.2888 Resource Number: 15 Photograph 15 Description. This small, one-story, flat-roof commercial building constructed in 1910 abuts other commercial buildings on the north and south, has walls of variegated colors of orange and brown brick and a corbelled orange brick cornice with concrete coping. The upper part of the façade features a panel delineated by slightly raised bricks (with an attached signband) flanked by two square ornaments of orange bricks laid in a basketweave pattern. A soldier course of orange brick at the top of the storefront extends the full width of the building. The center entrance has a wood door with a large rectangular light, wood sidelights with narrow windows of different heights, and a covered transom area. The north end of the façade contains a large multi- light metal frame window. The south window has a two-part transom above small plate glass window and one- over-one-light windows with rowlock brick sills. A gas meter is present in a shallow cavity in the brick wall below the windows near the south end of the building. An eating area in front of the building has a decorative metal railing. In 1957 an older building was removed from the rear of the property to build an addition onto the rear of this commercial building. Alterations. A ca. 1958 appraisal card photograph showed the entrance much as it is today. Between 1990 and 2008 the gas meter niche was created, the storefront windows were altered, and a small outside seating area and a decorative metal railing installed. Historical Background. University Hill gained a successful barber shop when this small brick building was completed between 1932 and 1935. In 1936, the storefront housed the Edward T. Nix barber shop and a branch of Berkeleys, a local dry cleaners. By 1938, William M. Bailey had joined Nix in the barber shop as a shoe shiner. The Wilfred Wave Studio occupied the other half of the building. The Nix shop included C. Sid Jones as shoe shiner in 1943. By 1949, the University Barber Shop filled the entire building, continuing to operate in the space until at least 1967. University Billiards occupied the building in the in the early 1970s before it became a restaurant in 1976. From the early 1980s through the early 1990s, the building housed Dino’s Restaurant. Mamacitas Restaurant was the next tenant and was still operating here in 2008. Taco Junky and Tequila Bar operated here in 2016. Street Address: 1163-65 13th Street/1220 Pennsylvania Avenue Historic Name: Sigma Nu Fraternity House, Somers’ Sunken Garden Current Name: The Sink Year Built: ca. 1902-06 (house), 1920s (commercial additions) State ID Number: 5BL.2740 Resource Number: 17 Photograph 16 Description. This legendary corner building with commercial additions was originally a two-story tan brick early twentieth-century house with a hipped roof and flared eaves. Subsequently, flat-roof commercial additions were constructed to the north and east of the original house as its use changed. The visible upper story of the house has projecting bays on the front and south and the remaining portion of a turret at the northeast corner. Most of the windows are tall one-over-one-light sash. A balcony with brick piers and wrought iron railings extends from the exterior of the house onto the roof of commercial additions on the east and north. The one-story brick commercial addition on the east wrapping to the north is lower than the adjacent addition on the north to the west. The east addition has six bays on the east wall, an angled wall facing the intersection of 13th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, and one bay on the north wall. The bays are enframed by brick piers and contain large windows or doors, with the two bays flanking the an gled corner sheltered by projecting hoods. The angled corner contains a glazed entry door with a transom sheltered by a hood and flanking piers projecting above the roofline; two other entrances are on the east wall. The south part of the east wall is brow n brick and has a slate-covered projecting hood, while the remainder of the addition is painted brick and has shingles along the roof between projecting piers. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 15 The flat-roof buff brick addition attached to the house on the north extending to the west disp lays a series of five orange brick panels, each containing five narrow metal windows. The upper level of this addition contains five bays filled with large multi-light metal casement windows. The west end of this section of the building has a glazed metal door with a sidelight on the lower level and a round arch multi-light window above. The roof has projecting brick piers connected with wrought iron railings. To the west is a slightly lower buff brick wing with two storefronts, each crowned by a shaped parapet with decorative brickwork and concrete coping. The storefronts have transoms, inset angled entrances, multi-light wood doors, and large plate glass display windows with brick below. Alterations. Historic photographs (for example, Figure 11) show the house with an octagonal turret at the northeast corner that projected above the roof. The east projecting bay was topped by a pedimented gable. A hipped-roof dormer was on the north roof slope. The top portion of the turret is missing, as are the pedimented gable and the dormer (these were still present in 1954; their date of removal is unknown). The one-story commercial sections to the east and north were added in the 1920s. The south storefront on the east wall was altered to resemble the building to the south (1155 13th Street), with a slate mansard, altered window and door treatments, and reddish brick cladding (after 1956 when Kinsley opened in the building to the south). Since 1990, the painted brick part of the addition has received a metal hood with braces and an outside seating area with a decorative railing. Historical Background. The original component of this building is the large house still visible behind the commercial addition. Erected between 1902 and 1906, it was occupied by the University of Colorado’s oldest fraternity, Sigma Nu, during its early years. The Gamma Kappa chapter of Sigma Nu was established at CU in 1902. The fraternity had roots in a post-Civil War effort at the Virginia Military Institute to end the hazing system. The 1910 U.S. Census lists eleven men in their twenties as occupants of the house, together with a housekeeper and cook. A ca. 1909 photograph of the house at Boulder Carnegie Branch Library shows members of the fraternity on the front porch and a plaque with its Greek letters on the balcony. In 1913, the city directory listed the fraternity next door at 1155 13th Street; it erected a new chapter house on Pleasant Street in the 1920s. J.W. Mott, a traveling salesman, and his wife, Eva, were listed at this address in 1913. By 1921, the Phi Delta Theta fraternity occupied the house. Edward and Henrietta Somers moved to Boulder in the 1920s with the goal of opening a restaurant in the city. He reportedly approached the owners of the Bide-a-Wee tearoom at 1211 13th Street seeking to manage that business. Rebuffed, he vowed to open a restaurant nearby and drive the tearoom out of business. To accomplish his plan, Somers contracted with Boulder architect Glen H. Huntington to design a commercial addition to his house. Somers’ Sunken Gardens restaurant opened in 1928 (although the assessor reports a 1923 year of construction for the additions) in the corner storefront and expanded to accommodate 200 patrons by the following year. A description of the restaurant, which was promoted as “entirely suitable for family parties, afternoon teas and other kinds of parties,” emphasized its unique design featuring abundant indoor greenery.16 A large sunken fountain in the center of the dining room was known as “The Sink” by 1949. By the late 1920s, University Hill had become a center of off-campus social activities for college students. Sunken Gardens was a favored place for “coking,” or the consumption of soft drinks with conversation. By 1932, in addition to the Sunken Gardens, the following businesses were listed in the building’s storefronts: 1220 Pennsylvania, Dugald F. Godfrey clothing; 1222-24 Pennsylvania, vacant; 1159 13th the College Shop dressmaking; 1161 13th Jack Harding barber; and 1163 13th Boulder Cleaning and Dye Works branch outlet. Edward Somers drowned in a lake north of Boulder in August 1932. Henrietta Somers continued to operate the Sunken Gardens. She married Harry C. Hill in 1936, and he helped manage the business until its sale to Francis LeBron in 1938. Sunken Gardens continued as a fixture on the Hill, becoming a popular watering spot for university students after it acquired a liquor license in the late 1940s. In 1949, an alumnus of the university, Joe Beimford, acquired the business and changed the name to “the Sink.” In the same year, a proposed ban against selling 16 Quoted in R.L. Simmons and T.H. Simmons, 1163-65 13th Street/1220 Pennsylvania Avenue, 5BL.2740, Re-evaluation Form, March 2008. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 16 3.2 beer near the university campus resulted from the effort of the business to obtain a beer license.17 However, in 1950 the restaurant received its permit. Actor-director Robert Redford, who attended CU in the 1950s, recalled frequenting the Sink. Redford was both a patron of the establishment and a janitor there. He observed that Tulagi was preferable for dates, whereas “you’d go to the Sink if you just wanted to lose yourself.”18 The Sink’s bar featured caricatures of college life created by artists Llloyd [sic] Kavitch and Mike Dormier beginning in 1952.19 A 1954 photograph shows students sitting on the roof of the building while celebrating the selection of CU as the conference representative to the NCAA basketball tournament. In 1955, Beimford sold to Floyd Marks, who with his son-in-law, Herb Kauvar, reinstated food service, including the “world-famous” Sinkburger with Sink Hickory Sauce. Herb Kauvar and his sons owned the Sink for 34 years. Known as Herbie’s Deli from 1974 to 1989, the spot was renamed the Sink in July 1989. In 1992, the Heinritz brothers purchased the Sink, and restoration of the artwork began in 1995. Tenants in the other storefronts of the building from the 1940s through the 1980s have included cleaners, barber and beauty shops, clothing stores (Altman’s College Shop, the Treasure Chest, and Bogart’s Hat Shop), a gift shop, a photography studio, a jewelry store, Fraternity Management, ski and bicycle shops, and Campus Candies. By the early 1980s, Kinsley & Company, a men’s clothing store housed in the building to the south, had expanded into part of the Somers Building. The building also included apartments in the upper floors on the north side. Street Address: 1203-07 13th Street/1235 Pennsylvania Avenue Historic Name: Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity House, Heflin Jewelers, Dr. Duane C. Botts (dentist), Boulder Optical Company Current Name: Café Aion, La Choza Coffee, Insomnia Cookies, Rush Bowls Year Built: 1906 (house), ca. 1954 (one-story east commercial addition) State ID Number: 5BL.2889 Resource Number: 18 Photograph 17 Description. Constructed in 1906 the Sigma Alpha Epsilon (SAE) fraternity house received a ca. 1954 one- story commercial addition on the east, creating the current building. The two-and-a-half-story house displays painted brick walls atop a raised coursed stone foundation (also painted). Windows of the visible second story of the house are wood six- and eight-light over one-light double-hung sash. A rock-faced stone sill course encircles the second story of the house. Windows of the front and south are elaborated with molding. The house has a hipped roof with overhanging eaves and hipped-roof wall dormers on the east, west, and south. The north wall features a curved two-and-a-half-story projecting bay. The south wall has a one-story, hipped- roof, three-sided bay window with multi-over-single-light windows and a paneled base. At the east end of the south wall is a one-story shed-roof entrance projection with brick walls. The rear (west) wall of the house includes a metal fire stair to the second story. The flat roof commercial addition on the east has walls composed of stacked orange Roman brick with concrete coping. The east wall (front) displays unpainted brick and has two bays, each with inset paired storefronts enframed by projecting rectangular piers. At the center of each bay are two glazed metal frame doors flanked by bands of plate glass windows with stacked brick below. Full-width transoms are present above the storefronts. The terminating north projecting pier has an unglazed window. The north wall of the building includes two three-light windows with security grilles toward the rear. The south wall displays two square single-light windows with projecting metal surrounds and one bricked-in door opening (using rough- textured stacked Roman brick) at the west end. Alterations. The storefronts were added during the period of significance. Few changes to the building have occurred since 1990 when dormer windows on the house were replaced. A multi-light door was also added to the west wall of the shed roofed projection on the south wall. Metal fire stairs on the rear added for safety appear to be non-historic. 17 The term 3.2 beer refers to low-alcohol beer with an alcohol content of 3.2 percent by weight, which is sold in Colorado and a handful of other states due to state liquor laws. 18 Boulder Daily Camera, 24 May 1989. 19 Boulder Daily Camera, 21 October 2013. Kavitch spelled his first name with three L’s "just for the L of it." United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 17 Historical Background. The older rear portion of this building was erected about 1906 as a “club house.” The 1906 Sanborn fire insurance map shows it in this location and indicates that the depiction is “from plans,” a usage generally indicating that construction was imminent. The house is present on the 1910 Sanborn map and is identified as the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. A plaque (now gone) below the front dormer displayed the Greek letters of the fraternity. The CU chapter of SAE was established in 1891. Several fraternities associated with the University of Colorado had houses in the 1100 and 1200 blocks of 13th Street in the early twentieth century. SAE occupied the building until at least 1926. The house was vacant during the 1930s. By 1949, the Campus Club was located in the building. In about 1954 the front porch was removed and a one-story commercial section was added to the house on the east, extending to the sidewalk. The initial tenants, according to the 1955 city directory, were: Heflin Jewelers in 1203 13th; Dr. Duane C. Botts, dentist in 1205 13th; and a branch of the Boulder Optical Company in 1207 13th. Dr. Botts continued to operate his office here through at least 1975, while Boulder Optical remained until at least 1967. By 1960, Heflin’s had been replaced by University Hill Jewelers, which continued at this address through at least 1970. By 1975, Sweet Mary’s was housed in 1203 13th. Following the departure of Boulder Optical, 1205 13th was converted to an ice cream parlor in 1968—Swenson’s Ice Cream. Swenson’s was still present in 1970, but had been replaced by Pat Patterson (a gold and silversmith) by 1975. Patterson’s business still occupied the corner storefront in 1994, with the other spaces containing Stellar Clothing and John ’s Cleaners and Laundry. Stellar Clothing was still a tenant in 2008, along with Lola and Rush Coffee. The storefronts all held food establishments in 2016. The Pennsylvania Avenue portion of the building (the original house) also contained business tenants by 1960, when Martini’s Blue Danube Restaurant was listed at 1235 13th. It was also listed at that address in 1965, followed by Uncle Mike’s Restaurant in 1975. The Aion Bookshop was a long-time tenant. The store sold used and out-of-print titles and was still here in 1994. Today, the upper stories of the house contain apartments, while the Café Aion restaurant is located on the first story. Street Address: 1211-13 13th Street Historic Name: Murphy Building, Varsity Hall, Reiber’s Restaurant, Larson and Garvin’s Grocery, Morris Cleaning and Dyeing, Dugout Cleaners Current Name: Full Cycle, Half Fast Subs, Gym, Peace Pipe Hookah Lounge Year Built: 1912 State ID Number: 5BL.2890 Resource Number: 19 Photograph 18 Description.20 When built, this substantial two-and-a-half-story 1912 brick commercial building included an upstairs hall that provided space for early University of Colorado women’s athletic activities and student social events, while its stores supplied important goods and services for students. The Colonial Revival-style building occupies a prominent location at the northern entrance to the University Hill Commercial District. The walls are composed of red brick; stone utilized for sills and other details is contrastin gly light colored. The building has a clipped side gable roof with overhanging eaves and modillions on the front wing intersected by a gambrel roof wing at the rear. At the center-front of the roof is a broad eyebrow dormer with a lunette window that provides the appearance of a gable on hip roof. The main roof forms two pavilions, one at each end, where the eave is broken by the central shed roof of the second-floor balcony. The first story of the façade (east) includes two storefronts flanking a large arched entrance with a stone keystone and capitals that provides access to an inset vestibule. The south storefront is glazed with plate glass windows on the front and has an entrance on the north from the vestibule. The north storefront displays large plate glass windows at the south end and a metal frame glazed door with a sidelight to the north. The arched entrance and storefronts are sheltered by an overhanging hipped roof. Arched openings with stone trim are located at the south and north ends of the wall: the south has an entrance with a glazed metal frame door and the north opening is filled in with brick and wood. The upper story contains paired one-over-one-light, double- hung sash wood windows with transoms and shared rock-faced stone sills flanking a central, rectangular, 20 This description includes contributions by Architectural Historian Rodd Wheaton, Englewood, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 18 enclosed tripartite balcony. The balcony has arches in the same form as the first story vestibule and is supported by tapered columns between a solid balustrade with paneling. The arched openings contain one- over-one-light windows and wood infill. On the north, the first story displays a painted wall sign, a tall window, and three small windows with stone sills. Near the center of the wall an angled shed-roof hood shelters stairs to the basement at the west end. One- over-one-light windows with rock-faced stone sills, grouped in twos and threes, are present on the second story, some with transoms. The face of the clipped gable is clad with stucco and has a horizontal four-light window. The ground declines at the rear of the building, where the brick basement level is exposed. The basement has brick-filled window openings and windows covered with security grilles. A full-height, brick chimney is centered on the wall. A metal fire stair descends from the second story, where it accesses an entrance adjacent the chimney. Segmental arch windows with covered transoms on each side of the chimney share rock-faced stone sills with filled-in windows. On the top story, the chimney is flanked by two one-over- one-light windows. The brick gambrel face has one louvered vent adjacent to the chimney. Alterations. A 1930s photograph shows the front of the building with doors in the south and north arched openings, storefronts with a band of three display windows with panels below, and the basement level exposed on the south. The storefronts were remodeled and the north arched opening was covered before 1990. Between 1990 and 2008 a raised plaza with metal railings and brick piers was added in front of building. Historical Background. George W. Murphy, a realtor, erected the building in 1912 and had his offices here. Early tenants of the building included Henry A. Reiber’s Restaurant, Larson and Garvin’s Grocery, and Thomas Morris Cleaning and Dyeing. The association of the Ellwood family with the building began in the early 1920s, when Henry Ellwood started the Dugout clothing store here. The store received its name because it was located below grade at the southern end of the building. The company offered dry cleaning by 1926, and over the years it expanded into the first floor of the building. Dugout Cleaners and Laundry remained at the address until the 1980s. Ellwood’s sisters operated the Bide-A-Wee tearoom in the building during the 1920s. The building also housed a number of grocery stores over the years, including C.C. Smith (1916-21), the Home Ranch market (1923), and a Piggly-Wiggly outlet (1926). By the early twentieth century, the building became significant as the site of the first formal university women’s physical education and athletic activities. During the first twenty-five years of the university women’s athletic activities occurred “on a hit-or-miss, informal basis, according to historian William E. Davis.21 In 1905 a Women’s Athletic Association formed, but women had no gymnasium of their own. After sporadic efforts to move the women’s program forward, a woman instructor in physical education advised, “Show the boys who think a girl can only play jacks or croquet what girls are capable of doing when they get started.”22 The Women’s Athletic Association then pressured the university regents to provide better athletic facilities for its women students. In response, CU rented the entire second story of the newly constructed Murphy Building for women’s athletics, as supervised by the association, which shared half the cost of its maintenance. In 1914 the Silver and Gold newspaper proclaimed: “For the first time in the history of the University of Colorado, classes began yesterday in the Department of Physical Education for women.”23 M. Helen Carpenter recalled taking freshman gym classes in the building. Since the hall had no changing facilities, women donned their gym clothes at home and wore coats on the walk over-- they were not allowed to be on street in gym clothes.24 The facility, called by the students “Varsity Hall,” was described as “well-suited for basketball and gymnasium purposes.”25 With these beginnings the women’s athletic program continued to expand until the construction of a Women’s Gymnasium on campus in 1926-28. 21 William E. Davis, Glory Colorado! A History of the University of Colorado, 1858-1963 (Boulder: Pruett Press, Inc., 1965), 177. 22 Davis, Glory Colorado! 178. 23 Davis, Glory Colorado! 178. 24 M. Helen Carpenter, oral history interview by Jewel M. Wolcott, 1986, Boulder Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 25 William E. Davis, Glory Colorado! History of the University of Colorado to 1963 (Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Press, 1965), 178. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 19 From its opening, Varsity Hall also provided a space for fraternity and sorority events. For e xample, in December 1914 Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity held a dance in the space.26 In October 1914 the hall was decorated in the colors of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity for a dance to honor their new pledges.27 During the Great Depression, students held “jitney dances” in the upstairs hall to raise money for relief. The upper floor of the building was remodeled into the Ellwood Apartments in the late 1940s. In the mid-1970s, Boulder architect Charles A. Haertling developed plans for the building’s renovation, including apartments in the upper story and a plaza with curving wall in front. In 1990, Dugout Cleaners still operated here, along with Gym on the Hill and Yello Sub. In 1994, the building contained the Gym on the Hill, Full Cycle, and the Yello Sub. Street Address: 1111 Broadway Street Historic Name: Colorado Book Store Current Name: Walgreen’s Year Built: 1965 State ID Number: 5BL.13631 Resource Number: 20 Photograph 19 Description. The architectural firm of Heinzman and Ingalls of Boulder designed this one-story Formalist-style building erected by A and H Buildings, Inc. of Boulder in 1965.28 The reinforced concrete flat-roofed building features pre-cast exposed quartz aggregate columns, originally “sparkling white” but now painted yellow, dividing the building into arched bays, each filled with two stacked two-part windows or concrete blocks on the south and east walls. The east-most bay on the south wall and the south-most bay on the east wall contain entrances with glazed metal frame doors and sidelights. A widely projecting exposed waffle pattern canopy at the roof level shelters the windows, entrances, and shoppers. The north wall is unfenestrated concrete block. At the north end, rear wall has a lower one-story projecting bay with a garage door. The four eastern bays of the south wall are glazed like the east wall, while the remaining bays are enclosed with concrete blocks. Alterations. After a May 1971 riot when “transient youths” broke the large windows that originally extended from the base of the building to the top of the arches, the bookstore in the building could not afford to reinstall glass (estimated worth $20,000); instead, concrete blocks, specially crafted from Santa Fe sand and white cement to harmonize with the building exterior, were installed.29 Recent alterations have removed concrete blocks from some of the arches and installed replacement windows and doors, as well as painting the columns yellow. Historical Background. The Beta Theta Pi fraternity house, an impressive stone building erected in 1930, was demolished to construct the new home of the Colorado Book Store in 1965. The book store, the local store of a company that owned and operated college-oriented book stores in Columbia, Missouri, and Berkeley, California, opened its Boulder outlet in 1931, first in rented quarters at 1215 13th Street and later erecting its own building 1124-28 13th in 1939. The Boulder firm of Heinzman and Ingalls (William G. Heinzman and Charles S. Ingalls) designed the large Formalist-style building, which contained a main floor, mezzanine, and basement. A and H Builders, Inc. of Boulder served as general contractor for the $167,000 project. The book store sold new and used textbooks, school supplies, cards, gifts, novelties, other reading matter, and ski equipment. Following May 1971 rioting that broke several of the building’s tall display windows, openings were filled with concrete blocks. The Colorado Book Store closed in 2015. A chain Walgreen’s drug store now occupies the building.30 Street Address: 1121 Broadway Street Historic Name: University Hill Building, Boulder Travel, Arapahoe Sports, Howard’s Shoes, Plush Cue Current Name: University Shops, The Root of the Hill, Terra Thai, Buffalo Tutor, Gebau Engineering, The Hill Cannabis Club, Underground Arts Gallery Year Built: 1963 26 Rocky Mountain News, 14 December 1912, 10. 27 Rocky Mountain News, 27 October 1914, 6. 28 Boulder Daily Camera, 29 April 1965, 16. The building includes a mezzanine and basement. 29 Boulder Daily Camera, 14 July 1971. 30 Boulder Daily Camera clipping collection and historic photographs, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado; Boulder Daily Camera, 29 April 1965, 14 June 1971, and 12 January 2015; City of Boulder, building permits. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 20 State ID Number: 5BL.8241 Resource Number: 21 Photograph 20 Description. Boulder architect Thomas Nixon of the firm of Nixon and Jones designed this two-story Usonian inspired commercial building displaying walls of brick, red sandstone, and stucco panels. An enclosed vertical stair tower at the southeast corner is glazed on the east wall and flanked by angled masonry walls of red and white sandstone typical at Boulder’s University of Colorado campus buildings. An entrance adjacent to the stair tower contains double glazed metal frame doors sheltered by a projecting canopy. Three storefronts to the north display similar doors, as well as plate glass and glass block windows. The north storefront is terminated by a projecting masonry wall with a large window; the northeast corner of the wall supports a projecting canopy, and an angled plate glass window intersects the northeast corner of the wall to form an enclosed triangular volume. Above these storefronts, six projecting wood false beams extend from stucco panels. At the top of the wall a ribbon window extends from the stair tower and wraps around to the north. Crowning the building, a deep overhanging eave shelters the façade. The north wall has stucco panels with a painted mural on the first story. The ribbon window of the second story continues along most of the rear wall. The second story projects above the first story, sheltering an entrance area. The rear walls display stucco, masonry, and brick. The south wall at the west end is stucco, with small glass block windows and a triple window (boarded up), as well as three attached murals. The remainder of the wall is an unfenestrated expanse of original brickwork. Alterations. In the 1990s the original brick cladding some of the walls was covered with sandstone masonry. The middle storefront had large plate glass windows replaced with a panel of glass blocks and three single- light windows. The false beams on the front are also an alteration. Historical Background. Boulder architects Nixon & Jones & Associates designed this building for Les Fowler and Don Menk, and the Shawnee Construction Company erected the building in 1963. Historical photographs identify it as the University Hill Building, and it included offices and retail stores. The initial occupants of the building were Boulder Travel, Arapahoe Sports, Howard’s Shoes, and the Plush Cue. The latter was a billiard parlor that catered to women; Phil and Gloria Weiss ran the business. Street Address: 1127 Broadway Street Historic Name: Webster House, Swayne Apartments Current Name: Apartments Year Built: ca. 1905 State ID Number: 5BL.3421 Resource Number: 22 Photograph 21 Description. This substantial frame two-story Edwardian Vernacular house with a coursed sandstone foundation has clapboard siding on the walls and a cross-gambrel roof with asphalt/composition shingles. All of the windows are wood and one-over-one-light, double-hung sash unless otherwise noted. Projecting two-story bays, one squared (south) and one three-sided (north), flank the central portion of the east façade, which features a semicircular portico with full-height classical columns supporting an entablature and sheltering an entrance flanked by engaged round and square columns on the first story. There is a single window south of the porch on each story and paired windows with a shared surround are above the porch on the second story. The pedimented gambrel apex displays decorative wood shingles and a horizontal window with architrave lintel trim. The south bay is rectangular and contains a band of three windows flanked by pilasters on each story; the area below the first story windows is paneled, while below the upper story windows are decorative wood shingles that flare outward toward the base. The north bay has a wide sash and transom window (one with a leaded glass transom) on each wall of the first story and double-hung windows on the upper story; there are panels and shingles as on the south bay. There is a two-story hipped roof projecting bay on the north wall that is clad with wood shingles and has paired windows on each story of the east wall. The two-story apartment addition at the rear has stucco walls and bays with bands of three four-over-four-light windows on each story flanking a central bay that is blank except for two small central windows on the upper story. Alterations. The apartment building was connected to the rear of this house in 1925. In the 1920s the squared bay was added to the façade. This alteration was designed by architectural engineer William H. McFerson. The concrete porch deck and wrought iron railings were added at an unknown date. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 21 Historical Background. This frame building dates to about 1905 and was constructed as a single-family house. The house appears on the 1906 Sanborn Insurance map and early residents included Mrs. Sallie Webster (widow of Edgar H. Webster) in the 1911-13 period and Mrs. Mamie Packard in 1916. The 1918 City Directory lists William J. Preston, who was in mining, and his wife Emma, a physician. Members of the Swayne family first appeared at the address in 1920 and Mrs. Josephine R. Swayne still resided there in 1943. The design for remodeling the house into apartments was developed by Boulder architect-engineer William L. McFerson for Mrs. James W. Swayne in 1920. The two-story addition was constructed at the rear of the house about 1925. The 1930 city directory identified the address as the Swayne Apartments, operated by Mrs. Josephine Swayne. In the late 1940s, the building was owned by Robert E. and Ida H. Nelson. In 1971 the building held thirteen apartments. The building continues to function as an apartment house.31 Street Address: 1301 Pennsylvania Avenue Historic Name: McConnell and Crane Drugs, Co-op Drug Store, Quine’s Campus Drug Store Current Name: Innisfree Poetry Bookstore and Café, The Mac Shack, K&K Piercing Year Built: ca. 1906-08 State ID Number: 5BL.3043 Resource Number: 24 Photograph 23 This roughly trapezoidal one-and-half-story painted brick commercial building (with a one-story section on the north) conforms to the small triangular block on which is located. The building faces south toward Pennsylvania Street, and the front wall features a stepped parapet with concrete coping and battered brick end piers. The first story has a center glazed metal frame door flanked by plate glass windows; a fabric awning extends across the width of the storefront. There is an outdoor seating area with a metal railing on the front. Two sets of paired six-over-six-light windows with rock-faced stone sills are on the second story. The east, west, and north walls contain through-the-eave dormers with stepped parapets and windows with stone sills. A pedestrian ramp with a metal railing and stairs with a metal railing to the second story are present on the west wall. The east wall at the south end has access to a basement commercial space; the entrance has concrete stairs bordered by low concrete walls with stone caps and a metal railing. There are three windows further north on the first story of the east wall. The northern one-story painted brick section of the building has a widely overhanging flat roof. The west wall includes a pedestrian door and two square single-light windows. A tall plate glass window is located on the narrow north wall, while the east wall has a band of clerestory windows. Alterations. A new storefront was installed on the front in 1971. The dormer parapet on the east wall originally was curvilinear rather than stepped, but it displayed the current appearance by ca. 1949-50. Changes noted since 1990 include: addition of a fabric awning, installation of an outside seating area with metal railing, addition of a pedestrian ramp with metal railing on the west for access, and alteration of the second-story windows on the south from six-over-one-lights to six-over-six-lights (shutters also added). History. McConnell and Crane’s drugstore was the first commercial building erected in what became the University Hill Commercial District. Built during the period 1906-08 in the triangular block bounded by Broadway Street, Pennsylvania Avenue, and 13th Street, the brick building featured a stepped parapet reflecting its Mission Revival style and had a trapezoidal shape conforming to its parcel. The building was situated at the north end of the streetcar loop serving University Hill and Chautauqua, with one portion of the line jogging west on Pennsylvania and south on 13th Street and the other proceeding south on Broadway Street and 14th Street. Listed in the 1913 city directory as McConnell and Crane Drugs, by 1916 the business was known as the Co - op Drug Store. Thomas E. and James F. Quine purchased the business in 1923. Thomas was a pharmacist and James managed the rest of the store. The Quines changed the name to Quine’s Campus Drug Store, later Quine’s Drugs. The university campus offered few options for meals, so students gathered at the Hill’s drugstores to eat at the soda fountains. Quine’s proximity to campus made it a favorite place for students to dine. The one-story addition to the north, presently occupied by Fruehauf’s, was built after 1931. 31 Boulder City Directories, 1911-49; Sanborn Insurance Maps, 1906-31; and photographic and other collections, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 22 In 1938, Quine’s became a site of civil rights protests. According to CU archivist David M. Hays, a Faculty Senate committee found that the Hill drugstores had a policy of not serving African Americans who came through the front door. After quiet efforts to persuade the owners to change their policies, students began staging protests in the businesses. In 1943, both Greenman’s and Quine’s experienced stand-in protests by black students. Quine reportedly stated he would not even serve bass singer, actor and Civil Rights activist Paul Robeson in his store, and someone responded by painting a large white swastika on the business’s Broadway-facing wall. CU President Robert Stearns wrote a published letter indicating that the university community had tried for five years to end discrimination in the Hill businesses. Within the next ten months, restaurants and drugstores of the Hill opened their doors to blacks and other minorities. In the same year, Quine’s was sold to Fred L. Jenkins, who had come to Boulder from Columbia, Missouri, in 1932 to work as manager of the Colorado Book Store. Thomas Quine apparently managed the store until 1949. The Daily Camera described the pharmacy as “one of the favorite meeting places of C.U. students.” The store contained a soda fountain, prescription department, and “over 1,000 items for the student and home.”32 Jenkins continued to operate the store as Campus Drugs until 1960, when he discontinued the prescription department and changed the name to the Campus Shop. The following year he sold the business to August R. Liese. The Campus Shop continued as a drugstore until the late 1960s. During the 1960s, a folk music venue known as the Place Upstairs was located in the upper floor of the building. From 1969 through the 1980s, the Spoke, a new and used bicycle firm owned by Jeff Finnoff, occupied the building. Buchanan’s Coffee Pub operated in the building in the 1990s-2000s. The present occupants are the Innisfree Poetry Bookstore and Café, The Mac Shack, and K&K Piercing. NONCONTRIBUTING RESOURCES Six resources within the district are evaluated as noncontributing due to alterations occurring after the period of significance. Street Address: 1119 13th Street Historic Name: Scot’s Ltd. Current Name: Vacant Year Built: 1955 State ID Number: 5BL.10534 Resource Number: 7 Photograph 25 Description. This is a one-story, flat-roof commercial building with a full-width mansard with a signband and a shed hood on the façade. The walls are composed of variegated red and orange brick with a narrow full-height end pier at the south end and wide short pier one on the north. Double glazed metal frame doors are in an inset entrance area at the north end; a single paneled and glazed door is at the south end. A band of four plate glass metal frame windows is between the entrances. An outdoor seating area enclosed with a decorative metal railing is in front of the building. Alterations. A ca. late-1950s assessor appraisal card photograph shows the building with an overhanging shingled mansard, a large multi-light window to south, and a paneled and glazed door to north. Prior to 2008 the building experienced door and window replacements, re-cladding of the mansard, and the addition of a sign panel to the mansard and a full-width hood. Historical Background. C.E. Smith took out a building permit for this $22,000 one-story commercial building in June 1955. The building was erected the same year and appears on the 1960 Sanborn map. The original tenant of the building was Scot’s Ltd., a women’s clothing store that continued to operate here from 1956 into the 1980s. By 1994, the Boulder Boardwalk, a video arcade, occupied the space. Qdoba Mexican Grill, a chain fast food restaurant, was here in 2008. The building was vacant in 2016. Street Address: 1121 13th Street Historic Name: The Regiment Ltd. Current Name: Buff Stuff Marketplace, iPhone Repair on the Hill, Jimmy John’s 32 Boulder Daily Camera, 17 September 1943. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 23 Year Built: 1965 State ID Number: 5BL.10535 Resource Number: 8 Photograph 26 Description. This one-story flat roof commercial building includes three storefronts and a brick cornice. The upper wall and the area below the display windows exhibits variegated colors of brick laid in running bond. Each storefront contains a single metal glazed door and metal fixed-light display windows. A steel, arched bay with steel supports projects from the entrance to the center storefront. Alterations. This building originally featured four projecting gables with half-timbered faces and simulated clay tile roofing, multi-light storefront windows, center double paneled and glazed wood doors, and variegated brick in a basket-weave pattern flanking the entrance and below the display windows. The front exhibited changes from its historic appearance when examined in 1994 and 2008, but since 2008 the front has experienced numerous additional alterations, including the removal of the gables and double wood doors, addition of the projecting center arched metal hood, and creation of three storefronts, each with a single glazed door and large fixed-light windows. Historical Background. Boulder architect Kyle Lorenzen prepared plans for this building which the Davis Construction Company erected in 1965. The $40,000 building housed The Regiment Ltd., a men’s apparel store, from its completion until 1988. Joseph Bourland and Mack Davis founded The Regiment, Ltd. in 1959, which was initially located at 1147 13th Street. The Boulder Daily Camera described the business in 1984 as “one of Boulder’s sterling examples of what is called a ‘traditional’ men’s clothing store.”33 A brochure for the business described the décor as “masculine Early American,” featuring antique furniture, exposed brick walls, multi-pane front windows, military prints, rifles, and an antique cannon. The firm grew to operate additional stores in Denver, Englewood, and Fort Collins. The store moved to another location in Boulder in 1988.34 In 1994 the building housed Buff Stuff, a gift store specializing in products with a University of Colorado theme. By 2008 two businesses were located in the building: T. Galaxy (a business CU-themed merchandise and fraternity and sorority items) and Jimmy John’s (a chain sandwich shop). Three businesses occupied the building in 2016: Buff Stuff, iPhone Repair on the Hill, and Jimmy John’s. Street Address: 1124-28 13th Street Historic Name: Colorado Book Store, Gunslinger Restaurant, Orbach’s Clothing Current Name: Albums on the Hill, Illegal Pete’s Year Built: 1939, ca. 1966 (new façade) State ID Number: 5BL.2883 Resource Number: 9 Photograph 27 Description. This one-story flat-roof building contains two storefronts surmounted by a flat stucco parapet wall divided into seven sections by vertical boards. The south storefront has a center inset entrance flanked by tall sliding metal windows with red brick below. A corrugated metal hood extends the full width of the southern storefront. An entrance to the upstairs with a paneled and glazed woo d door is located at the south end of the façade. The north storefront contains an inset entrance flanked by large fixed single -light wood display windows, all sheltered by a full-width metal hood. The area between the hood and the windows is filled with board-and-batten siding. The area below the north window is glazed; the area below the south window has wood panels with stucco. Alterations. A historic assessor appraisal card photograph shows this one-story building with a shaped parapet with coping, stucco on upper walls, fabric awnings, two inset entrances, plate glass windows, and Carrera glass or marble wall cladding at the storefront level. The shaped parapet (shown in a historic appraisal card photograph) was removed, and a taller flat parapet with half-timbering added ca. 1966, at about time the Colorado Book Store moved from the building. A building permit indicates that the south storefront was remodeled in 1974. Further changes have occurred since then, including the recladding of a metal hood with corrugated metal and window replacements. 33 Boulder Daily Camera, 18 September 1984. 34 Boulder Daily Camera, 5 April 1988 and 27 September 1994; The Regiment Men’s Apparel, brochure, undated, in the files of the Boulder Carnegie Library for Local History. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 24 Historical Background. This building was erected in 1939 as the new home of the Colorado Book Store, filling the gap on the eastern side of the 1100 block of 13th Street between Greenman’s University Store (to the north) and the University Hill Grocery Store (to the south). A building permit was taken out by Ray Collins in May 1939 for a brick building costing $11,000 on this parcel. The building became the second home of the Colorado Book Store, which was established in 1931 and was originally located at 1215 13th Street. In addition to textbooks and supplies for students at the University of Colorado, the store carried stationery and housed a branch U.S. Post Office (Postal Station Number 1). CU students patronized the business as an alternative to the on-campus University of Colorado Bookstore. The firm remained in this location until a new, larger building was erected at 1111 Broadway Street in 1965. The Gunslinger Restaurant operated in the building in the 1966-67 period. By 1970, two businesses shared the building: Round the Corner Restaurant at 1124 13th and Orbach’s men’s clothing store at 1128 13th. By 1973, Rick’s Apparel had replaced Orbach’s, but Round the Corner remained through at least 1983. In 1990, Albums (a tape and disc store) was present in the north storefront, with Hummer’s Pizza in the southern space. Teresa’s Pizza Colore was in the south storefront in 1994. Albums on the Hill and Albums Bistro occupied the entire building in 2008. Albums is still present in the northern space, while Illegal Pete’s restaurant and bar is housed in the south storefront. Street Address: 1143 13th Street Historic Name: Silver and Gold Cleaners, University Hill Shoe Shop, Post Office Station, Armstead Scenic Company Current Name: Ado’s Kitchen and Bar, Lofts on the Hill Year Built: late 1920s, 2011 State ID Number: 5BL.2886 Resource Number: 14 Photograph 28 Boulder Local Landmark: 2009-07 (Ordinance 7692) Description. This building consists of an older one-story commercial building with walls composed of variegated colors of brick and a 2015 apartment addition above and to the rear. The façade of the one -story section has a central flat parapet flanked by bands of Spanish tile extending to small end parapets; the parapets have corbelling in light tan brick and concrete coping. A brick panel under the central parapet is delineated by slightly raised light tan brick and contains metal letters reading “Lofts on the Hill.” Light tan brick inset ornaments in a basket-weave pattern are present on the end parapets. A continuous light tan brick soldier course is present above the storefront. The deeply inset center entrance has a seven-light transom and three glazed metal frame doors with sidelights. The major apartment addition consists of two stories above storefront set back approximately 12’ from the storefront façade. The addition includes stucco and simulated wood panel exterior wall finishes. Alterations. The one-story commercial building was erected as an addition to a pre-1900 house; the house was demolished ca. 1973. In 2011 the large three-story apartment addition was constructed on the rear, substantially expanding the building.35 In 2008, the one-story commercial component had a different façade treatment, including sliding windows to the south, a large multi-light window to the north, a different inset entrance with a window and an off-center door, and a partial standing-seam metal awning; however, these features appeared to be non-historic. Historical Background. This site initially contained a two-story brick house with a wrap-around porch that was built before 1900. In the late 1920s a one-story brick commercial addition was added between the house and 13th Street. A central passageway in the storefront addition led to the house at the rear, which was used for commercial purposes, including Stirling’s Dress Shop (1955), Mattson’s on the Hill (1965), and Ruth’s Beauty Shop (1961 through early 1970s). The house was demolished ca. 1973. In 1932 the city directory listed the Silver and Gold Cleaners, the University Hill Shoe Shop, a post office station, and the Armstead Scenic Company in the one-story portion still extant today. The shoe shop, post office, and Armstead Scenic remained in the building through at least 1938, when Buffalo Press also operated 35 Boulder Daily Camera, 24 July 2011. Google Earth images reveal that only the façades of the historic buildings were retained. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 25 here. Payne’s Shoe Shop did business here from 1943 through the early 1960s. Other firms in the building have included the Judd Book and Record Shop (1949), the University Shop men’s clothing store (1955), and the Regiment men’s clothing store (1960-65). From the mid-1960s through the 1980s, Mattson’s on the Hill, a women’s clothing store, operated in the building. Taylor’s Restaurant and All the Rage Records were housed here in 1990. In 1994, Taylor’s Bar and Grill occupied the commercial space. The building was vacant in 2008. The front portion of the building is now occupied by Ado’s Kitchen and Bar. In 2011 a three-story apartment was constructed on the rear of the building extending to the alley; this and the separate apartment attached to 1155 13th Street contained a total of thirteen apartment units. Street Address: 1155 13th Street Historic Name: Kinsley & Company Current Name: Vacant, Lofts on the Hill (rear) Year Built: 1956, 2011 State ID Number: 5BL.10537 Resource Number: 16 Photograph 29 Boulder Local Landmark: 2009-08 (Ordinance 7693) Description. This flat roof 1956 commercial building has a one-story main wing terminated by a projecting gabled roof bay on the north end of the façade and a 2011 rear apartment addition. The main wing of the one- story portion of the building displays a mansard clad in the same dark gray slate shingles as the roof of the projecting gable, giving the building an L-shaped gabled appearance. The walls are composed of brown brick. The center entrance has a Tudor arch wood door with dentils and a fixed upper light is flanked by a three-sided bay window with multiple lights to the north and a multi-light window to the south. The south wall of the projecting gable has a wheel window, while the east features a large nine -light window extending to the top of the wall (some of its lights are triangular or trapezoidal). The area between the building and the sidewalk is paved with red brick in a basket-weave pattern. There is a decorative metal railing at the edge of the sidewalk. The rear apartment addition consists of two stories above the storefront and features stucco and simulated wood panel exterior wall finishes. An open flight of stairs to the south (with a brick wall to the north) accesses the apartments. Alterations. In 2015 a three-story apartment was constructed on the rear of the building extending to the alley; this and the separate apartment attached to 1143 13th Street contained a total of thirteen apartment units.36 The apartment addition substantially expanded the size of the building. Two bay windows originally flanked the entrance; the construction of the large staircase to the apartments necessitated shortening the older building on the south and converting the south bay window to a narrower conventional window. The outside seating and decorative metal railing at edge of sidewalk were added between 1994 and 2008. Historical Background. A pre-1906 two-and-a-half-story brick house with broad front porch originally stood at this location. During the 1910s and 1920s, the house accommodated several University of Colorado Greek organizations, including Sigma Nu, Alpha Sigma Phi, and Chi Omega fraternities. During the mid-1920s, parts of the house were remodeled for commercial use, while other sections of the building continued to be used for residential purposes. The O.P. Kinsey Confectionery appeared in the 1926 city directory under this address. A photograph taken in 1929-30 shows the porch enclosed with elaborate display windows for Tarkoff’s Varsity Clothing Store. The building also housed the College Inn Restaurant (1932) and Robinson’s Hiland Inn (1949- 55). During the mid to late 1930s, the building may have reverted solely to residential uses; Robert H. Townley is listed at the address in the 1936 and 1938 city directories. In 1956, Kinsley & Company, a men’s clothing firm, demolished the house and erected a new store on the site. The architect for the building was Wesley King of Geneva, Illinois. He was in Boulder doing work on the Neodata/Esquire building in the early 1950s and became friends with Wynn Kinsley, who asked King to design their new building on the Hill. King also designed a few residences in Boulder. The concept for adopting an “Old English” look for the building was probably a collaboration between Wynn Kinsley and the architect. The 36 Boulder Daily Camera, 24 July 2011. Google Earth images reveal that only the façades of the historic buildings were retained. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 26 style was often used for men’s haberdasheries of the era in eastern cities. The contractor for the building was Jack Cook. Kinsley & Company traced its origins to the University Shop established at 1147 13th (now 1143) in 1949 by Wynn and Faith Kinsley. The Kinsley’s new store, constructed in brick with Tudor Revival style influences, contrasted with the design of the other commercial buildings on the block. Kinsley and Company prospered and eventually expanded into the Somers Building to the north. Historians Thomas J. Noel and Dan W. Corson report, “Wynn Kinsley carried the best domestic makers of British style, and was the first local purveyor of Ralph Lauren.”37 Kinsley & Co. moved to a new location in 2006. In 2008 Café Play was located here; the building was vacant in 2016. Street Address: 1135 Broadway Street Historic Name: Commonwealth Industrial Bank, Commonwealth State Bank, Security Bank of Boulder, Art Hardware Current Name: Meininger’s Fine Art Supplies, Freakey’s Year Built: 1960, 1980 (expansion and redesign) State ID Number: 5BL.8242 Resource Number: 23 Photograph 22 Description. This Late Modernist inspired two-story flat-roof building faces east and features on its façade five rectangular bays on its façade, with each bay stepped progressively further back from south to north to accommodate the angle of the street. The south two bays are two enclosed storie s, with entrances on the first story and a metal stair accessing the second story of the second bay from the south. Thick columns under the north three bays of the building support the upper story and create an open parking area beneath the building. The upper stories of the north four bays display glass and steel curtain walls with metal frame grids. The north and south walls of the building are composed of painted concrete block and stucco. The west (rear) wall is also painted concrete block and stucco and has a window at the north end and four small single-light windows toward the south end. A metal stair extends to the second story on the alley at the rear. Historical Background. Two large residences at 1135 and 1143 Broadway Street were razed to permit construction of the Commonwealth Industrial Bank of Boulder in 1960. The Boulder architectural firm of James Hunter and Associates prepared the plans and Jack H. Cys Construction Company was the builder. Heading the bank were Harry E. Steffen, president; H. Clay Hogan, vice president; and Horace B. Homes, secretary. The financial institution, later known as the Commonwealth State Bank and the Security Bank of Boulder, remained here until about 1971.38 By 1973, the University of Colorado was using the building for its Earth Science Education Program. In 1979 Art Hardware occupied the building. Established in 1979 by Benton “Tony” Lefton, the firm sold artist, drafting, and craft supplies. In the late 1970s the company engaged Boulder architect L. Gale Abels to prepare plans to greatly expand the building northward and remodel the exterior. In a 2000 Architectural Inventory form Diane Wray asserted the expansion “incorporated the frame of an earlier structure on the site, but Art Hardware is an entirely new architectural composition executed in the 1970s.”39 The new building was completed in 1980. Art Hardware occupied the second story, with another storefront on the first story of the southern part of the building. This latter location housed photographic processing business over the years, including One-Hour-Photo and Photo Express. Art Hardware remained here until 2009, when the business was sold to Meininger’s Fine Art Supplies, a family-owned Denver business offering the same line of products.40 The expansion comprised the final commercial build-out of the area and completed the commercial row of buildings along Broadway Street. 37 Thomas J. Noel and Dan W. Corson, Boulder County: An Illustrated History (Carlsbad, California: Heritage Media Corporation, 1999), 246. 38 Boulder Carnegie Library, photograph collection, BHS 533-1-1 and BHS 207-3-10. 39 Diane Wray, 1135 Broadway, 5BL.8242, Architectural Inventory Form, 1 June 2000. 40 City of Boulder, building permits; Boulder Daily Camera, 5 August 2009. The earlier Architectural Inventory form erroneously reported a 1977 completion date for the building; building permit data reveal completion in 1980. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 27 Alterations. This building incorporates a ca. 1960 bank building (Commonwealth Industrial Bank) credited to the James M. Hunter & Associates architectural firm of Boulder.41 The current appearance of the building dates to 1980 and reflects the work of Boulder architect L. Gale Abels.42 The 1980 project roughly tripled the building’s size and reclad the façade for uniformity. The exterior staircase on the front to the second story of the south end of the building was added after 2000. Since the expansion was completed after the district’s period of significance for the district, the building is assessed as noncontributing. INTEGRITY The University Hill Commercial Historic District maintains good historic physical integrity. Location The business district remains in its original location. Setting The setting of the district remains quite intact, with the campus of the University of Colorado to the east and historic residential areas to the west and south. East of the Colorado Book Store (1111 Broadway Street), a pedestrian and bicycle underpass below Broadway Street at College Avenue provides a safe connection to the campus. The Flatirons formation is visible to the southwest. The south side of College Avenue, bordering the nominated area, contains two altered pre-1960 commercial buildings and a 2011 retail/apartment building that replaced a 1920s commercial building that housed Jones Drug. Within the district the Fulton Terrace (south side of Pennsylvania Avenue between 13th Street and Broadway Street) was demolished in the 1960s to create a surface parking lot. Sidewalks are concrete and contain numerous trees of varying ages. Along the west side of the 1100 block of 13th Street the sidewalk has been raised above street level. Both sides of the street in that block now feature decorative metal rail fences providing separation between pedestrians and the street. The sidewalk bordering Broadway Street is wider with a series of small trees. Design Several historic buildings within the district possess a high level of historic integrity conveying the area’s early architectural heritage. Like most successful commercial areas, merchants in the University Hill Commercial District made changes to storefronts over time to present fresh appearances and to remain competitive. Two buildings (1143 and 1155 13th Street) have received large rear apartment additions. Upper stories generally display fewer alterations and more original design features. The area between the building at 1211-13 13th Street and the street originally held paved off-street parking; it now contains a raised plaza with brick piers and metal railings. An emerging appreciation of the area’s mid-century buildings has led to restoration of elements of some of their features, such as reopening windows on the Colorado Book Store building. Materials The district maintains high integrity of materials. Original building construction, as well as additions and remodelings, have generally employed brick, stone, concrete, and stucco historically used within the period of significance. The most frequent alteration of materials is seen in windows and doors. Workmanship The district maintains high integrity of workmanship as evidenced in the skilled masonry displayed in its many brick and stone buildings. Feeling The University Hill Commercial Historic District maintains to a high degree the feeling of a neighborhood commercial area. The concentration of business uses stands in marked contrast to the university campus to the east and residential areas to the west and south. The density of development, street wall of historic 41 James M. Hunter & Associates, Boulder Industrial Bank Photograph, undated, Carnegie Branch for Local History, Boulder Public Library. 42 Colorado Cultural Resource Survey, Architectural Inventory Form for 1135 Broadway (5BL.8242), 2000. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 28 commercial buildings and active sidewalks filled with students and other patrons mark this area as a distinct area of the city. Association The University Hill Business District possesses a high level of integrity of association, comprising an active commercial activity center holding a variety of restaurants, bars, retail shops, and service businesses. The area still primarily caters to the University of Colorado student body and the inhabitants of adjacent residential areas. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 29 Table 1 Resources within the Historic District Resource Number Street Address State ID No. Historic Resource Name and Original Year Built Contributing Status 1 1089 13th St. 5BL.10532 Flatirons Theater (1950) Contributing 2 1100-06 13th St./1307- 21 College Ave. 5BL.2880 Stoffle’s Restaurant, Randall Shop, Kauffman’s Beauty Shop (ca. 1927-28) Contributing 3 1101-11 13th St. 5BL.10533 Belser House, McDowell Studios (c. 1895) Contributing 4 1110 13th St. 5BL.2881 University Cafeteria, Stewart’s Shoe Shop, Lesch Jewelry (1919-21) Contributing 5 1116 13th St. 5BL.2904 University (or U of C) Cafeteria, William L. Beach Offices (1913) Contributing 6 1118 13th St. 5BL.2882 Morgan & Hedbloom Grocers, University Hill Grocery (1911) Contributing 7 1119 13th St. 5BL.10534 Scot’s Ltd. (1955) Noncontributing 8 1121 13th St. 5BL.10535 The Regiment Ltd. Galaxy (1965) Noncontributing 9 1124-28 13th St. 5BL.2883 Colorado Book Store (1939) Noncontributing 10 1129 13th St. 5BL.10536 Tulagi (1951) Contributing 11 1130-34 13th St. 5BL.2884 Greenman’s University Store (1911) Contributing 12 1135 13th St. 5BL.2885 Rialto Theater, Fox Theater (1926) Contributing 13 1138-44 13th St. 5BL.2887 G&S Kash-Karry Grocery, Paddock’s Men’s Furnishings, Payne Shoe Repair, University Hill Cleaners and Dyers, Tryon Confectionery, Beach-Johnson Apartments (1923) Contributing 14 1143 13th St. 5BL.2886 Silver and Gold Cleaners, University Hill Shoe Shop, Post Office Station, Armstead Scenic Company (late 1920s) Noncontributing 15 1149 13th St. 5BL.2888 Nix Barber Shop (ca. 1932-35) Contributing 16 1155 13th St. 5BL.10537 Kinsley and Company (1955) Noncontributing 17 1163-65 13th St./1220 Pennsylvania Ave. 5BL.2740 Sigma Nu Fraternity House, Somers’ Sunken Garden (ca. 1902-06) Contributing 18 1203-07 13th St./1235 Pennsylvania Ave. 5BL.2889 Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity House, Heflin Jewelers, Dr. Duane C. Botts (dentist), Boulder Optical Company (1906) Contributing 19 1211-13 13th St. 5BL.2890 Murphy Building, Varsity Hall (1912) Contributing 20 1111 Broadway Street 5BL.13631 Colorado Book Store (1965) Contributing 21 1121 Broadway Street 5BL.8241 University Hill Building (1963) Contributing 22 1127 Broadway Street 5BL.3421 Webster House, Swayne Apartments (ca. 1905) Contributing 23 1135 Broadway Street 5BL.8242 Commonwealth Industrial Bank, Commonwealth State Bank, Security Bank of Boulder (1960) Noncontributing 24 1301 Pennsylvania Ave. 5BL.3043 McConnell and Crane Drugs, Co-op Drug Store, Quine’s Campus Drug Store (ca. 1906-08) Contributing United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 30 8. Statement of Significance Applicable National Register Criteria (Mark “x” in one or more boxes for the criteria qualifying the property for National Register listing.) X A Property is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history. B Property is associated with the lives of persons significant in our past. C Property embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction or represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction. D Property has yielded, or is likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history. Criteria Considerations (Mark “x” in all the boxes that apply.) Property is: A Owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes. B removed from its original location. C a birthplace or grave. D a cemetery. E a reconstructed building, object, or structure. F a commemorative property. G less than 50 years old or achieving significance within the past 50 years. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 31 Areas of Significance COMMERCE SOCIAL HISTORY ENTERTAINMENT/RECREATION Period of Significance ca. 1906-08 to 1970 Significant Dates N/A Significant Person (Complete only if Criterion B is marked above.) N/A Cultural Affiliation N/A Architect/Builder Kaufman, Byron H. Heinzman and Ingalls (William G. Heinzman and Charles S. Ingalls) Nixon and Jones (Thomas Nixon and Philip C. Jones) Abels, L. Gale United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 32 Period of Significance (justification) The period of significance for Criterion A for Commerce and Social History extends from ca. 1906-08 (the beginning of its development as a commercial/social area) to 1970 (the year a riot shook the area and damaged buildings). The period of significance for Entertainment/Recreation from 1926 (the opening of the Rialto Theater) to 1967 (a date fifty years before the present in accord with National Register guidelines). Criteria Considerations (justification) None Narrative Statement of Significance (Provide a summary paragraph that includes level of significance, applicable criteria, justification for the period of significance, and any applicable criteria considerations.) Summary The Boulder University Hill Commercial District is locally significant under Criterion A in three areas of significance. It is significant in the area of Commerce for its role as a neighborhood business district, housing a variety of businesses serving the surrounding residential area and students at the adjacent University of Colorado. The area is also significant for Social History as an area attracting generations of University of Colorado students for a variety of social interactions on its streets and sidewalks and in its many bars and restaurants, stores, and other facilities. It is further significant in the area of Entertainment/Recreation for its range of large and small venues offering live music and film to students and residents. The period of significance for Criterion A for Commerce and Social History extends from ca. 1906-08 (the beginning of its development as a commercial/social area) to 1970 (the year a riot shook the area and damaged buildings). The period of significance for Entertainment/Recreation from 1926 (the opening of the Rialto Theater) to 1967 (a date fifty years before the present). ________________________________________________________________________________________ Elaboration CRITERION A The Boulder University Hill Commercial District is significant under Criterion A for its association with events contributing to the broad patterns of our history. It is significant in the area of Commerce as a vital service center and neighborhood business district catering to the needs of residents of the University Hill area and students at the University of Colorado for over a century. The extent and composition of the commercial area grew and changed over time, incorporating an evolving mix of commercial enterprises reflecting specific eras, national trends, lifestyles, and tastes. Within the district retail shops on the Hill reliably offered clothing, shoes, music, sporting goods, groceries, drugs and sundries, new and used textbooks, and other commonly sought items of daily life. Service establishments provided laundry and dry cleaning, barber and beauty shops, and shoe shines, while numerous restaurants, cafeterias, coffee shops, and bars provided food and drinks as alternatives to campus cafeterias and home cooking. Many of the businesses stayed on the Hill for decades, including such stalwarts as Greenman’s University Store, the Colorado Book Store, Dugout Cleaners, University Hill Grocery, Scot’s, Ltd., The Regiment, Ltd., and the Sink, some of which are still operating. The business district is further significant under Criterion A in the area of Social History as an important location for off-campus activities for students at the University of Colorado. In 1975 the Boulder Daily Camera acknowledged this function, deeming the Hill “a kind of satellite campus locked into the orb of its venerable neighbor on the east side of Broadway.”43 The Hill’s proximity and the number and diversity of establishments made it a natural area to which collegians gravitated for meetings, romantic rendezvous, and social and political events along its sidewalks and in its many restaurants, bars, coffee shops, bookstore, and theaters. As a conveniently located area separate from the campus, the Hill offered a location for s tudents to engage in public discourse, dating, dancing, parades, bonfires, and experiments with adult substances and activities. After the Murphy Building was erected on 13th Street with a large upstairs hall it became a site of importance in 43 Boulder Daily Camera, 9 October 1975. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 33 women’s history as the first location of the University of Colorado’s women’s athletic and physical education activities in 1913. A women’s gymnasium was not built on the university campus until 1926 -28. The hall also served as the site for many fraternity and sorority dances. In the late 1960s-early 1970s a countercultural presence grew in the area, reflecting movements and divisions present in the nation. During the late 1930s and early 1940s the district also saw sit-ins and other protests against the refusal of Hill drugstores, such as Quine’s and Greenman’s University Store, to serve African Americans on an equal basis with whites. Later, the upheavals of the time influenced a Vietnam-era riot that damaged several Hill buildings in May 1970. The nominated area is significant under Criterion A in the area of Entertainment/Recreation for the role it played in providing cinematic and musical entertainment to university students and neighborhood residents. The 1926 Rialto Theater initiated the screening of movies during the golden age of cinema. In 1950 Flatirons Theater opened on the Hill to provide a second location for viewing films. Tulagi, the Sink, and later the Fox Theater (formerly the Rialto) served as major venues for live musical performances, attracting nationally renowned artists. Other restaurants, bars, and other businesses provided venues for smaller scale musical entertainment. One history of Boulder’s music scene observed that Tulagi, although a relatively small venue, “in its heyday hosted acts like ZZ Top, The Eagles, Linda Ronstadt, Bonnie Raitt, the Flying Burrito Brothers, John Lee Hooker and Miles Davis.”44 In the 1970s The Sink, under owner Herbert Kauvar and booker Chuck Morris, featured musicians such as Harry Chapin, Bonnie Raitt, Seals and Croft, and The Astronauts, a Boulder surfer band.45 Other locations on the Hill became part of the local music scene, such as the “Place Upstairs” (the upper floor of 1301 Pennsylvania Avenue), which offered folk music during the 1960s. All of these businesses kept the university students and neighborhood residents abreast of the latest national and international trends in music and cinema. Development and Expansion of the University Hill Commercial Historic District46 THE HILL PRIOR TO COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT The University Hill Commercial Historic District is part of a larger area lying west of the University of Colorado campus that began to develop in the late nineteenth century. The Colorado territorial legislature approved the creation of a state university in Boulder in 1861, but fifteen years passed before Old Main, the first building, was erected in 1876. Boulder residents provided matching funds for the building, and local citizens donated part of the university grounds. The University of Colorado’s first president, Joseph Sewall, lived with his family in Old Main, and his daughter, Jane, described the then isolated and barren location in her memoirs, recalling that when the family arrived in 1877, “no tree nor shrub nor any human habitation was in sight,” only “vast expanses of rock and sagebrush.” The principal use of the land in the vicinity had been to pasture the animals of local farmers.47 During the 1880s, Boulder grew to include new schools, businesses, and a sanitarium operated by the Seventh Day Adventists. By 1890, the university encompassed five buildings, including a President’s Residence, a chemistry building, and an arts and sciences facility. Population growth resulted in demand for new housing, and the early 1890s saw a dramatic expansion in the city’s housing stock, with twenty-eight subdivisions platted between 1890 and 1895.48 Among subdivisions platted in the University Hill area was the 1890 University Place Addition, encompassing a tract roughly from 6th through 18th streets and from College Avenue to Baseline Road.49 The Denver and Boulder 44 David Accomazzo, “An Entertaining 20 Years: Looking Back at Boulder’s Music History,” Boulder Weekly, 30 January 2014. 45 Herbert Kauvar, Boulder, Colorado, oral history interview, 7 September 2012, OH 1813, Boulder Carnegie Library for Local History. 46 The historical background is largely drawn from R. Laurie Simmons and Thomas H. Simmons, University Hill Commercial District, Historic Overview and Historic District Evaluation (1994), as supplemented by additional material collected in 2008 and 2016-17. 47 Jane Sewall, Jane, Dear Child (Boulder, Colo.: University of Colorado Press, 1957), 41. 48William R. Deno, Body & Soul: Architectural Style at the University of Colorado at Boulder (Boulder, Colo.: University of Colorado Publications Service, 1994), 44. 49 “Plat of the University Place Addition, 1890; Warren H. McLeod Collection, University of Colorado Western Historical Collections, Boulder, Colorado, “List of Stockholders of the Denver and Boulder Land and Improvement Company, 1899.” United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 34 Land and Investment Company purchased 194 acres of land adjoining the city and platted it into 1,820 lots. S.C. Fulton became president of the development company, and the firm of Fulton Brothers was appointed sole agent for the sale of property in the addition. By 1891 the company had made some improvements to the subdivision and University Place was ready to be advertised as a desirable residential area. The first private residence on University Hill was erected the same year by Mrs. Amelia Perry at the southwest corner of College Avenue and 13th Street (no longer extant).50 The following year, Mount St. Gertrude Academy at 10th and Aurora Streets was established on land donated by a member of the development company. Fulton Brothers erected a large brick building at Broadway Street, 13th Street, and Pennsylvania Avenue, known as Fulton Terrace, which housed the company’s real estate offices and three residential units (no longer extant) (see Figure 1). The terrace was the most prominent building in the area for many years. By 1892, it was evident that public transportation to and from downtown Boulder would be required for the success of University Hill. Without a transportation system linking the city’s major place of employment with the new residential area, the addition’s growth was seriously hampered. An 1892 streetcar failed due to lack of capital and a horse-drawn bus service was implemented.51 Development in University Hill ceased following the economic downturn resulting from the Panic of 1893, but the investment company weathered the crisis. A positive feature during the period was the state’s improvement of the university grounds, which helped make the area more attractive for future investment. During the presidency of James H. Baker (1892-1914), the construction of several new buildings on the university campus and the landscaping of the university grounds made the surrounding area more desirable and thus added to the value of lots in the residential addition. From 1893 to 1894, the enrollment at the university doubled.52 A view of the future commercial district of University Hill taken about 1895 from the Hale Science Building looking southwest, shows the Belser House at the northeast corner of 13th Street and College Avenue (Resource 3) and the Perry House at the southwest corner of the same intersection (razed in 1950 for construction of the Flatirons Theater) (see Figures 1 and 2). The opening of the Texas-Colorado Chautauqua later known as the Colorado Chautauqua and Chautauqua Park to the southwest in 1898 reinforced the need for a streetcar line in the area.53 The developers of the University Park Addition took advantage of popular support for a Chautauqua line to ensure transportation service to their subdivision. In 1898, the city council granted their proposed street railway a right of way and the Boulder Street Railway’s trolleys began running along the three-mile track in June 1899, charging a fee of five cents per trip. The route extended from downtown Boulder south along Broadway Street to its intersection with Pennsylvania Avenue, swinging by Fulton Terrace, and traveling down 13th Street to College Avenue, where it headed west to 9th Street and thence ran directly south to Chautauqua Park. On the return trip, the system traveled north on 10th Street to Aurora Avenue, where it headed east to 14th Street and then traveled north until it intersected Broadway Street and headed back to the depot.54 The system was eventually extended to connect other parts of the city and routes were adjusted over time. By 1923, the jog past the triangular block at 13th and Pennsylvania had been eliminated and the trolleys proceeded directly west on College from Broadway Street.55 The streetcar system operated until June 1931, when a bus system was implemented.56 Therefore, from 1899 through 1931, the University Hill Commercial Historic District was served by a streetcar line, a fact that probably contributed to the commercial development and continuing success of the area. 50 Boulder Daily Camera, 2 January 1980. Mrs. Perry’s house was later demolished for the construction of the Flatirons Theater. 51 McLeod Collection, “Report Concerning the Transactions of the Denver and Boulder Land and Investment Company for the Period of Five Years,” 30 July 1895. Name of repository? 52 Frederick S. Allen, Mark S. Foster, Ernest Andrade, Jr., Philip I. Mitterling, and H. Lee Scamehorn, The University of Colorado, 1876-1976 (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1976), 55. 53 The facility, later known as the Colorado Chautauqua and Chautauqua Park, is a National Historic Landmark and is listed in the National Register, 2006 and 1978, respectively (NRIS.74000562, 5BL.361). 54 “Map of the City of Boulder, 1904,” Boulder City Directory, 1905; Phyllis Smith, A History of Boulder’s Transportation, 1858- 1984 (Boulder, Colo.: City of Boulder, 1984), 17. 55 Carnegie Branch Library for Local History, “City of Boulder Colorado, 1923.” 56 Smith, “History of Boulder’s Transportation,” 18. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 35 The arrival of the streetcar line ushered in the long-awaited real estate boom in the University Place Addition. Citizens began to view the advantages of the residential area in terms of its proximity to the university, its convenient access to downtown Boulder, and its closeness to the natural beauty of the Chautauqua grounds.57 By 1906, steady growth of the neighborhood resulted in the erection of the University Hill School. The area attracted professors and employees of the university, families who planned to send their children to CU, business and professional workers, and university students. During the early years, most students lived in rooms off campus since the university provided just one men’s dormitory and a few small cottages for women. Boarding houses sprang up in areas adjacent to the university campus, some catering to faculty and staff members and others to students. Residents of the University Hill area patronized the business area as it developed in the early twentieth century. EARLY BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT OF THE HILL, 1906-1919 Despite the presence of the streetcar line through the area and the growing University of Colorado campus immediately to the east, commercial development did not immediately come to the Hill. As late as 1906, the Sanborn fire insurance map covering the nominated area showed no commercial buildings. The only non-single family use depicted on the map was a planned “club house” at 1205 13th Street, which would house the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity (see Figure 3). Fraternities and sororities viewed the University Hill area as a convenient location for their residence houses. Early chapter houses were established in areas immediately adjacent to the university campus, some in existing residences and some in specially constructed buildings.58 Additional fraternities located within the nominated area in the first half of the twentieth century. The connection between the university and the commercial district existed from the beginning of the business area’s development, leading one writer to call the Hill “a kind of satellite campus locked into the orb of its venerable neighbor on the east side of Broadway.”59 The students who lived on the Hill developed a special relationship with the business district which grew there, as the stores and restaurants catered to the needs of many students. A small number of students also found employment at businesses on the Hill. The first commercial building constructed in the area was the McConnell and Crane drug store (later the Co-op and Campus drug store) at 1301 Pennsylvania Avenue (Resource 24).60 Built during the 1906-08 period in the triangular block bounded by Broadway Street, Pennsylvania Avenue, and 13th Street, the one-and-a-half story brick building with buttressed walls had a trapezoidal shape conforming to its parcel (see Figure 4). The drug store was located at the northern end of the streetcar loop serving University Hill and Chautauqua. The building continued to house a drug store until 1969 under a succession of owners who operated under changing names: Co-op Drug Store, Quine’s Campus Drug, Campus Drugs, and Campus Shop.61 The drug store was described by the Boulder Daily Camera as “one of the favorite meeting places of C.U. students,” and contained a soda fountain, prescription department, and “over 1,000 items for the student and home.”62 The McConnell and Crane building was followed by a number of other commercial buildings erected along 13th Street during the 1911-13 period between College and Pennsylvania avenues. In 1911, Alfred A. Greenman, who also operated a business downtown, constructed Greenman’s University Store at 1130-34 13th Street (Resource 11), a two-story brick building (see Figure 5). Before Greenman built his store he persuaded the City to widen 13th Street north of College Avenue, arguing that “Boulder will not always be a horse and buggy town and we will need wider streets.”63 Greenman and fellow Hill developer, William L. Beach, attempted to foster a degree of design uniformity by agreeing to only build two-story commercial buildings on 13th Street. Greenman reportedly 57 Sanford Gladden, The Early Days of Boulder (Boulder, Colo.: Sanford Gladden, 1982), 460. 58 William E. Davis, Glory Colorado! History of the University of Colorado to 1963 (Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Press, 1965), 363. 59 Boulder Daily Camera, 9 October 1975. 60 Buildings within the commercial district that are discussed in the narrative are identified by numbers on the table at the end of section 7 and by street numbers on the sketch map. 61 Sanborn Insurance Map, 1910; Boulder City Directory, 1913; Boulder Daily Camera, 29 August 1960; and Dorothy Greenman collection, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 62 Boulder Daily Camera, 17 September 1943, 30 December 1948, 29 August 1960, 27 April 1961, and 1 January 1980. 63 Boulder Daily Camera, 3 October 1939. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 36 purchased the Sigma Alpha Epsilon house at 1201 13th Street to control growth of business buildings on University Hill. The construction of one-story commercial additions to houses on the west side of 13th Street subsequently undermined the Greenman-Beach plan.64 Greenman’s University Store opened in September 1911 and initially specialized in textbooks, stationery, and athletic goods. After the university opened its own bookstore in the basement of Macky in 1922, Greenman’s dropped books and expanded its food and drug lines with a pharmacy and an ice cream fountain.65 Real estate agent George W. Murphy erected the 1912 Murphy Building (Resource 19) at the north end of the district at 1211-15 13th Street (see Figure 6). Murphy had his offices there in 1913, and tenants included the restaurant of Henry A. Reiber, Larson and Garvin grocery, and Thomas Morris Cleaning and Dyeing. The Murphy Building became the first Hill building to house university sponsored activities. In 1912, when the Women’s Athletic Association pressured the university regents to provide better athletic facilities for its women students, CU rented the hall in the upper portion of the building at for that purpose. The Women’s Athletic Association supervised activities in the hall, called by the students “Varsity Hall,” which was described as “well-suited for basketball and gymnasium purposes.” The university regents and the associated students each paid for half of the cost of maintaining the facility.66 Three two-story commercial buildings were constructed in the 1910s on the east side of the 1100 block of 13th Street. The trio of buildings is important in giving the block a sense of commercial street wall and all may have been associated with William L. Beach. A narrow, two-story brick commercial building was constructed at 1118 13th in 1911 (Resource 6) (see Figure 7). The 1913 city directory lists Morgan and Hedbloom grocers as the building’s occupant, followed by Rethlefsen and Stephens in 1916. The building remained a grocery through 1968.67 The next building to the south (1116 13th Street, Resource 5) was a two-story brick commercial building erected in 1913. William L. Beach was probably responsible for its construction and is listed as an occupant through 1923. Beach was active in mining west of Boulder at Sugarloaf and Wallstreet before moving to the city in 1902. Aside from Beach, the principal early tenant in the building was the University (or U of C) Cafeteria, which appeared in city directories from 1921 through 1932.68 The two-story brick and cinderblock building at 1110 13th Street (Resource 4) was constructed between 1919 and 1921, but the address does not appear in city directories until 1932, apparently due to the fact that the University Cafeteria expanded into the first floor of this building upon its completion. The address was not used until the restaurant reduced its space in the early 1930s. The 1932 to 1938 city directories list Stewart’s Shoe Shop and William F. Lesch jeweler as occupants.69 GROWTH OF THE COMMERCIAL DISTRICT AND ITS ROLE AS THE FOCUS OF OFF-CAMPUS LIFE IN THE 1920S By 1919, the slogan “on the Hill” was already being used in advertisements for the University Hill area, although the 1922 Sanborn fire insurance map still only showed six commercial buildings, mostly on the east side of 13th Street (numbers 1110, 1116, 1118, and 1130-34), plus 1211-15 13th Street and 1301 Pennsylvania Avenue. Even with relatively few businesses, M. Helen Carpenter, who graduated from CU in 1922, related the important role the Hill played in the lives of students, who bought groceries at the University Hill Grocery and used Greenman’s drug store “just like a clubhouse.” She observed that you “were nobody at all if you weren’t seen at Greenman’s at 9 o’clock at night having an ice cream soda.”70 One of the Hill’s longest-lived businesses began operation in the Murphy Building in the 1920s. Henry V. Ellwood initially started a clothing store there in 1923, 64 Boulder Daily Camera, 3 October 1939; Dorothy Greenman collection and photographs, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 65 Boulder Daily Camera, July 1964; Boulder City Directories, 1967-83. 66 Davis, Glory Colorado!, 178. 67 Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1910 and 1918; Boulder Assessor collection, Carnegie Branch Library for Local History; and Boulder City Directories, 1913-83. 68 Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1910 and 1918; computerized index, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado; and Boulder City Directories, 1913-83. 69 Boulder City Directories, 1913-83 and Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1918-22. 70 M. Helen Carpenter, oral history interview by Jewel M. Wolcott, 1986, Boulder Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 37 which he named the Dugout because it was located below grade in the southern end of the structure. Ellwood found more success in dry cleaning and pressing, which he added by 1926, and the business expanded into the first floor of the building. Dugout Cleaners and Laundry remained at the address until the 1980s.71 During the 1920s, the surrounding University Hill residential area experienced its most dramatic period of growth, as the prosperity of the era encouraged the construction of a multitude of new houses in the neighborhood. Greek letter society chapter houses also increased in numbers on University Hill during the 1920s and early 1930s. Fulton Terrace at 1300 Pennsylvania was converted to the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity house in about 1926. In 1930, Glen H. Huntington designed a new house for the Beta Theta Pi fraternity at 1111 Broadway Street. The fraternity’s 1905 house on the same site was razed.72 The single-family character was further diminished when the dwelling at 1127 Broadway Street was converted to the Swayne Apartments ca. 1920; it received a two-story rear addition in 1925. According to Henry Ellwood, Sr., the business area still retained a small-town feel. He recalled that until 1925 there was no street paving on the Hill–the street was crossed using stepping stones.73 The increased population base in surrounding subdivisions provided the impetus for business expansion on the Hill during the 1920s. The proliferation of commercial establishments in what had once been a residential neighborhood adjacent to the campus engendered the desire among University Hill residents that the business district be limited. The city hired Denver planner Saco R. DeBoer to draft a zoning ordinance in 1926 after receiving complaints about the “promiscuous erection of places of business in what has been the residence district of the Hill.” Boulder’s first zoning ordinance, designed to answer the concerns of University Hill residents, was adopted with little objection in January 1928.74 While zoning limited the spread of the Hill commercial area, substantial development occurred within the business district during the 1920s, including the erection of new purpose-built business blocks and additional residential conversions. New commercial projects included the 1923 two-story brick building at 1138-44 13th Street in 1923 (Resource 13) (see Figure 8). The building’s construction altered the course of the alley lying east of 13th Street, forcing the alley to jog and meet 13th Street at a right angle. Original tenants of the building included: G&S (later the A&B) Kash-Karry Grocery, P.B. Paddock’s men’s furnishings, J.M. Payne shoe repair, University Hill Cleaners and Dyers, and E.J. Tryon confectionery. The 1926 city directory lists the Beach-Johnson Apartments on the second floor of the building, suggesting that William L. Beach might have been involved in the construction of this building as well.75 Adrian Diez erected the Hill’s first theater, the Rialto (Resource 12), in 1926 at 1135 13th Street (see Figure 9). A chronology of Boulder theaters indicates that the Rialto opened on 26 May 1926 and closed 18 November 1927.76 It is unclear why the vaudeville and/or film theater stopped operating. A local landmark application suggested a competing theater may have purchased the building to keep it from drawing patrons from its downtown Boulder location. The facility stood vacant until the late 1930s.77 During the middle to late teens a wall of commercial buildings had begun to emerge along part of the east side of the 1100 block of 13th Street. Faced with the changing character of the neighborhood, residents on the west side 71 Boulder City Directories, 1913-83; Henry V. Ellwood, Jr., personal communication, 31 October 1994, Boulder, Colorado; Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1910-31; Boulder Daily Camera, 6 July 1993. 72 Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1922 and 1931; Boulder City Directories, 1921-32; and photographic collections, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. While Sanborn coverage expanded between 1922 and 1931, the discussion compares the same geographic area for both years. 73 Boulder Daily Camera, 25 January 1976. 74 Phyllis Smith, A Look at Boulder from Settlement to City (Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Publishing Co., 1981), 179. 75 Boulder City Directories, 1916-23; Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1918-31; and Boulder County Assessor collection, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. The 1917 date of construction reported by the Assessor is not supported by city directories or the Sanborn maps. The projecting cornice details are no longer extant. 76 These dates correspond to the licenses for the Rialto on file at the Carnegie library, which indicate an address of 1143 13th Street. 77 Boulder City Directories, 1926-61; Boulder County Assessor collection (old appraisal card) and Rialto Theater licenses, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado; and chronology of Boulder theaters, University of Colorado, Norlin Library, Western Historical Collections, Boulder, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 38 of the street began converting their dwellings to commercial uses, principally through the construction of additions onto the fronts and sides of existing houses. This “wrapping” of homes with business additions is termed a house with commercial addition by History Colorado and has been described by Old House Journal as “appendage- itis.”78 Dwelling conversions to commercial uses outnumbered construction of new stand-alone business blocks in the 1920s. One of the most notable and extensive examples of the trend to recycle old houses to commercial uses involved the large home at 1165 13th Street (Resource 17). The dwelling, constructed about 1900, was reportedly built by a Mr. Teagarden. Built as a single-family house, by 1916 it had become the Sigma Nu fraternity house and then the Phi Delta Theta house in 1921. Edward A. and Henrietta Somers resided in the house by 1923. After Somers’ offer to manage the Bide-a-Wee tearoom at 1211 13th Street was rejected, he contracted with Boulder architect Glen H. Huntington to design commercial additions to his home to house a restaurant. The residence’s corner porch was removed and one-story shops were added to the north and east sides of the house, along Pennsylvania Avenue and 13th Street, respectively, in about 1928. Somers’ Sunken Gardens restaurant opened in the corner storefront and expanded to seat two hundred patrons by the following year. A description of the restaurant, which was promoted as “entirely suitable for family parties, afternoon teas and other kinds of parties,” emphasized its unique design featuring abundant indoor greenery. Somers and his wife lived in an apartment above the restaurant. By 1932 the building’s storefronts included a clothing shop, dressmaker, barber, and a cleaning and dye works.79 A number of other commercial conversions and additions to dwellings occurred along 13th Street. An existing corner house at 1100 13th Street received a two-story brick commercial addition along 13th Street in 1927-28 (see Figure 10).80 W. Merton Stoffle, who had earlier operated the University Hill Grocery Store at 1118 13th Street, may have been responsible for constructing the addition. By 1932, Stoffle’s Restaurant was in the building, while Stoffle resided in the attached house. During the mid-1920s, the porch of the house at 1155 13th Street (no longer extant) was changed to business uses while the rear continued as a residence. The O.P. Kinsey confectionery is listed at the address in the 1926 City Directory, and a photograph taken ca. 1929-30 shows the porch converted to elaborate display windows for Tarkoff’s Varsity Clothing Store.81 The house at 1143 13th Street received two storefront additions during the 1927-30 period (Resource 14). The one-story, brick commercial addition housed the Silver and Gold Cleaners, University Hill Shoe Shop, a U.S. Post Office station, and Armstead Scenic Company as early tenants; a central, covered passageway led between the storefronts to the rear of the parcel.82 During the 1920s, historical accounts noted initial uses of the Hill as a site for student mass gatherings and celebrations. The small pox scare in the 1920s resulted in the stipulation that students prove they had been inoculated from the disease and a big ad hoc parade of vaccinated students developed which toured all over the Hill. The area was well established as the center of off-campus social activities by the 1920s. The Sunken Gardens, Co-op, and Greenman’s were favored places for “coking” or the consumption of soft drinks and conversation. Jitney dances, often staged as fundraisers, were held in Varsity Hall in the Murphy Building (1211- 13 13th Street).83 Apparently the Hill had also become the popular site for students to imbibe stronger liquids. The 78 Old House Journal, March/April 1991, 96. 79 Boulder City Directories, 1921-26; Glen H. Huntington architectural collection, Carnegie Library for local history, Boulder, Colorado; Ellwood, personal communication; Peter Pollock to Landmarks Preservation Advisory Board, memorandum, individual landmark nomination for Somers-Notestine house, 1403 Baseline Road, 6 December 1989, on file City of Boulder, Planning, Housing & Sustainability Department, Boulder, Colorado. The Bide-A-Wee tearoom had disappeared from the City Directory by 1932. 80 Boulder City Directories, 1913-32; Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1906-31; and Boulder County Assessor collection, Carnegie Library for Local History. 81 Boulder City Directories, 1923-55 and photographic collections, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. The building was addressed as 1153-55 13th Street beginning in the 1930s. 82 Boulder City Directories, 1913-83 and Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1906-31. The house was later demolished, but the front commercial part still stands. 83 Davis, Glory Colorado!, 362. Jitney dancing, popular in the 1920s and 1930s, involved paying for each dance with couples cleared from the dance floor between dances. “Coking” derives from Coca-Cola or Coke, a popular soft drink. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 39 Silver & Gold reported on 10 January 1922 that “every week-end brings news of a drunken carousal some place on the Hill.”84 THE HILL COMMERCIAL DISTRICT IN THE 1930S By the 1930s, residential subdivisions on University Hill surrounding the business district were substantially developed. During the Depression, many students stayed at the university because there were no jobs available elsewhere. Federal agencies provided relief programs which helped local citizens weather the crisis. The university, assisted by federal relief programs, managed to expand its building inventory despite cutbacks in school financing.85 Students still managed to have fun despite the economic stringency. Varsity Hall above Dugout Cleaners was utilized to hold “jitney dances” to raise money for relief.86 By 1931 business uses comprised a majority of buildings within the Hill commercial district. The 1931 Sanborn fire insurance map showed thirteen commercial buildings (purpose-built or dwelling conversions), eight dwellings, and two fraternity houses. During the decade the area added two new commercial buildings. The Hill gained a successful barber shop when a small one-story, rectangular brick building was erected between 1932 and 1935 at 1149 13th Street (Resource 15). In 1936, the building housed the Edward T. Nix barber shop and a branch of Berkeleys. By 1938, William M. Bailey had joined Nix as a shoe shiner and the Wilfred Wave Studio occupied the other half of the building. The street wall of buildings on the eastern side of the 1100 block of 13th Street was completed in 1939 when the Colorado Book Store erected its own building at 1124-28 13th Street (Resource 9), between Greenman’s University Store and the University Hill Grocery Store. The one-story shop with a shaped stucco parapet contrasted with the two-story, brick buildings on either side (see Figure 13). The book store housed a U.S. Post Office station, providing additional inducement for visiting the facility.87 The commercial building at the northeast corner of 13th Street and College Avenue (Resource 2) was expanded in 1935. In that year the original house to the rear was demolished and a one and two-story addition of shops erected along College Avenue, following the same style and materials as that employed in the two-story 1927-28 construction. Early tenants of the 1935 addition along College included the Randall Shop (a women’s clothing store) at 1309 College and Gladys O. Kauffman’s beauty shop at 1311 College. The former Rialto Theater at 1135 13th Street remained vacant for much of the 1930s. From 1938 to 1940 the Buffalo Club, a dancing facility, occupied the building. The Hill was evolving into an area where students massed to voice concerns, celebrate good news, and display anger–a home away from home. Shine Owen, whose family operated the Owen’s Sandwich Shoppe at 1100 13th Street for twenty-seven years, recalled that during the 1930s, “the students were your friends. . . The Hill was surrounded by a lot of old mansions and fraternity and sorority houses. Most of the students stayed in them, because there weren’t many dorms. When a fraternity or sorority cook didn’t show up or one of their menus wasn’t very appetizing, the students would eat at our place.”88 WORLD WAR II AND AFTER: THE 1940S AND 1950S Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor brought America’s entrance into World War II in December 1941. On 12 December 1941, the Silver & Gold noted that “for the first time in the history of convocations, the campus coking spots on the hill were deserted” because of the war.89 During World War II, the university made up for the loss of students to the armed services by hosting several military training programs. The Naval Language School brought many students and Japanese faculty members to the university and provided a stimulus for the local economy. One popular wartime business on the Hill was the Anchorage Nite Club, started at 1135 -37 13th Street by Hitoshi Ogata in 1943. According to University of Colorado archivist David Hays, the club offered chop suey, 84 Davis, Glory Colorado!, 317. 85 Davis, Glory Colorado!, 245. 86 Davis, Glory Colorado!, 362. 87Boulder City Directories, 1932-83; Boulder County Assessor collection, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 88 Boulder Daily Camera, 9 October 1975. 89 Davis, Glory Colorado!, 455. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 40 beer, and juke box dancing and was popular with members of the Navy personnel at the university. By 1949, Ray Imel acquired the business, which was renamed as the Anchorage Bar & Grill and no longer featured dancing. The 1940s saw little new construction activity on the Hill. In 1949, the Belser house at 1101-07 13th Street received shopfront additions along 13th Street.90 The one-story brick storefronts housed McDowell Studios photography and Lester Showalter, a contractor, at 1107 and 1109 13th Street, respectively. University Hill business owner O.R. Easley reminisced about the Hill in the 1940s: “In 1944 the business district was confined pretty largely to the 1100 block on 13th Street and west on Penn. Ave. for 1/2 block. The number of stores-shops and cafes then was probably less than half the number now [in 1968] located on the Hill.”91 The businessman noted that the merchants of the Hill during the era were very involved in promoting university functions, such as the 1949 homecoming celebration, when store owners erected false front façades along 13th Street to carry out the homecoming theme, “the 49ers.” The University acquired the Fulton Terrace in the early 1940s and used it as a Women’s Dormitory Annex until the mid-1950s.92 In 1949 the only business on the Hill that possessed a license to sell 3.2 beer was the Anchorage at 1135 13th Street. An unsuccessful ban was proposed that year against the sale of 3.2 beer near the university grounds. The desire of Sunken Gardens to obtain a beer license prompted the attempted ban, but in 1950 the establishment received its permit. The city council then decided to limit beer licenses granted near the campus to ten.93 As the university’s enrollment boomed in the postwar years the commercial district in the adjacent Hill area experienced concomitant growth. In February 1950, the city council approved a proposal to rezone 13th Street and College Avenue for business purposes “over-riding the protest of most of the property owners in the block.” Shortly thereafter, the council reversed its decision, denying the request, and then reversed itself a second time, approving the request for commercial zoning.94 The zoning change solidified the commercial status of the area and led to new commercial buildings and commercial additions. A number of new business buildings were constructed along 13th Street during the 1950s and two large houses received commercial additions. Among the “important developments” CU historian William Davis listed during the period were the erection of the Flatirons Theater, the conversion of the Rialto Theater building into the Fox Theater, and the erection of Tulagi.95 The Flatirons Theatre was built at 1087-91 13th Street in 1950 (Resource 1, see Figure 12). According to journalist Laurence T. Paddock, the first private residence on University Hill, the Amelia Perry home (1891), was razed to build the theater at the southwest corner of 13th Street and College Avenue. The 1,000-plus-seat theater featured a balcony and two storefronts and was managed by early theater operator Claude Graves.96 The $50,000 Tulagi, a popular music venue and nightclub establishment, was erected by Ray Imel and Rex Bailey in 1951 at 1129 13th Street (Resource 10), replacing a pre-1906 brick house. The two-story building with a native sandstone and glass block façade had a seating capacity for 250 couples and included a bar and ballroom on the main floor. During the Rock’n’Roll era, Tulagi hosted some of the best known musical groups in the country. During the 1970s, Tulagi became a disco.97 The Hill also gained two new smaller-scale buildings housing clothing stores during the 1950s. Scots, Ltd., a women’s clothing store, erected the building at 1119 13th Street (Resource 7) in 1955. The one-story building originally featured a wood-shingled mansard overhang, an inset entrance, and brick walls with a large multi-light 90 Mary McRoberts, Genealogical Abstracts from the Boulder Daily Camera, 1891-1900 (Boulder, Colorado: by the author, 1985), 34. 91 Unidentified clipping, in the files of Front Range Research Associates, Inc., Denver, Colorado. 92 Boulder Daily Camera, 2 January 1980. 93 Smith, Boulder from Settlement to City, 187. 94 Smith, Boulder from Settlement to City, 187. 95 Davis, Glory Colorado!, 553. 96 Boulder Daily Camera, 2 January 1980; Boulder theater chronology, University of Colorado, Norlin Library, Western Historical Collections; and clippings collection, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder Colorado. 97 Boulder Daily Camera, 26 March 1951 and 9 October 1975. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 41 window. Scot’s remained in the address into the 1980s.98 Kinsley and Company, a men’s clothing shop, constructed a new store at 1155 13th Street (Resource 16) the same year. An old house which had been converted to business use (see above) was demolished to make way for the new store. The Kinsley store, constructed in brick in a Tudor-influenced style, is set back from the street and contrasts with other buildings along the block. The company traced its origins to the University Shop established in 1949.99 Another venerable brick house received one-story commercial additions during the 1950s. One-story brick storefronts were added to the front of the former Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity house at 1203-07 13th (Resource 18) about 1954. The 1955 city directory showed Heflin Jewelers, dentist Duane Botts, and the Boulder Optical Company located at the address. Dr. Botts maintained his office in the building until the mid-1970s, while Boulder Optical remained there until at least 1967.100 During the 1950s, the Hill continued to be the off-campus site for celebration among university students. In 1954, CU was chosen as the conference representative for the NCAA basketball tournament. When students learned of the selection, they lined the rooftops along 13th Street, sat on cars and porches, and created a bonfire in front of Tulagi (see Figure 11). A policeman sent to ensure that the celebration stayed under control was hit with tomatoes and eggs by the revelers. As the gathering expanded, students circled the bonfire, throwing on beer cans and bottles, and shouting “no class tomorrow.” Other students drove automobiles across yards of residences, while a snake dance stretched down Broadway Street.101 Somers’ Sunken Gardens became known as The Sink and continued as a fixture on the Hill. Its popularity increased with university students after it acquired a liquor license in the late 1940s. Actor-director Robert Redford, who attended CU for a few years in the mid-1950s, recalled frequenting the Sink as a patron and as a cleanup shift janitor. Redford observed that Tulagi was preferable for dates, whereas “you’d go to the Sink if you just wanted to lose yourself.”102 The 1955 Coloradan described the “hustling atmosphere” of the Hill as popular with students: In catering to student needs the near-campus shopping center provides everything from 3.2 [beer] to Arthur Murray dance lessons-usually at above average prices. . . . By day a variety fair, the Hill by night becomes a citadel of entertainment providing momentary protection from the threat of the unread assignment. The Hill after dark offers dancing, a movie, a guitarist, a pitcher.103 NEW CONSTRUCTION, THE HIPPIE INVASION, AND SOCIAL UNREST: THE 1960S AND 1970S By 1960, the University Hill Commercial Historic District approached maximum build-out and essentially completed its transition to a fully commercial area (see Figure 15). The Sanborn fire insurance map for that year showed all but four resources were purpose-built commercial buildings or dwellings converted to business uses with additions. The four non-commercial buildings included two single-family dwellings (1121 13th Street and 1119 Broadway Street), one fraternity house (the Beta Theta Pi building at 1111 Broadway Street), and Fulton Terrace at 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue). The latter building housed the University Extension Division between 1961 and 1967 and the Communications and Theater Department from 1973 to 1983.104 With the exception of Fulton Terrace these buildings were all gone by the mid-1960s, replaced by new business buildings. The area continued to serve as a major off-campus destination for university students. The 1961 Coloradan explained: “The same students who asked ‘the What?’ as freshman, find a haven on ‘the Hill’ as upper-classmen. Students stop between classes for a coke or a beer, to ogle new fashions and ski equipment, or to read cartoons 98 Boulder City Directories, 1955-83. 99 Boulder City Directories, 1955 and 1961 and photographic collections, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. The Assessor’s year of construction of 1954 is contradicted by other evidence. 100 Sanborn Insurance Company maps, 1906-31 and Boulder City Directories, 1913-83. 101 Davis, Glory Colorado!, 614-615. 102 Boulder Daily Camera, May 1989, clipping collection, University of Colorado, Norlin Library, Western Historical Collections. 103 Coloradan, 1955, 78 and 83. 104 Boulder Daily Camera, 2 January 1980. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 42 in a cleaner’s window. The Hill offers a momentary pause amid University scurry.”105 In 1969, the owner of the Sink bought Tulagi and hired Chuck Morris as its manager. Under his leader ship, Tulagi hosted some of the best known musical performers in the country, including the Eagles, Linda Ronstadt, Bonnie Raitt, and Miles Davis. During the decade CU used some buildings on the Hill for classes or programs, due to inadequate facilities at the university. The Flatiron Theater hosted large classes such as freshman Biology, where hundreds of students seated in the auditorium were taught by professors using the theater stage and the motion picture screen.106 The Hill gained four new commercial buildings during the 1960s, three along Broadway Street and one on 13th Street. The Commonwealth Industrial Bank (Resource 23) was erected at 1135 Broadway Street in 1960. Large residences at 1135 and 1143 Broadway Street were razed to permit construction of the two-story stucco and concrete bank designed by James Hunter and Associates of Boulder.107 The University Hill Building (Resource 21) at 1121 Broadway Street held its grand opening in September 1963. The initial tenants of the two-story glass, brick, and stucco retail and office building were branches of firms with mostly downtown locations: Boulder Travel, Arapahoe Sports, and Howard’s Shoes.108 The largest and most expensive of the 1960s buildings was the $167,000 Colorado Book Store (Resource 20) completed in 1965 at 1111 Broadway Street. Boulder architects Heinzman and Ingalls designed the book store, which sold textbooks, other reading matter, and supplies and drew numbers of CU students to the Hill (see Figure 14).109 The Regiment, Ltd. (Resource 8) erected a new home for its menswear store at 1121 13th Street in 1965. Kyle Lorenzen of Boulder prepared plans for the one-story building which featured four projecting half-timbered gables, basket-weave brick, multi-light windows, and double wood doors.110 While commercial space increased during the 1960s, some long-time businesses closed. In July 1964, owner W.E. Smith announced that Greenman’s University Store (1130-34 13th Street) would sell its merchandise and close.111 Smith had been associated with the business since 1913.112 O.R. Easley, who took over the University Hill Grocery at 1118 13th Street, closed the business in 1968.113 Student concern was focused on national issues such as the Vietnam War and the Civil Rights movement by the late 1960s. Formerly popular extracurricular activities such as homecoming parades and Greek letter societies held little interest among students during the decade, as political affiliation and actions affecting the problems of society became increasingly significant to students. The Hill’s traditional association with student activities such as parades and pep rallies dwindled. Students demanded changes in the structure of their academic lives and protested American foreign and domestic policy, with most confrontations, threats, teach-ins, and mass meetings taking place on the university campus.114 Historian and professor Thomas J. Noel, who attended CU during the late the 1960s and early 1970s, remembered the Sink as a popular hangout for students, who “sat around here in puddles of beer, smoked pot, and watched Batman and Star Trek.”115 In the late 1960s, as students were increasingly preoccupied with national events, hippies (the then popular term often used in Boulder to refer to a street person or transient) began to find the Hill an attractive place to 105 Coloradan, 1961, 81. 106 Judith Broeker, Boulder, Colorado, Telephone Interview, 31 October 1994. 107 Boulder City Directories, 1961-83; photographic collection, Carnegie Library for Local History. 108 Colorado Daily, 20 September 1963, 16. 109 Boulder City Directories, 1926, 1932, and 1967; Boulder County Assessor collection, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado; Ellwood, personal communication. 110 City of Boulder, building permits; Boulder City Directories, 1961-83. 111 Boulder Daily Camera, 9 October 1975. 112 Boulder Daily Camera, July 1964 and Boulder City Directories, 1967-83. 113 Boulder Daily Camera, 16 April 1968. 114 Frederick S. Allen, Mark S. Foster, Ernest Andrade, Jr., Philip I. Mitterling, and H. Lee Scamehorn, The University of Colorado, 1876-1976 (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1976), 233-239. 115 Thomas J. Noel, Colorado: A Liquid History & Tavern Guide to the Highest State (Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 1999), 29. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 43 congregate.116 Merchants felt that the growing number of street people had a negative effect on their businesses, citing an increase in loitering, panhandling, and vandalism in the area. Hippie leaders attempted to allay the concerns of business owners by creating a job cooperative which provided short-term jobs for those who otherwise resorted to panhandling. Others organized hippies to sweep sidewalks in front of Hill stores to rid the area of the trash which seemed to accumulate where the young people gathered. University Hill merchants worried that the growing numbers of hippies loitering on the Hill brought with them increases in “crime, dope, and disease.”117 In response to these concerns, the city assigned a policeman to patrol the area on foot to enforce city ordinances and passed new ordinances to control the problems.118 Problems with hippies continued to plague the commercial district in the early 1970s, as large numbers of street people loitered there and fewer students and townspeople shopped in the area. Some reports asserted that the hippies controlled the Hill during this period and that the merchants could do little to stop them from flaunting their unorthodox lifestyle. In response to the efforts of merchants to alter the atmosphere of the business area, street people initiated two nights of riots, resulting in $50,000 damage to the business district. On 22 and 23 May 1970 as many as 250 people, which the Daily Camera described as “young longhairs” and members of the “city’s more or less permanent freak community” rioted, looting and smashing windows and damaging buildings and cars in the commercial area.119 Police utilized tear gas to gain control of the situation and arrested forty people, while street people armed themselves with clubs and Molotov cocktails and threw rocks at passing cars.120 The Regiment Ltd.’s owner Joe Bourland recalled the era: “I can still close my eyes and smell the tear gas. They literally took over the Hill. It was a very frightening time. People were throwing rocks at us coming in the back door, windows would be broken every night.”121 Most of the destruction was centered on College Avenue between 13th and Broadway Street, with Jones Drug and Camera Center (no longer extant) and the Colorado Book Store sustaining the most damage. Historian and professor James E. Fell, a graduate student at CU from 1969 to 1975, recalled the aftermath: “I walked through the ruins on the Hill the morning after the riot–College Avenue was devastated. Storefronts were smashed, cars burned, and one or two police cruisers upended and destroyed.”122 Fell believes the rioters targeted the book store because of their belief that the owner supported the war in Vietnam. Few students were believed to be involved in the destruction. Apparently the street people felt that certain businesses were taking advantage of them by charging excessively high prices and discouraging their business. The group was also angry about the large numbers of arrests made on the Hill by patrolling police assigned there. The transients reportedly wanted to eliminate the heavy police presence in the area. In 1971, a police substation was established in the Hilltop Building at 1310 College Avenue (outside the district) to assist in efforts to regulate activities in the area and enforce local ordinances. Problems with transients continued to trouble business owners for several years.123 James Fell recalled that Brillig Works (on the south side of College Avenue), associated with political activist Tim Fuller, “became a center for the counterculture and the dramatic political change that altered Boulder from a largely conservative to a largely liberal community” in the 1970s. The ratification of the federal constitutional amendment giving eighteen- to twenty-year-olds the right to vote injected thousands of students into the city electorate. Fell further noted the impact on The Hill’s mix of stores: “As the counterculture of the late 1960s and early 1970s grew strongly, the old ‘Joe College’ stores of the mid-1960s and earlier disappeared, with business 116 Merriam Webster defines hippie as “a usually young person who rejects established mores, advocates nonviolence, and often uses psychedelic drugs or marijuana.” 117 Boulder Daily Camera, 20 June 1969. 118 Boulder Daily Camera, 20 June 1969. 119 The disturbance took place at a time of great unrest within the country, occurring less than three weeks after the killing of four students by National Guardsmen at Kent State University during a demonstration protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia. 120 Boulder Daily Camera, 24 May 1971, 26 May 1971 and 27 May 1971. 121 Boulder Daily Camera, 27 September 1994. 122 James E. Fell, Denver, Colorado, email to Laurie Simmons, 30 January 2017. 123 Boulder Daily Camera, 11 September 1973. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 44 plummeting, as the counterculture shops appeared. Marijuana was sold openly and smoked openly as well in the early 1970s.”124 Another student from the 1972-73 period offered memories of “dope dealers sitting on the sidewalk offering to sell me various banned substances when I walked by. There were some great record stores. The restaurants were the usual student fare, pizza and b urgers, mostly. The movie theater would sometimes have some less commercial, more artistic offerings.”125 No buildings were constructed on the Hill during the 1970s, reflecting the reluctance of investors following the civil unrest experienced in the area during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Merchants struggled to make the area appealing to townspeople and the student population once again. The Ellwood Building at 1211-15 13th Street was renovated in the mid-1970s using plans developed by Boulder architect Charles A. Haertling. Apartments were added to the upper story and a plaza with a curving wall constructed in front (no longer extant). THE 1980S AND AFTER: CONTINUED EVOLUTION OF THE HILL By 1975, the transient population was essentially gone from the Hill and townspeople and students were returning to the area to shop. Merchants in the area reorganized the University Hill Association and sought to revitalize the district by sponsoring special events such as pep rallies and Octoberfests, expanding parking, and refurbishing storefronts.126 One concept favored by merchants was to model the area after Larimer Square in Denver (5DV.104).127 The commercial district progressively cast off the shadow of its hippie days and once again became a flourishing neighborhood resource and a social and commercial center for university students. Matt McMullen, who attended CU from 1978 to 1983, recalled that “the Hill was where you spent all your money,” noting Round the Corner burgers was a good place for dates, Herbie’s for a thick-crust pizza, and the Flatirons or Fox for movies. McMullen opined the Hill “gave people a place to see their friends. Restaurants were a safe place to hang out . . . and because it was 3.2 beer, nobody got too toasted.”128 The area’s first major construction in fifteen years occurred in 1980, when Art Hardware expanded its home at 1135 Broadway Street (Resource 23). The two-story Late Modern-style building, designed by L. Gale Abels, featured a stepped design to conform to the angle of Broadway Street and parking under the north part of the building. The building marked the commercial build-out of the Hill and completed the line of Modern buildings along its Broadway Street edge. In 1983 the University demolished one of the Hill’s oldest buildings, Fulton Terrace, to create a surface parking lot.129 The 1980-2016 period saw continuing change on the Hill. An underpass below Broadway Street at College Avenue was constructed to provide safe and convenient access to the commercial area from the campus. A few outlets of chain stores entered the business mix, including Dairy Queen, Jimmy John’s, and Fat Shack. The most notable chain tenant is Walgreen’s drug store, which occupied the large former Colorado Book Store building in 2015. In the area of entertainment the Hill gained a nationally renowned concert venue in the re-imagined Fox Theater, which debuted in 1992. On the downside, the Flatirons Theater ended its run as a film venue and Tulagi was recently repurposed as a food establishment and a yoga center. Since 2010, developer Mike Boyers has completed mixed-use projects that added new residential units to the area. The longtime Jones Drug and Camera Center on the south side of College Avenue (not in the district) was demolished and replaced in 2011 with a three- story building featuring ground-floor retail and apartments on upper floors. In 2010, the rear portions of the commercial buildings at 1143 and 1155 13th Street were demolished and three-story apartment additions erected 124 Fell, email. 125 Kevin J. Compton, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Facebook post to Laurie Simmons, 20 January 2017. 126 Boulder Daily Camera, 15 August 1975. 127 The Larimer Square Historic District was listed in the National Register in 1973 and expanded in 1994 (NRIS.73000468; NRIS. 94000143). 128 Boulder Daily Camera, undated post-2003 clipping, Boulder Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 129 Boulder Daily Camera, 15 October 1983. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 45 in 2011.130 The Hill continues its evolution, with a changing mix of businesses, an expanded residential presence, and busy sidewalks filled with University of Colorado students. ________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Major Bibliographical References Allen, Frederick S., Mark S. Foster, Ernest Andrade, Jr., Philip I. Mitterling, and H. Lee Scamehorn. The University of Colorado, 1876-1976. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1976. Boulder City Directories, 1892-1983. Boulder County Clerk and Recorder. Plats of Additions to the City of Boulder. Boulder Daily Camera, Boulder, Colo. Clipping Files. Carnegie Branch Library for Local History. Boulder, Colorado. Boulder County Assessor files. ________. Subject Clipping Files. ________. Photographic Collection. Davis, William E. Glory, Colorado! History of the University of Colorado to 1963. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Press, 1965. Deno, William R. Body & Soul: Architectural Style at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Boulder, Colo.: University of Colorado Publications Service, 1994. Ellwood, Henry V., Jr. Personal communication, Boulder, Colorado, 31 October 1994. Fell, James E., Denver, Colorado. Email to Laurie Simmons. 30 January 2017. Gladden, Sandford H. The Early Days of Boulder, Colorado. Boulder, Colo.: Sanford Gladden, 1982. Hays, D.M. “The Anchorage.” The Interpreter. University of Colorado, U.S. Navy Japanese/Oriental Language School Archival Project, 15 June 2006 McLeod, Warren H. Collection. University of Colorado Western Historical Collections. Boulder, Colo. McRoberts, Mary. Genealogical Abstracts from the Boulder Daily Camera, 1891-1900. Boulder, Colo.: Mary McRoberts, 1985. Noel. Thomas J. Colorado: A Liquid History & Tavern Guide to the Highest State. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing, 1999. Noel. Thomas J. and Dan W. Corson. Boulder County: An Illustrated History. Carlsbad, California: Heritage Media Corporation, 1999. Paglia, Michael, Leonard Segel, and Diane Wray. “Historic Context and Survey of Modern Architecture in Boulder, Colorado, 1947-1977.” Prepared for the City of Boulder Planning Department and the Boulder Landmarks Board. 1 June 2000. Pettem, Silvia. Boulder: A Sense of Time and Place. Longmont, Colorado: The Book Lode, 2000. __________. Boulder: Evolution of a City. Niwot, Colorado: University Press of Colorado, 1994. Repplier, F.O. As A Town Grows. Boulder, Colo.: School District No. 3, 1959. Sanborn Map Company. Boulder, Colorado. Fire insurance, 1906-31. Pelham, New York: Sanborn Map Company, 1906-1931. Schoolland, John B. Boulder Then and Now. Rev. ed. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Press, 1979. 130 Boulder Daily Camera, 24 July 2011. Google Earth images reveal that only the façades of the historic buildings were retained. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 46 Sewall, Jane. Jane, Dear Child. Boulder, Colo.: University of Colorado Press, 1957. Simmons, R. Laurie and Thomas H. Simmons. University Hill Commercial District, Historic Overview and Historic District Evaluation. Prepared for University Hill General Improvement District. Denver: Front Range Research Associates, Inc., 2 November 1994. Simmons, Thomas H. and R. Laurie Simmons. University Hill Commercial Area: Historic District Re- evaluation, 2008 (Revised). Memorandum to James Hewat, City of Boulder, Planning and Development Services, Boulder, Colorado. 18 March 2008. Smith, Phyllis. A Look at Boulder from Settlement to City. Boulder, Colo.: Pruett Publishing Co., 1981. ________. A History of Boulder’s Transportation, 1858-1984. Boulder, Colo.: City of Boulder Transportation Division, 1984. Previous documentation on file (NPS): Primary location of additional data: preliminary determination of individual listing (36 CFR 67 has been X State Historic Preservation Office requested) Other State agency previously listed in the National Register Federal agency previously determined eligible by the National Register X Local government designated a National Historic Landmark University recorded by Historic American Buildings Survey #____________ Other recorded by Historic American Engineering Record # __________ Name of repository: History Colorado recorded by Historic American Landscape Survey # ___________ Boulder Carnegie Library for Local History Historic Resources Survey Number (if assigned): 5BL.13302 10. Geographical Data Acreage of Property 6.2 Provide latitude/longitude coordinates OR UTM coordinates. (Place additional coordinates on a continuation page.) Latitude/Longitude Coordinates Datum if other than WGS84: N/A (enter coordinates to 6 decimal places) 1 38.825202 -106.155022 6 38.821341 -106.153639 Latitude: Longitude: Latitude: Longitude: 2 38.825162 -106.152391 7 38.821554 -106.154770 Latitude: Longitude: Latitude: Longitude: 3 38.821900 -106.152234 8 38.822849 -106.155145 Latitude: Longitude: Latitude: Longitude: 4 38.825202 -106.155022 9 38.821341 -106.153639 Latitude: Longitude: Latitude: Longitude: 5 38.825162 -106.152391 Latitude: Longitude: OR UTM References NAD 1927 or X NAD 1983 1 13 476372 4428800 6 13 476521 4428606 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 47 Zone Easting Northing Zone Easting Northing 2 13 476422 4428800 7 13 476425 4428605 Zone Easting Northing Zone Easting Northing 3 13 476422 4428809 8 13 476424 4428567 Zone Easting Northing Zone Easting Northing 4 13 476433 4428815 9 13 476373 4428568 Zone Easting Northing Zone Easting Northing 5 13 476521 4428651 Zone Easting Northing Verbal Boundary Description (describe the boundaries of the property) The nominated area is shown on the included to-scale map and is described as follows: beginning at the intersection of the centerline of the alley between 12th and 13th streets and the north parcel line (extended) of 1211 13th Street; thence east along said parcel line to the centerline of 13th Street; thence north and northeast along the centerline of 13th Street to its intersection with the centerline of the southbound lanes of Broadway Street; thence south-southeast along the centerline of the southbound lanes of Broadway Street to the east parcel line (extended) of 1111 Broadway Street; thence south along said parcel line to the centerline of College Avenue; thence west along the centerline of College Avenue to its intersection with the centerline of 13th Street; thence south along the centerline of 13th Street to its intersection with the south parcel line (extended) of 1089 13th Street; thence west along said parcel line to the centerline of the alley between 12th and 13th streets; and thence north along the centerline of said alley to the point of beginning. Boundary Justification (explain why the boundaries were selected) The boundary includes all commercial properties in the University Hill business area constructed within the period of significance which still maintain historic physical integrity. 11. Form Prepared By name/title Thomas H. Simmons and R. Laurie Simmons, Historians (for property owners) organization Front Range Research Associates, Inc. date 31 January 2017 (revised) street & number 3635 W. 46th Avenue telephone 303-477-7597 city or town Denver state CO zip code 80211 e-mail frraden@msn.com website www.frhistory.com Property Owner: (complete this item at the request of the SHPO or FPO) name Various owners, owner information on file at CO SHPO /Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation street & number telephone city or town state zip code Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: This information is being collected for applications to the National Register of Historic Places to nominate properties for listing or determine eligibility for listing, to list properties, and to amend existing listings. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit in accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C.460 et seq.). Estimated Burden Statement: Public reporting burden for this form is estimated to average 100 hours per response including time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the form. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to the Office of Planning and Performance Management. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, 1849 C. Street, NW, Washington, DC. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 48 Additional Documentation Submit the following items with the completed form: Photographs Submit clear and descriptive photographs. The size of each digital image must be 1600x1200 pixels (minimum), at 300 ppi (pixels per inch) or larger. Key all photographs to a sketch map or aerial map. Each photograph must be numbered and that number must correspond to the photograph number on the photo log. For simplicity, the name of the photographer, photo date, etc. may be listed once on the photograph log and doesn’t need to be labeled on every photograph. Photograph Log Name of Property: Boulder University Hill Commercial Historic District City or Vicinity: Boulder County: Boulder State: Colorado Photographer: Thomas H. Simmons Date Photographed: October 2016 (unless otherwise specified) Number, camera direction, and description of photograph: 1 of 29, view northeast, east side of the 1100 block of 13th Street 2 of 29, view southeast, 1118 to 1100 13th Street (left to right) 3 of 29, view south-southwest, 13th Street from north end 4 of 29, view west-northwest, 1300 block north side of College Avenue 5 of 29, view west-northwest, north side of Pennsylvania Avenue 6 of 29, view southwest, 1087-91 13th Avenue 7 of 29, view east-northeast, 1100-06 13th Avenue 8 of 29, view east, 1110 13th Street 9 of 29, view east, 1116 13th Street 10 of 29, view east, 1118 13th Street 11 of 29, view west, 1129 13th Street 12 of 29, view southeast, 1130-34 13th Street 13 of 29, view west, 1135 13th Street 14 of 29, view northeast, 1138-44 13th Street 15 of 29, view west, 1149 13th Street 16 of 29, view southwest, 1163-65 13th Street 17 of 29, view northwest, 1203-07 13th Street 18 of 29, view southwest, 1211-13 13th Street 19 of 29, view northwest, 1111 Broadway Street 20 of 29, view west, 1121 Broadway Street 21 of 29, view west, 1127 Broadway Street 22 of 29, view south, 1135 Broadway Street United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 49 23 of 29, view northwest, 1301 Pennsylvania Avenue 24 of 29, view northwest, 1101-07 13th Street 25 of 29, view west, 1119 13th Street 26 of 29, view west, 1121 13th Street 27 of 29, view east, 1124-28 13th Street 28 of 29, view west, 1143 13th Street 29 of 29, view west, 1155 13th Street Historic Figure Log 1 of 15, This ca. 1895 view southwest from the Hale Science Building at the University of Colorado shows the University Hill Commercial Historic District prior to commercial development. Broadway Street extends along the bottom of the image, with Fulton Terrace in the foreground (now a parking lot lying south of Pennsylvania Avenue between Broadway Street and 13th Street). College Avenue passes diagonally between the two large houses to the left of the terrace and 13th Street is behind it. Courtesy of Boulder Daily Camera, 2 January 1980. 2 of 15, The ca. 1895 Belser House at 1301 13th Street was one of the earlier buildings in the nominated area. It still stands and later received commercial additions on the east. Courtesy of T.H. and R.L. Simmons, historic postcard image collection, ca. 1900s-1910s, Denver, Colorado. 3 of 15, The 1906 Sigma Alpha Epsilon facility was the first fraternity house erected within the district. Still extant, it received one-story commercial additions on its front in the 1950s. Courtesy of Coloradan, 1911, 235. 4 of 15, The ca. 1906-08 McConnell and Crane drug store at 1301 Pennsylvania was the first commercial building erected in the district. It housed a drug store under different names for many years. It was Quine’s Campus Drug Store in 1943, when the owner was embroiled in a controversy over refusing service to African-American students (note graffiti). Courtesy of History Colorado, Stephen Hart Library. 5 of 15, The Greenman’s University Store at 1130-34 13th Street, shown here in a 1950s assessor appraisal card photograph, was constructed in 1911. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 6 of 15, The large Murphy Building (1912) at 1211-13 13th Street was the long-time home of Dugout Cleaners. The University used Varsity Hall on the upper floor for women’s gym classes. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 7 of 15, The University Hill Grocery (1911) at 1118 13th Street is pictured here in the 1950s, with 1116 13th Street (1913) to the right. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 8 of 15, The large building at 1138-44 13th Street was erected in 1923. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 9 of 15, The Hill gained a movie theater in 1926 with the opening of the Rialto. By the 1950s it housed a cafeteria, but was later reborn as the Fox Theater with a new façade in 1961. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 10 of 15, The building at 1100-06 13th Street was erected in two stages, ca. 1927-28 for the 13th Street section and ca. 1935 for the portion along College Avenue. The Beta Theta Pi fraternity is shown at the right prior to the construction of the Colorado Book Store. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 50 11 of 15, The Sink at 1163-65 13th Street has long served as a popular hangout for CU students, as this 1954 photograph attests. The large corner house received a commercial addition in the late 1920s. Courtesy of The Sink. 12 of 15, The Hill gained a modern movie theater in 1950 with the opening of the Flatirons at 1187-91 13th Street. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. 13 of 15, Businesses such as the Colorado Book Store (then at 1124-28 13th Street) advertised to CU students in the annual year book and other publications, taking care to note their location “on The Hill.” Courtesy of Coloradan, 1950, 481. 14 of 15, The Colorado Book Store’s new Formalist-style building at 1111 Broadway Street opened in 1965, joining other notable modern architecture on the Hill. Courtesy of Boulder Daily Camera, 1960s. 15 of 15, The 1300 block of College Avenue was crowded with shoppers in this 1961 view west. The shop fronts of the building at 1100-06 13th Street/1307-21 College Avenue are seen to the right. Courtesy of Coloradan, 1961. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 51 Location Map from Google Earth The labeled points are the coordinates of the bounding polygon of the nominated resource. Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Latitude 40.009065 40.009066 40.009147 40.009201 40.007726 40.007321 40.007309 40.006967 40.006974 Longitude -105.276842 -105.276256 -105.276256 -105.276127 -105.275090 -105.275089 -105.276213 -105.276224 -105.276821 Image Date: 9 October 2015 State Perspective: Boulder University Hill Business District United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 52 United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 53 Historic Figures Figure 1. This ca. 1895 view southwest from the Hale Science Building at the University of Colorado shows the University Hill Commercial Historic District prior to commercial development. Broadway Street extends along the bottom of the image, with Fulton Terrace in the foreground (now a parking lot lying south of Pennsylvania Avenue between Broadway Street and 13th Street). College Avenue passes diagonally between the two large houses to the left of the terrace and 13th Street is behind it. Courtesy of Boulder Daily Camera, 2 January 1980. Figure 2. The ca. 1895 Belser House at 1301 13th Street was one of the earlier buildings in the nominated area. It still stands and later received commercial additions on the east. Courtesy of T.H. and R.L. Simmons, historic postcard image collection, ca. 1900s-1910s, Denver, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 54 Figure 3. The 1906 Sigma Alpha Epsilon facility was the first fraternity house erected within the district. Still extant, it received one-story commercial additions on its front in the 1950s. Courtesy of Coloradan, 1911, 235. Figure 4. The ca. 1906-08 McConnell and Crane drug store at 1301 Pennsylvania was the first commercial building erected in the district. It housed a drug store under different names for many years. It was Quine’s Campus Drug Store in 1943, when the owner was embroiled in a controversy over refusing service to African- American students (note graffiti). Courtesy of History Colorado, Stephen Hart Library. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 55 Figure 5. The Greenman’s University Store at 1130-34 13th Street, shown here in a 1950s assessor appraisal card photograph, was constructed in 1911. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. Figure 6. The large Murphy Building (1912) at 1211-13 13th Street was the long-time home of Dugout Cleaners. The University used Varsity Hall on the upper floor for women’s gym classes. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 56 Figure 7. The University Hill Grocery (1911) at 1118 13th Street is pictured here in the 1950s, with 1116 13th Street (1913) to the right. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. Figure 8. The large building at 1138-44 13th Street was erected in 1923. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 57 Figure 9. The Hill gained a movie theater in 1926 with the opening of the Rialto. By the 1950s it housed a cafeteria, but was later reborn as the Fox Theater with a new façade in 1961. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. Figure 10. The building at 1100-06 13th Street was erected in two stages, ca. 1927-28 for the 13th Street section and ca. 1935 for the portion along College Avenue. The Beta Theta Pi fraternity is shown at the right prior to the construction of the Colorado Book Store. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 58 Figure 11. The Sink at 1163-65 13th Street has long served as a popular hangout for CU students, as this 1954 photograph attests. The large corner house received a commercial addition in the late 1920s. Courtesy of The Sink. Figure 12. The Hill gained a modern movie theater in 1950 with the opening of the Flatirons at 1187-91 13th Street. Courtesy of Boulder County Assessor, appraisal card, 1950s, Carnegie Library for Local History, Boulder, Colorado. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 59 Figure 13. Businesses such as the Colorado Book Store (then at 1124-28 13th Street) advertised to CU students in the annual year book and other publications, taking care to note their location “on The Hill.” Courtesy of Coloradan, 1950, 481. Figure 14. The Colorado Book Store’s new Formalist-style building at 1111 Broadway Street opened in 1965, joining other notable modern architecture on the Hill. Courtesy of Boulder Daily Camera, 1960s. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service / National Register of Historic Places Registration Form NPS Form 10-900 OMB No. 1024-0018 Boulder University Hill Business District Boulder, Colorado Name of Property County and State 60 Figure 15. The 1300 block of College Avenue was crowded with shoppers in this 1961 view west. The shop fronts of the building at 1100- 06 13th Street/1307-21 College Avenue are seen to the right. Courtesy of Coloradan, 1961.